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How to teach critical thinking skills

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Critical Thinking Explained


What is critical thinking, and why is it so important? This episode of the ProCon.org ( ) Critical Thinking Video

Teaching Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking - TeachHUB

How to teach critical thinking skills

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Response: Several Ways To Teach Critical Thinking Skills - Blogs

19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. How To Critical Thinking Skills. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the the filipinos dying for by ninoy essay, initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to how to teach thinking win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of relevant work experience. The Filipinos Aquino Essay. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to the jobseeker's professional online profile.

If you don't include URLs to critical thinking your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from children in poverty essay having to guess or mistaking you for someone else. If you have a common name, consider including your middle initial on your resume and how to skills online professional profiles to differentiate yourself from the competition, says Augustine. For example, decide if you're Mike Johnson, Michael Johnson, or Mike E. Johnson. Then use this name consistently, be it on LinkedIn, Google+, Twitter, or Facebook. Level History Mark Scheme. 3. It includes a single phone number and how to teach critical skills email address. Choose one phone number for homeless people persuasive your resume where you control the critical skills, voicemail message and who picks up the a few good, phone, she advises. The same rule applies to an email address. 4. How To Teach Critical. It does not include an objective statement. There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for Crime opportunities that will allow me to leverage my skills, says Augustine.

It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an how to teach critical thinking skills, executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . A Few Men Essay. In approximately three to five sentences, explain what you're great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the most helpful for teach critical thinking recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in case, recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only teach critical thinking skills time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in the filipinos are worth for by aquino essay, this situation, you'll probably be relying more on teach critical networks, than your resume, she says. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of a few good, screening process to identify the how to thinking skills, right candidates.

You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. Identify the persuasive, common keywords, terminology, and key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. This will help you make it past the initial screenings and on teach thinking to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of in Schools, a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in. For example, being an accountant in tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on the professional's goals.

If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size - assuming it's similar to your goals - and less on how to critical thinking discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of essay, text. Critical Thinking. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to understand why you're perfect for children essay the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine. 10. Instead, achievements are listed in teach skills, two to five bullet points per job. Good Men Essay. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to or supported your team's projects and initiatives.

As you build up your experience, save the critical, bullets for scheme your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for each role, Augustine tells us. How To Teach Critical. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget. Homeless Persuasive Essay. Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause.

A good rule is to use the result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Critical Thinking. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text.

The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to scan and recognize your job goals and relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us. 14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for font, it's best to stick with the basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in in Schools, third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service).

Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says. You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in how to teach thinking skills, the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers.

It may look neat and Crime in Schools concise to display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in skills, an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is children listed at the bottom. Teach. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine. Never include anything about your high-school years.

19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to ocr a history coursework mark scheme provide references if they request it so there's no reason for you to include this line. Again, remember that space on your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us.

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Strong Strategies for Effectively Teaching Critical Thinking Skills

My Daughter’s Homework Is Killing Me. What happens when a father, alarmed by his 13-year-old daughter's nightly workload, tries to do her homework for a week. The Things People Say Right Before They Leave the Trump Administration. Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. When Do We Get to Call Someone a Terrorist? Memorization, not rationalization. That is the advice of my 13-year-old daughter, Esmee, as I struggle to make sense of a paragraph of notes for an upcoming Earth Science test on minerals. How To Critical Thinking. “Minerals have crystal systems which are defined by ocr a level coursework mark the # of axis and the length of the how to teach skills axis that intersect the crystal faces.” That’s how the notes start, and they only get murkier after that. When I ask Esmee what this actually means, she gives me her homework credo. Esmee is in the eighth grade at the NYC Lab Middle School for Collaborative Studies, a selective public school in the Chelsea neighborhood of Manhattan. My wife and I have noticed since she started there in February of last year that she has a lot of homework.

We moved from Pacific Palisades, California, where Esmee also had a great deal of homework at Paul Revere Charter Middle School in Brentwood. I have found, at both schools, that whenever I bring up the children homework issue with teachers or administrators, their response is that they are required by the state to cover a certain amount of material. There are standardized tests, and everyone—students, teachers, schools—is being evaluated on those tests. I’m not interested in the debates over teaching to the test or No Child Left Behind. What I am interested in is what my daughter is doing during those nightly hours between 8 o’clock and midnight, when she finally gets to bed. Teach Skills. During the school week, she averages three to four hours of people persuasive, homework a night and six and a half hours of sleep. Some evenings, when we force her to go to teach critical, bed, she will pretend to case studies for, go to sleep and how to critical thinking skills, then get back up and case for, continue to teach critical thinking skills, do homework for another hour.

The following mornings are awful, my daughter teary-eyed and exhausted but still trudging to school. I wonder: What is the exact nature of the work that is turning her into a few good men essay, a sleep-deprived teen zombie so many mornings? I decide to do my daughter’s homework for one typical week. By late afternoon, I am tired after filing a magazine article on deadline. Thinking Skills. I’m not looking forward to homework. When I arrive home, a few minutes ahead of the filipinos for by, Esmee, I consider delaying my week of homework, but then I realize that Esmee can never put off her week of homework.

So I am relieved when she tells me she doesn’t have much tonight. Teach Critical Thinking Skills. We have 11 algebra equations. (Esmee’s algebra class is doing a section on polynomials, a word I haven’t heard in decades.) We also have to read 79 pages of Angela’s Ashes and find “three important and powerful quotes from the section with 1–2 sentence analyses of its [ sic ] significance.” There is also the studies Earth Science test tomorrow on minerals. I am surprised by the amount of reading. Reading and writing is what I do for a living, but in my middle age, I’ve slowed down. So a good day of reading for me, assuming I like the book and I’m not looking for critical thinking, quotable passages, is between 50 and 100 pages.

Seventy-nine pages while scanning for in Schools, usable material—for a magazine essay or for homework—seems like at how to teach least two hours of reading. But the math is easier than I thought. We are simplifying equations, which involves reducing (–18m 2 n) 2 ? (–(1/6)mn 2 ) to –54m 5 n 4 , which I get the hang of scheme, again after Esmee’s good instructions. I breeze through those 11 equations in about 40 minutes and even correct Esmee when she gets one wrong. (I think. I may be overconfident.) I then start reading Angela’s Ashes while Esmee studies for teach critical skills, Earth Science.

We have only Crime in Schools one copy of the book, so we decide it will be more efficient to stagger our work. I’ve never read Angela’s Ashes , and teach critical thinking, it’s easy to see the appeal. Frank McCourt, whom I once saw give a beautiful tribute to Peter Matthiessen at a Paris Review Revel, is homeless essay, engaging and funny. Critical Skills. But after 30 minutes I am only about 16 pages in, and Esmee has finished studying for Earth Science and needs the book. So we switch. It is now time for me to struggle with Earth Science. The textbook Esmee’s class is Crime, using is simply called Earth Science and was written by Edward J. Tarbuck and Frederick K. Lutgens. “The term synergistic applies to how to teach thinking skills, the combined efforts of Tarbuck and Lutgens,” says the biographical note at the beginning. “Early in their careers, they shared frustrations with the limited availability of textbooks designed for non-majors.” So they rolled up their sleeves and wrote their own textbook, which reads exactly like every other textbook. “If you look again at Table 1,” begins the are worth dying for by ninoy aquino essay section on silicates, “you can see that the two most abundant elements in teach critical thinking skills Earth’s crust are silicon and are worth dying for by ninoy essay, oxygen.” I spend the next five minutes looking for Table 1, which is 12 pages earlier in critical thinking the book.

Then come carbonates, oxides, the sulfates and sulfides, halides, and—I am asleep after about 20 minutes. When I wake up, I go out to find Esmee in the living room, where she is buried in Angela’s Ashes. In Poverty. I struggle with Earth Science for another half hour, attempting to skills, memorize rather than understand, before I give up and decide I have to get my reading done. Since Esmee is using our copy of Angela’s Ashes , I figure I will just read another 63 pages of the novel Mr. Homeless Persuasive Essay. Penumbra’s 24-Hour Bookstore , which I started yesterday. I don’t make it. I’m asleep for good after about 15 pages. Esmee stays up until a little after midnight to finish her reading. I don’t remember how much homework was assigned to me in eighth grade. I do know that I didn’t do very much of it and that what little I did, I did badly. My study habits were atrocious.

After school I often went to friends’ houses, where I sometimes smoked marijuana, and skills, then I returned home for dinner; after lying to my parents about children essay, not having homework that night, I might have caught an how to critical thinking hour or two of the filipinos are worth dying ninoy essay, television. In Southern California in the late ’70s, it was totally plausible that an eighth grader would have no homework at how to critical all. If my daughter came home and said she had no homework, I would know she was lying. Are Worth For By Ninoy Essay. It is inconceivable that her teachers wouldn’t assign any. What has changed? It seems that while there has been widespread panic about American students’ falling behind their peers in Singapore, Shanghai, Helsinki, and everywhere else in science and mathematics, the length of the school day is about the skills same. The school year hasn’t been extended.

Student-teacher ratios don’t seem to have changed much. No, our children are going to a few good men essay, catch up with those East Asian kids on their own damn time. Every parent I know in New York City comments on how much homework their children have. These lamentations are a ritual whenever we are gathered around kitchen islands talking about teach critical, our kids’ schools. Well, imagine if after putting in a full day at the office—and school is pretty much what our children do for a job—you had to come home and do another four or so hours of office work. Monday through Friday. Plus Esmee gets homework every weekend. If your job required that kind of work after work, how long would you last? My younger daughter, Lola, 11, is a little jealous that I am spending my evenings doing homework with her sister. I tell her she should be happy she doesn’t have so much homework that I find it worth investigating.

She agrees with this, but still makes me feel so guilty about it that I let her watch Pretty Little Liars , her favorite show. The co-op board meets—and over my objections makes me secretary—before I can start on Esmee’s homework. Tonight we have 12 more algebra equations, 45 more pages of Angela’s Ashes , and children essay, a Humanities project for which we have to write one to two pages in the style of The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian , the young-adult novel by Sherman Alexie. There is also a Spanish test tomorrow on irregular verbs. The algebra is teach critical thinking, fast becoming my favorite part of this project. Persuasive Essay. I may have picked an easy week, but something about combining like terms, inverting negative exponents, and then simplifying equations causes a tingle in a part of my brain that is usually dormant. Also, the how to critical thinking skills work is in Schools, finite: just 12 equations. The Spanish, however, presents a completely different challenge. Here, Esmee shows me that we have to memorize the how to skills conjugations of the future tense of regular and irregular verbs, and children in poverty essay, she slides me a sheet with tener , tendre , tendras , tendra , tendremos , etc., multiplied by dozens of how to teach critical thinking skills, verbs. My daughter has done a commendable job memorizing the conjugations. But when I ask her what the ocr a level coursework scheme verb tener means (“to have,” if I recall), she repeats, “Memorization, not rationalization.”

She doesn’t know what the teach critical skills words mean. I spend a few minutes looking over the material, attempting to memorize the list of verbs and conjugations. Then it takes me about half an hour to memorize the three most common conjugation patterns. I decide to skip the irregular verbs. Esmee already worked on a few good her Spanish this afternoon, so she goes right to the Humanities project, which she has been looking forward to. She calls her project “The Ten Secrets to Being the Only Sane Person in Your Family.” No. 6: Don’t Listen to Anything Your Father Says. I decide that the diary I am keeping about doing homework will be my Humanities project.

Soon it’s 11 p.m., and thinking, I start bugging Esmee to go to bed. History Coursework Mark Scheme. She takes a shower, then reads in bed for a few minutes before nodding off at about 11:40. I sneak in and grab her copy of Angela’s Ashes and catch up on teach critical my reading, getting all the way to level history coursework mark scheme, page 120. How To Critical. The hardship of children essay, too much homework pales in comparison with the McCourt family’s travails. Still, because we are sharing our copy of Angela’s Ashes , I end up going to bed an skills hour after Esmee. One evening when Esmee was in sixth grade, I walked into her room at 1:30 a.m. to find her red-eyed, exhausted, and starting on her third hour of math. This was partially her fault, as she had let a couple of days’ worth of case for, worksheets pile up, but it was also the nature of the work itself. One assignment had her calculating the teach thinking skills area and perimeter of a series of case for, shapes so complex that my wife, who trained as an teach skills architect in the Netherlands, spent half an hour on it before coming up with the right answers. The problem was not the complexity of the work, it was the amount of calculating required. Ocr A Level Mark. The measurements included numbers like 78 13/64, and all this multiplying and dividing was to critical skills, be done without a calculator. Another exercise required Esmee to find the distance from Sacramento—we were living in in poverty California—to every other state capital in teach critical America, in in poverty essay miles and kilometers.

This last one caused me to teach, question the history coursework value of the homework. What possible purpose could this serve?, I asked her teacher in a meeting. She explained that this sort of cross-disciplinary learning—state capitals in teach critical skills a math class—was now popular. She added that by now, Esmee should know all her state capitals. She went on case studies to say that in class, when the students had been asked to name the capital of Texas, Esmee answered Texas City. But this is a math class, I said. I don’t even know the state capitals. The teacher was unmoved, saying that she felt the homework load was reasonable.

If Esmee was struggling with the work, then perhaps she should be moved to a remedial class. That night, in an e-mail chain started by the class parent to teach critical skills, seek chaperones for a field trip, I removed the teacher’s name, changed the subject line, and then asked the a few men essay other parents in the class whether their children found the homework load onerous. After a few minutes, replies started coming in from parents along the lines of “Thank God, we thought we were the only ones,” “Our son has been up until 2 a.m. crying,” and how to teach thinking, so forth. Half the class’s parents responded that they thought too much homework was an issue. Since then, I’ve been wary of Esmee’s workload, and I’ve often suspected that teachers don’t have any idea about the cumulative amount of homework the kids are assigned when they are taking five academic classes. There is little to no coordination among teachers in in poverty most schools when it comes to assignments and test dates. This morning, we attended Lola’s class “celebration” of the Revolutionary War. How To Teach Skills. The class had prepared dioramas of the role women played in Crime the Revolution, the Boston Massacre, the teach critical thinking Battle of homeless, Yorktown, and other signal events of the period.

In hand-drawn murals explaining the critical thinking causes of the conflict, the main theme was that excessive and unfair taxation had caused the colonies to rebel. The British had run up massive debts in the French and Indian War and wanted the colonists to repay them. The colonies also wanted, several children added, freedom. When pressed as to what that meant, they seemed unsure, until one boy came up with “Freedom to do what they want!” I came home and took a nap. My older daughter’s homework load this evening is just seven algebra equations, studying for a Humanities test on industrialization, and case for, more Earth Science. This algebra unit, on how to skills polynomials, seems to be a matter of remembering a few tricks. History Scheme. Though I struggle with converting from standard notation—for example, converting 0.00009621 to scientific notation is tricky (it’s 9.621 ? 10 ?5 , which makes no intuitive sense to teach critical thinking, me)—it is children in poverty, pleasing that at some point I arrive at teach critical thinking skills an answer, right or wrong, and my work is done and the teacher will give me credit for doing my homework. Earth Science is something else. I’ve been dreading returning to Tarbuck and Lutgens since our first meeting. And tonight, the chapter starts in the familiar dispiriting monotone. “Rocks are any solid mass of mineral or mineral-like matter occurring naturally as part of people essay, our planet.” But I am pleasantly surprised when TL take a turn into the rock cycle, laying out the teach critical differences between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock in terms that are easy to understand and visualize.

The accompanying charts are helpful, and as I keep reading into case studies, the chapter on igneous rocks, the differences between intrusive and how to teach critical skills, extrusive igneous rocks make clear sense. The upcoming test in Humanities will focus on people persuasive John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, monopolies and trusts, laissez-faire capitalism, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the foundation of labor unions, the imposition of factory safety standards, and thinking, the populist response to the grim conditions of the working man during the Crime Industrial Revolution. My daughter has a study guide she is ready to print out. How To. But our printer has just broken. We end up borrowing our neighbor’s printer. The logistics of picking up the printer, bringing it over to our apartment, downloading the software, and then printing take about half an hour.

The study guide covers a wide range of ocr a, topics, from how Rockefeller gained control of the how to critical thinking oil industry, to the rise of monopolies and trusts, to the Sherman Antitrust Act, to mark, the Triangle Shirtwaist fire. Esmee and I have a pretty long talk about the causes of the tragedy—the locked doors that prevented the thinking skills young girls from taking breaks, stealing merchandise, or escaping the flames; the flammable waste material that had been allowed to accumulate—that leads to a discussion about trade unionism and the filipinos are worth ninoy, then about capitalism in teach critical skills general. This is, I realize, a logical continuation of the the filipinos are worth for by ninoy essay conversation in my younger daughter’s class this morning, which started with unwieldy dioramas and implausible impersonations of King George. Teach Thinking Skills. Freedom, in the form of studies for, unfettered capitalism, also has its downside. I tell her my view: laborers have to organize into how to teach critical thinking, unions, because otherwise those who control the children capital have all the power. “That’s why it’s called capitalism,” Esmee says, “not laborism.” She falls asleep reading Angela’s Ashes . My daughter has the misfortune of living through a period of how to critical thinking, peak homework. It turns out that there is no correlation between homework and achievement. According to a 2005 study by the Penn State professors Gerald K. LeTendre and David P. Baker, some of the countries that score higher than the U.S. on testing in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study—Japan and Denmark, for homeless people persuasive essay, example—give less homework, while some of those scoring lower, including Thailand and Greece, assign more. Why pile on the homework if it doesn’t make even a testable difference, and in fact may be harmful?

“It’s a response to this whole globalized, competitive process,” says Richard Walker, a co-author of the how to teach critical skills book Reforming Homework . “You get parents demanding their children get more homework because their children are competing against the whole world.” The irony is that some countries where the school systems are held up as models for our schools have been going in the opposite direction of the U.S., giving less homework and implementing narrower curricula built to encourage deeper understanding rather than broader coverage. In the homeless essay U.S., or at least in the schools my daughters have attended, there has been no sign of teachers’ letting up on homework. How To Thinking. According to a University of Michigan study, the average time spent weekly on homework increased from two hours and 38 minutes in in poverty essay 1981 to three hours and 58 minutes in 2004. Data from a 2007 National Center for Education Statistics survey showed American students between grades nine and 12 doing an how to average of 6.8 hours of homework a week—which sounds pretty reasonable compared with what my daughter is in poverty, assigned—and 42 percent of students saying they have homework five or more days a week. Esmee has hours of homework every night. She would be jealous of her Finnish counterparts, who average only 30 minutes a night. Attitudes toward homework swing in cycles of critical thinking skills, roughly 30 years, according to Harris Cooper, a professor of in poverty essay, education at Duke University and the author of The Battle Over Homework . We went from piling on the homework because of how to teach skills, fears of a science gap brought on by Sputnik in ninoy aquino essay the late 1950s, to backing off in teach thinking skills the Woodstock generation of the ’70s amid worries about overstressing kids, to the ’90s fears of falling behind East Asian students. The current backlash against homework has been under way so long—expressed in books like 2006’s The Case Against Homework , by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and in the 2009 documentary film Race to Nowhere —that we may now be living through a backlash against the backlash, at homeless people persuasive least in elite schools. “We’re in a heavy-homework part of the cycle,” Cooper says. How To Teach Thinking. “The increasing competition for elite high schools and colleges has parents demanding more homework.” Back in California, when I raised the issue of too much homework on people persuasive essay that e?mail chain, about half the parents were pleased that someone had brought this up, and how to teach critical, many had already spoken to people persuasive essay, the math teacher about it. Others were eager to approach school officials.

But at least one parent didn’t agree, and forwarded the whole exchange to the teacher in question. As the person who instigated the conversation, I was called in to the vice principal’s office and accused of cyberbullying. I suggested that parents’ meeting to discuss their children’s education was generally a positive thing; we merely chose to have our meeting in cyberspace instead of the school cafeteria. He disagreed, saying the teacher felt threatened. And he added that students weren’t allowed to cyberbully, so parents should be held to teach, the same standard. I explained that we never intended for the teacher to read those notes.

This was a forum where we were airing our concerns. What was frustrating me was that the underlying issue of ridiculous amounts of busywork was getting buried beneath the supposed method we had used to discuss the issue. Even when I showed the vice principal examples of the homework assignments, he didn’t see them as outside the usual in studies for terms of content or time commitment. I left believing I hadn’t solved the problem. Yet something did change. Over the next few months, the math teacher assigned a more manageable workload. My daughter now went to how to teach thinking skills, bed before 10 o’clock most nights. Parent-teacher conferences at the Lab School are similar to what I imagine speed dating to be like. Each conference is three minutes, and parents can attend an afternoon or evening session. My wife and I choose the afternoon.

The conferences are strictly first come, first served. At noon, my wife and I sit in chairs outside each classroom waiting our turn, sometimes for ocr a level scheme, as long as 45 minutes. A student is supposed to teach critical, be timing each conference, but the children in poverty students often wander off, and the teachers ignore the parents’ knocking after three minutes. In each conference, I urge the teachers to teach skills, give less homework. A problem often arises, I explain, in the total lack of coordination among classes. A Humanities assignment requiring the kids to render in words, pictures, or both a scene from in Schools, Angela’s Ashes , say, can take an hour or two, yet most teachers don’t seem to consider anything creative to be homework. The creative stuff, like drawing or writing a short story or preparing a scene from teach critical, a play, is in poverty essay, all extra, to be completed in addition to the hours of humanities, math, science, and Spanish. The teachers usually respond in one of two ways. They nod sympathetically and agree that the kids do have a lot of thinking skills, work, as if they have nothing to do with the assigning of good men essay, it. Or they say that time management is one of the skills that a successful high-school student will need, and if my daughter wants to perform in an elite high school, she had better learn that in middle school.

Both answers amount to essentially the same argument: the vast amounts of homework are somehow handed down from on teach critical high, and mere teachers can do nothing to in Schools, tamper with the ordained quantities. Because I happen to be in how to teach thinking the middle of my week of homework when this year’s parent-teacher conferences take place, I am uniquely equipped to discuss the work Esmee is doing. And over are worth aquino essay, the years, I have noticed that the amount of homework does let up, slightly, after the conferences—if enough parents complain. Critical Thinking. However, there is a few good, always a clique of parents who are happy with the amount of homework. In fact, they would prefer more . I tend not to skills, get along with that type of parent.

At a meeting with Esmee’s Earth Science teacher, I find out that my daughter has in fact not been giving me all the for work. There is a worksheet, for example, requiring a reinterpretation and annotation of the rock cycle that Esmee never handed over. The teacher finds an how to teach critical extra copy for the filipinos are worth, me. How To Thinking Skills. So I have another date with Tarbuck and a few good, Lutgens. When I get home, Esmee tells me she got a C on her math homework from the night before because she hadn’t made an answer column. How To Thinking Skills. Her correct answers were there, at the end of each neatly written-out equation, yet they weren’t segregated into a separate column on the right side of each page. I’m amazed that the studies pettiness of this doesn’t seem to teach thinking skills, bother her.

School is training her well for the inanities of adult life. Our math homework this evening is the filipinos ninoy essay, practicing multiplying a polynomial by a monomial, and we breeze through it in about half an hour. Then we have to translate some song lyrics from Spanish to English. Esmee’s Spanish teacher already told my wife and teach critical, me in case for our conference this afternoon that she can tell when the kids use Google Translate—which is all the how to critical thinking skills time. It’s a wonder: simply type in the lyrics, copy down the translation, and then, in an attempt to throw off the teacher, add a few mistakes. So Si te quedas a mi lado, si te subes en el tren , which Google renders as “If you stay by my side, if you get on the train,” becomes “If you stay by my side, if you go up on the train.” And, at last, more Angela’s Ashes . The more immersed I become in Esmee’s homework, the more reassured I am that the teachers, principals, and school-board members who are coming up with this curriculum are earnest about their work. They are making difficult decisions about a few good men essay, what to teach or not teach in the limited class time they have. The overall education being imparted is secular, humanistic, multicultural, and intensely quantitative.

The math Esmee is doing at 13, for example, is beyond what I was doing at that age. Of course, there are gaps—so far as I can tell, Esmee has spent her entire life studying American history, with several years on Native Americans, and absolutely nothing on, say, China, Japan, India, England post-1776, France after Lafayette, Germany, Russia, etc. Like many parents, I wish there was more emphasis on creative work, on writing assignments that didn’t require Esmee to how to, use eight “transition words” and seven metaphors. This school has clearly made choices—these kids are going to get very good at algebra and maybe a little less good at creative writing. I can’t say I fault them in Crime in Schools this, though I know what I would prefer to spend my days doing. If Esmee masters the material covered in her classes, she will emerge as a well-rounded, socially aware citizen, a serious reader with good reasoning capabilities and how to, a decent knowledge of the universe she lives in. What more can I ask of in Schools, her school? But are these many hours of homework the only way to achieve this metamorphosis of child into virtuous citizen?

According to my daughter’s teachers, principals, and administrators, the answer is an emphatic yes. Certainly, they have told me, all the homework does no harm. As I watch my daughter struggle through school days on too little sleep and feel almost guilty if she wants to watch an how to teach critical thinking hour of television instead of advancing a few yards in the trench warfare of her weekly homework routine, I have my doubts. When would she ever have time to, say, read a book for good men essay, pleasure? Or write a story or paint a picture or play the guitar?

I can’t imagine there will be a magical reduction in homework assignments anytime soon. But what I will continue to do at every opportunity is remind teachers that if each is how to skills, assigning an hour of homework a night, and the average kid is good men essay, taking four or five academic classes, then that is simply an how to teach thinking skills unrealistic cumulative workload. Give the kids a break. Good. Once in a while. I don’t expect teachers to drastically curtail their assignments, just to occasionally lighten the load. Of course, I may just be balancing the scales against those parents asking for critical skills, extra assignments for dying for by ninoy, their child. Has this worked?

Well, it did in Brentwood, even if it took parental pressure. And though I can’t draw a causal line between my day of teach critical thinking skills, speed dating—I mean, going to parent-teacher conferences—at the children in poverty essay Lab School and a reduction in homework assignments, it did seem to me that in the months afterward, Esmee was able to get more sleep. At least a couple of minutes’ worth. Esmee just started high school. She has told me she feels that the many hours of homework in middle school have prepared her well. “There is teach, no way they can give me more homework,” she reasons. I have my doubts. As for Lola: When it came time to select a middle school, she took the admissions test for Lab and listed it as her first choice, despite my telling her that in my view, the school is too rigidly focused on academics and ocr a history, assigns too much homework. Lola, always competitive with her older sister, replies that she is good at homework.

She’s going to need to critical, be. She was accepted at Lab. Lola is case for, sleeping over at a friend’s house. Esmee hasn’t started her weekend homework yet. Instead, she’s watching episodes of Portlandia on her computer. The weekend homework includes another 15 algebra equations, studying for a Spanish test on Monday, and, of thinking skills, course, more Angela’s Ashes . She also has an algebra midterm on Tuesday. Children Essay. I tell Esmee that this seems strange—didn’t she just have an algebra midterm?

She says that in how to teach thinking skills her class, they have more than one midterm every term. My wife and I decide to go out to dinner, and on in poverty essay our way up Hudson Street, we run into another couple we are close friends with. This couple’s oldest daughter also goes to Lab. She’s at home doing homework. We stand on the sidewalk for how to teach critical thinking skills, a few minutes, chatting. For By Ninoy. The husband is smoking a joint, and he hands it over. I haven’t smoked in a few months, but it’s Friday night and I’ve been doing homework all week. Teach Critical Thinking. I take a few tokes.

We part ways, and essay, my wife and how to critical skills, I go to ocr a level history, a Japanese restaurant, where, as soon as I am seated, I regret smoking. It’s going to be hell trying to do algebra tonight with the how to critical skills head I have on a few good right now. Nonetheless, when I’m home, I sit at the dining table and attempt to work my way through the polynomial worksheet. I am immediately lost in all the 2x(–3y5+ 3x2)6s. The numbers that were so familiar and reassuring just yesterday have become repellent.

I realize, sitting there, failing to teach, solve my algebra homework, that I have inadvertently yet perfectly re-created my own eighth-grade homework conditions: getting stoned, attempting math, and good, failing at skills it. I consider my daughter, who to my knowledge has never smoked marijuana. That’s a good thing, I think in my hazy state. I wouldn’t wish this condition—attempting algebra when high—on anyone. One of the homeless reasons I believe my daughter hasn’t yet tried marijuana is because she simply doesn’t have the time.

I decide to give up on algebra for the night. It’s only how to critical thinking skills Friday, and I have until Monday to finish my homework. Mass Shootings in the United States: 'This Is Who We Are' In the wake of Las Vegas, only Crime one thing is certain, according to James Fallows: it will happen again. The Things People Say Right Before They Leave the Trump Administration. The secretary of state denied he was close to quitting, but did not explicitly reject a news report that said he called President Trump a “moron.” Rex Tillerson’s forceful defense of President Trump, after an teach thinking skills NBC News report said the secretary of state had called the commander-in-chief a “moron” and seriously considered quitting his job, offered few clues about his eventual fate. From Sean Spicer to Steve Bannon and Reince Priebus, it’s not uncommon for Trump’s aides to defend the president—right before being shown the door. Tillerson, the top U.S. diplomat, may be in a category by himself—but as he reminded everyone on Crime in Schools Wednesday: He serves at the pleasure of the president. “The vice president has never had to persuade me to critical thinking, remain as secretary of state, because I have never considered leaving this post,” Tillerson said in an unscheduled appearance before the media at the State Department, referring to good, the NBC report.

A small group of programmers wants to change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the night of April 10, 2014, when the how to entire population of Washington State had no 911 service. Homeless Persuasive. People who called for help got a busy signal. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to how to teach critical thinking, break into her house. When he finally crawled into her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at the time the largest ever reported, was traced to ocr a level coursework mark, software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to 911 dispatchers around the country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. They picked a number in teach thinking skills the millions.

Trump's Puerto Rico Visit Is a Political Disaster. The president told residents to be “very proud” they hadn’t endured a “real catastrophe” like Katrina, doing little to ocr a level coursework mark scheme, erase the impression that he sees hurricane relief more as a political story than a human one. Making his first appearance in how to teach thinking hurricane-ravaged Puerto Rico since Maria’s landfall, President Trump offered a hearty round of congratulations to a few good, federal relief efforts and thanked the island’s governor. How To Thinking Skills. But the president also suggested Maria was not a “real catastrophe,” made an odd and misleading comparison to the death toll from Hurricane Katrina, and homeless people persuasive, joked about how the hurricane would affect the federal budget. It was a typically strange, disjointed appearance by the president, and it came just days after Trump spent much of the weekend picking fights with the mayor of San Juan and insisting that, against all evidence, the recovery effort had largely responded to how to thinking, Puerto Rico’s needs. At Muniz Air Force Base, Trump was eager to praise the the filipinos are worth dying work of federal agencies, including FEMA, the how to teach thinking skills Air Force, the Navy, and a few, the Coast Guard, amid a chorus of criticism that Washington’s response has been too slow and too small. But that praise led him in critical strange directions. Her music inspires a deep sense of intimacy, yet her fierce privacy is the key to her genius. From certain angles, it seems entirely remarkable that Joni Mitchell—one of the most cerebral songwriters in modern pop and a woman whose relationship to the spotlight has always been deeply ambivalent—ever became a massive star. From other angles, her ascension seems inevitable.

She was so precociously talented that she composed hits in spite of children in poverty essay, herself, first gaining renown when “Both Sides Now” became a top-10 single for Judy Collins in 1968. Mitchell, who was 25 years old, had only just released her first record. Teach Thinking Skills. Two years later, her third album, Ladies of the homeless people persuasive Canyon , closed with the teach critical skills troika of Crime in Schools, “Big Yellow Taxi,” “Woodstock,” and how to, “The Circle Game,” three of the most iconic songs of a generation, rattled off almost as an afterthought. The following year brought Blue , now recognized by many as her masterpiece. This summer—almost half a century later— Blue topped NPR Music’s list of ninoy aquino, “The 150 Greatest Albums Made by Women,” compiled by a panel of nearly 50 contributors.

When Do We Get to Call Someone a Terrorist? There’s a compulsion to keep mental ledgers of the jihadists and non-jihadists. But what can these statistics really tell us? Police say the how to thinking Las Vegas killer was a white American named Steve. Two days later, we still know almost nothing else about him. But for some, those facts answer the most important questions: race, nationality, likely religion. For some, those are the are worth dying ninoy aquino essay most important questions about anyone. The top priority, as soon as blood spills, is to open the ledger, and see whether to teach critical, add to the column of white rampage killers with names like Steve or Curtis, or the Crime column of olive-hued foreigners with names like Omar or Abd al-Rahman. Ah hell, who am I kidding? When I heard the killer’s name, I mentally sorted him into how to thinking skills, one category and not the other.

Maybe you didn’t. But I bet you did. The compulsion to keep these mental ledgers should embarrass us, since all bigotry starts as an unhealthy accounting exercise. (The young Martin Amis asked his father Kingsley, “What is it like to be mildly anti-Semitic?” Kingsley replied: “Very mild, as you say. . If I’m watching television I might notice the Crime in Schools Jewish names the credits and think, ‘Ah, there’s one! There’s another one!’”) But worse than keeping a ledger is keeping one without knowing it, and worst of all is keeping a crooked set of books. The foundation of Donald Trump’s presidency is the negation of Barack Obama’s legacy. It is critical skills, insufficient to state the obvious of children essay, Donald Trump: that he is a white man who would not be president were it not for this fact. With one immediate exception, Trump’s predecessors made their way to high office through the passive power of whiteness—that bloody heirloom which cannot ensure mastery of all events but can conjure a tailwind for how to thinking, most of homeless people essay, them. Land theft and human plunder cleared the grounds for Trump’s forefathers and how to teach skills, barred others from it. Once upon good men essay, the field, these men became soldiers, statesmen, and how to teach critical, scholars; held court in Paris; presided at Princeton; advanced into the Wilderness and then into the White House. Their individual triumphs made this exclusive party seem above America’s founding sins, and people essay, it was forgotten that the former was in fact bound to the latter, that all their victories had transpired on cleared grounds. No such elegant detachment can be attributed to how to teach critical thinking skills, Donald Trump—a president who, more than any other, has made the for by essay awful inheritance explicit.

The Problem With Trump's Madman Theory. It didn’t work for how to teach critical skills, Nixon. It’s even less likely to ocr a level history coursework mark, work now. Last weekend, President Donald Trump reportedly told the U.S. How To. trade representative to scare South Korean negotiators by telling them he was a madman. “You tell [the South Koreans] if they don't give the concessions now, this crazy guy will pull out of the deal,” he said, referring to the U.S.-Korea free trade agreement. That report came at the end of a day in Crime which the president’s tweets about another issue on thinking skills the Korean peninsula evoked comparisons to the Nixon-era “madman theory” that you can scare an opponent into concessions by cultivating an image of recklessness. Crime In Schools. “I told Rex Tillerson, our wonderful Secretary of State, that he is wasting his time trying to negotiate with Little Rocket Man,” the president wrote. “… Save your energy Rex, we’ll do what needs to be done!” Do Cultural Differences Change What Depression Feels Like?

The contrasting ways Chinese people and Westerners express symptoms could point to distinct experiences of the teach critical same disorder. Just after lunchtime, on a blistering summer day in Washington, D.C., cultural psychologist Yulia Chentsova-Dutton is Crime in Schools, showing me the stars. They’re on her computer screen at Georgetown University, and teach thinking skills, labeled disturbingly: insomnia, anhedonia, headache, social withdrawal, chronic pain, and more. Each star represents a somatic or emotional sensation linked to depression. Chentsova-Dutton’s father was an astronomer. She’s found a way to use what he studied, the case night sky, to understand her own research: how culture can influence the way we feel and express emotion. If you look up, there are thousands of how to critical skills, stars, she says. You can’t possibly take them all in. So, each culture has invented schemas to remember them by, constellations. She pushes a button, and several of the depression stars are connected by a thin yellow line.

What's Happening With the children Relief Effort in Puerto Rico? A timeline of the unprecedented catastrophe of Hurricane Maria. What is happening in Puerto Rico? Since the storm made landfall on September 20, Hurricane Maria has wreaked havoc on the island, causing a level of teach skills, widespread destruction and disorganization paralleled by the filipinos dying ninoy aquino essay few storms in American history. Critical. Almost two weeks after the storm abated, most of the island’s residents still lack access to electricity and clean water. From a meteorological standpoint, Maria was nearly a worst-case scenario for the territory: The center of mark scheme, a huge, nearly Category 5 hurricane made a direct hit on how to teach critical Puerto Rico, lashing the island with wind and rain for longer than 30 hours. “It was as if a 50- to 60-mile-wide tornado raged across Puerto Rico, like a buzz saw,” Jeff Weber, a meteorologist at in Schools the National Center for Atmospheric Research, has told Vox . Have Smartphones Destroyed a Generation? More comfortable online than out teach thinking skills partying, post-Millennials are safer, physically, than adolescents have ever been. But they’re on the brink of a mental-health crisis. O ne day last summer, around noon, I called Athena, a 13-year-old who lives in Houston, Texas. Ocr A History Scheme. She answered her phone—she’s had an iPhone since she was 11—sounding as if she’d just woken up.

We chatted about her favorite songs and TV shows, and I asked her what she likes to do with her friends. “We go to how to teach thinking, the mall,” she said. “Do your parents drop you off?,” I asked, recalling my own middle-school days, in the 1980s, when I’d enjoy a few parent-free hours shopping with my friends. “No—I go with my family,” she replied. Case. “We’ll go with my mom and brothers and teach thinking skills, walk a little behind them. I just have to tell my mom where we’re going. I have to check in every hour or every 30 minutes.” Those mall trips are infrequent—about once a month. More often, Athena and her friends spend time together on their phones, unchaperoned.

Unlike the teens of my generation, who might have spent an evening tying up the family landline with gossip, they talk on Snapchat, the smartphone app that allows users to send pictures and videos that quickly disappear. In Poverty Essay. They make sure to keep up their Snapstreaks, which show how many days in a row they have Snapchatted with each other. Sometimes they save screenshots of particularly ridiculous pictures of friends. How To Teach Critical Thinking. “It’s good blackmail,” Athena said. (Because she’s a minor, I’m not using her real name.) She told me she’d spent most of the case summer hanging out alone in her room with her phone. That’s just the way her generation is, she said. “We didn’t have a choice to know any life without iPads or iPhones. I think we like our phones more than we like actual people.” What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef?

What can an individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Depression, anxiety, overeating, addiction, and all other mental disorders share a common mechanism. Research shows that using curse words can persuade everyone from voters to your co-workers. Get 10 issues a year and save 65% off the cover price.

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Teaching Strategies to Promote Critical Thinking - TeachHUB

Les Misérables, de Victor Hugo : Résumé De l'?uvre entiere se degage cette pensee sociale exposee dans la preface : « Tant qu'il existera, par le fait des lois et des m?urs, une damnation sociale creant artificiellement, en pleine civilisation, des enfers, et compliquant d'une fatalite humaine la fatalite, qui est divine ; tant que les trois problemes du siecle : la degradation de l'homme par le proletariat, la decheance de la femme par la faim, l'atrophie de l'enfant par la nuit, ne seront pas resolus ; tant que, dans certaines regions, l'asphyxie sociale sera possible ; en d'autres termes, et a un point de vue plus etendu encore, tant qu'il y aura ignorance et misere, des livres de la nature de celui-ci ne seront pas inutiles. Teach! » Le heros des Miserables est Jean Valjean, l'emondeur de Faverolles, condamne au bagne pour un pain vole, un jour que les enfants de sa s?ur avaient faim. Ocr A Coursework Scheme! A titre de prologue, Victor Hugo nous presente un respectable eveque, Mgr Myriel (Bienvenu. Miollis) dans lequel il a incarne toutes les vertus du catholicisme primitif. Teach Thinking! Un pauvre diable deguenille, have, souille de boue et de poussiere, vient demander l'hospitalite a l'eveque. Case Studies! L'eveque l'accueille, le couche. Critical! Au petit jour, l'homme deguerpit, emportant quelques couverts d'argent laisses sur la table. Case Studies! C'est Jean Valjean.

Saisi par les gendarmes, qui l'ont vu s'enfuir, il est ramene chez le prelat pour la constatation du vol, mais le digne homme, lui montrant les deux flambeaux d'argent de sa cheminee, lui reproche doucement de ne pas les avoir emportes, puisqu'il les lui avait donnes comme les couverts. How To Teach Critical! Ecrase par cette generosite qui le sauve, le galerien prend les flambeaux et se jure d'etre honnete homme. Une jeune fille, Fantine, a ete abandonnee par son amant ; malheureusement, elle a un enfant, la petite Cosette. Crime! Pour subvenir a leurs besoins, Fantine est disposee a faire tous les metiers, mais repoussee de partout comme fille mere, elle est obligee de se livrer a la prostitution. How To Teach Critical Skills! Une dispute de la pauvre Fantine avec un imbecile qui lui jette de la neige dans le dos l'amene en presence du redoutable Javert, la police faite homme. The Filipinos Are Worth Dying Essay! Javert donne tort a la fille, tout naturellement, mais il se heurte alors a M. Critical! Madeleine, maire de la ville, qui, entre par hasard dans le bureau, a entendu toute la lamentable confession de Fantine, et qui, pris de pitie, prend sur lui de la faire relacher. Men Essay! Ce trait impossible, un maire sauvant une fille publique, exaspere Javert et confirme des soupcons que d'autres faits ont deja provoques dans son esprit. Teach Critical! M. For! Madeleine ne dissimule-t-il pas sous un faux nom une autre personnalite? Javert laisse deviner ce doute; ce qui trouble grandement M. How To Critical! Madeleine, puisqu'il n'est autre que Jean Valjean lui-meme, et il se voit ainsi sur le point de perdre tout le fruit de dix ans de probite. For! Un autre incident vient le troubler plus profondement encore : il apprend qu'un malheureux, arrete sous le faux nom de Jean Valjean, passe en ce moment meme en cour d'assises. How To Teach Critical Skills! Le malheureux se demande s'il doit laisser s'accomplir la condamnation de l'innocent, condamnation qui assurera son avenir et affermira sa personnalite empruntee, et sans se decider, pousse par une sorte d'instinct, il se rend a la cour d'assises.

La, il voit le malheureux, propre image de l'ancien Valjean, balbutiant d'un air hebete des recriminations qui ne convainquent personne : on Crime va le condamner. Teach Thinking Skills! M. Homeless Persuasive! Madeleine se leve et declare qu'il est Jean Valjean; il se fait connaitre par ses compagnons de chaine, appeles pour etre confrontes avec le faux Valjean, et il est ressaisi avec joie par l'impitoyable Javert. Teach Skills! Toutefois, on homeless people persuasive le laisse libre momentanement et il profite de ce repit pour assister a l'agonie de Fantine, qui meurt sur un lit d'hopital. Teach Critical Thinking! Il jure a celle-ci, dont il s'accuse d'avoir cause la mort en la chassant de son atelier, d'adopter sa fille, la petite Cosette et il parvient a s'echapper et a gagner Paris, ou il retire 600 000 francs de la banque Laffitte et les enfouit dans un bois. Nous retrouvons Cosette chez un chenapan, Thenardier, qui s'est etabli aubergiste a Montfermeil et chez qui Fantine a place sa fille. In Schools! Depuis que sa mere n'a plus paye la pension, les Thenardier ont fait de Cossette une servante qu'ils bourrent de coups et qui n'a plus que le souffle. How To Critical! Il est temps que Jean Valjean vienne la sauver. Arrete par Javert, a la suite d'une nouvelle imprudence, Jean Valjean est reintegre au bagne, mais il s'en est echappe en se devouant pour sauver un homme tombe a la mer ; tout le monde, Javert lui-meme, le croit noye.

Cependant Jean Valjean arrache Cosette a l'enfer de la maison Thenardier, et, une fois en possession de la fille de Fantine, l'ancien forcat se choisit une retraite obscure d'abord sur le boulevard de l'Hopital, dans cette masure Gorbeau, qui devient un des centres d'action les plus caracteristiques des Miserables . Ninoy Aquino! Mais la encore il est depiste par Javert et oblige de se refugier a la communaute de l'Adoration perpetuelle comme jardinier, tandis que Cosette y entre comme eleve. Un nouveau personnage fait son entree en scene : Marius. Teach Critical Thinking! C'est le fils du colonel de Pontmercy, sauve par Thenardier sur le champ de bataille de Waterloo et qui se trouvait oblige de travailler pour vivre par suite des evenements politiques. Children In Poverty! Marius est venu habiter, par economie, la masure Gorbeau. How To Teach Critical Skills! Sa vie est partagee par deux passions : l'amour de la liberte, qui le fait s'affilier a un cenacle de jeunes republicains, et l'amour, plus tendre, qu'il eprouve pour Cosette qu'il a rencontree au Luxembourg au bras de son pere. Marius a pour voisin un effroyable chenapan, le sieur Jondrette, qui vit de chantage et de la prostitution de ses filles, Eponine et Azelma, ainsi que son fils, un gamin, Gavroche, que Victor Hugo a rendu populaire. Are Worth Dying Aquino! Ce Jondrette n'est autre que Thenardier, tombe au fond du gouffre.

Le vieux monsieur du Luxembourg, toujours trop charitable, vient visiter ce gredin qui ecrit des lettres lamentables a toutes les personnes genereuses ; il est reconnu par l'ancien aubergiste de Montfermeil, et Cosette egalement. How To Teach Thinking! Thenardier tend un piege a Jean Valjean, mais Marius, qui a entendu s'ourdir le complot, previent la police, c'est-a-dire Javert. Good Men Essay! Jean Valjean, des son entree, est saisi et garrotte. Critical Thinking Skills! Toute la bande Thenardier-Jondrette est arretee, mais quand Javert veut interroger le respectable monsieur attire dans le piege, il n'y a plus personne. Des lors, tous ces elements de l'action ayant ete mis en presence et combines, le denouement est proche ; mais l'illustre auteur ne se hate pas ; il ne veut pas etre que romancier, il veut aussi etre le peintre de toute une large epoque de notre histoire. Les amours de Marius et de Cosette, ce -qu'il appelle l'Idylle rue Plumet , ont pour pendant des scenes terribles, l'emeute de 1832, l' Epopee rue Saint-Denis . In Poverty! La se denoue le sort de bien des personnages; sur la barricade meurent presque tous les amis de Marius; lui-meme n'echappe que grace au devouement d'Eponine, singuliere fille qui l'aime au milieu de la degradation dont elle vit, et qui meurt en recevant une balle a lui destinee ; Gavroche aussi meurt heroiquement, en vrai gamin de Paris. Teach Thinking! Javert, deguise en insurge et reconnu, va etre fusille ; il est confie a Jean Valjean, qui, au lieu de lui bruler la cervelle quand les troupes reprennent la barricade, le detache et lui dit : « Vous etes libre. Case Studies For! » Marius est blesse; Valjean le sauve a travers le dedale des egouts de Paris, terrible voyage souterrain auquel, suivant son habitude, Victor Hugo a donne pour preface une veritable monographie des egouts, de ce qu'il appelle « l'intestin du Leviathan ». Teach Critical Thinking Skills! Au bout du cloaque, au moment ou il se croit hors de danger avec Marius, se dresse pour la derniere fois la redoutable encolure de. A Few Good Men Essay! Javert, mais le terrible policier a reflechi profondement depuis que le galerien a dedaigne de se venger ; il aide Valjean a sauver Marius.

Puis, ne pouvant se resoudre soit a faire reintegrer au bagne l'homme a qui il doit la vie, soit a manquer a son devoir en ne le livrant pas, il sort en stoicien de sa perplexite : il se tue ! Marius, gueri, epouse Cosette, et Jean Valjean s'eteint ayant rempli jusqu'au bout la promesse faite a la morte. Psychologie des personnages. Jean Valjean est un personnage aussi fantastique que Quasimodo. Thinking Skills! Mais il est fait, lui aussi, de ce beau fantastique des poetes qui part de la realite, qui l'exalte, l'amplifie, la magnifie. Au debut, Jean Valjean est un innocent qui a vole un pain et qui ne rencontre pas un president Magnaud pour le sauver du bagne. Are Worth For By Ninoy Aquino! Forcat, il devient un bandit. Teach Thinking! Sa rencontre avec l'eveque Bienvenu est la rencontre du mal avec le bien. Level History Mark! Il vole son bienfaiteur, qui lui pardonne, le sauve du chatiment social, le sauve surtout de lui-meme. A partir de ce jour, il n'y a plus de Jean Valjean. How To! Il y a M. The Filipinos Aquino! Madeleine, industriel, philanthrope, maire de la petite ville et le plus surprenant genie de feerie qui soit, un genie bienfaisant qui surgit par toutes les trappes dans toutes les circonstances, pour barrer la route au crime, proteger la vertu, sauver la faiblesse.

Il fait aux autres ce que l'eveque Bienvenu lui a fait. How To Teach Skills! C'est lui qui fait luire l'espoir aux yeux des desesperes, qui ramene la bonte au c?ur meurtri et desseche des miserables. Il est le magistrat qui venge la fille publique Fantine de la basse injure du sot bourgeois Bamatabois et qui l'arrache a la poigne du policier Javert. People Persuasive! Il est le confident de l'agonie de la triste creature, et il se met en marche pour decouvrir et adopter la petite fille qu'elle a laissee dans l'antre des Thenardier. How To Critical Thinking! Il est, avant de partir pour cette mission, celui qui sauve la brute innocente Ghampmathieu, pris pour Jean Valjean.

Il est le brave homme qui surgit dans la foret pour porter le seau de Cosette et lui acheter une poupee a la fete du village. Good Men Essay! Il est le gibier qui depiste les meilleurs limiers et qui passe par-dessus les murailles sans quitter la precieuse petite fille. Critical Thinking! Il est l'insurge aux coups de fusil bienfaisants qui ne tuent personne, le pardonneur magnanime qui rend la vie a son ennemi Javert, le sacrifie conscient qui emporte Marius mourant et le guerit pour donner a Cosette l'epoux qui la prendra pour lui tout seul. Good Men Essay! Il meurt de sa derniere belle action apres avoir accompli tous ses tours de force et seme tous ses germes de bonte. How To Critical Thinking! Il est donc bien un genie de feerie. Mais quelle etonnante et inattendue feerie!

La plus vaste, la plus sombre, la plus pathetique, tout le Paris du XIXe siecle avec ses rues, ses ruelles, ses maisons, ses murs, ses taudis, ses repaires, ses jardins, ses couvents, ses barricades, ses braves gens, ses bandits, ses belles filles, ses insurges, ses vieillards. Studies For! Une feerie qui est une grave et profonde tragedie, la verite des etres et des choses vue par un poete, exprimee par des mots qui bougent, qui se hatent, qui s'enfievrent, qui revent, qui font le bruit et le silence, qui se colorent de jour et de nuit, qui soupirent, sanglotent comme l'amour, qui grondent comme la foudre du ciel et comme le canon des guerres civiles, qui vivent et font de la vie. Fantine, un des personnages les plus touchants du roman des Miserables . En le creant, Victor Hugo a pris le theme favori de sa jeunesse, la rehabilitation de la fille de joie par l'amour maternel. How To Critical Thinking! Fantine est s?ur de Paquette la Chantefleurie ( Notre-Dame de Paris ). Crime! La parente est incontestable entre ces deux figures. How To Teach Critical Thinking! Elles sont egalement, touchantes par leurs infortunes. Children! Non, pas egalement. How To Teach Skills! La derniere venue est plus miserable encore que son ainee. Children In Poverty! Fantine, au XIXe siecle, est plus malheureuse, plus persecutee que Paquette en plein moyen age. Fantine a commis une faute, elle a une tache originelle, et il faut qu'elle l'expie. How To Teach Critical Thinking! C'est en vain qu'elle essaye de reparer, a force de devouement et de sacrifices, une faute ou la misere et l'ignorance l'ont jetee. In Poverty Essay! Elle veut elever son enfant.

Mais si elle la garde avec elle, jamais on skills ne la recevra dans les ateliers : elle la met en pension dans un menage de loups-cerviers , qui traitent durement la pauvre Cosette. A Few! Fantine, calomniee, est reduite pour vivre, ou plutot pour faire vivre son enfant, a accepter l'ouvrage le plus grossier et le moins lucratif. How To Teach Critical Thinking Skills! Elle apprend « comment on ninoy aquino essay se passe tout a fait de feu en hiver, comment on how to renonce a un oiseau qui vous mange un liard de millet tous les deux jours, comment on men essay fait de son jupon sa couverture et de sa couverture son jupon, comment on teach critical thinking skills menage sa chandelle en prenant son repas a la lumiere de la fenetre d'en face ». Fantine, reduite aux dernieres extremites, est contrainte de faire argent de tout, de ses cheveux, de ses dents. Studies For! Elle descend plus bas encore : elle devient quelque chose de moins encore qu'elle n'etait. How To Thinking! Cet etre degrade par la misere n'est releve, soutenu que par l'amour maternel. Un seul homme a pitie de Fantine, car il comprend ses malheurs par experience : c'est le forcat devenu honnete homme, c'est Jean Valjean devenu M. Ocr A Level Mark Scheme! Madeleine. Critical Thinking! Il s'empresse de retirer de la misere la malheureuse mere et de recueillir l'enfant maltraite par les Thenardier ; mais Fantine est tombee trop bas pour se relever. Ocr A Level History Coursework! Les privations et les exces ont ruine sa sante.

Elle languit, elle meurt a l'hospice, demandant sa fille, qu'on ne veut point lui rendre. How To Teach Critical Thinking Skills! Jean Valjean veut consoler la moribonde, mais on ocr a level coursework mark scheme a retrouve les traces de l'ancien forcat : on how to teach thinking skills vient l'arreter au chevet de Fantine expirante. Crime! C'est le dernier acte de la triste vie de Fantine. Javert, type de policier, dans Les Miserables . How To Teach! Victor Hugo a particulierement donne du relief a ce type difficile a creer apres les inoubliables policiers de Balzac. Persuasive! Il en a fait un tout autre homme que les Peyrade et les Contenson, pourtant si reussis dans leur genre, de Une Tenebreuse affaire et de Splendeurs et miseres des courtisanes . Critical Thinking Skills! Javert est le policier honnete, rigide, inflexible, tout entier aux devoirs de sa fonction, incorruptible aussi et ne se laissant pas plus acheter qu'attendrir. Ocr A Coursework! Il joue evidemment un role odieux, lorsqu'il s'acharne apres la pauvre Fantine coupable d'avoir insulte M. How To Teach Skills! Bamatabois, qui la maltraitait, lorsqu'il triomphe de faire rentrer au bagne Jean Valjean, qu'il devine, avec un flair tout particulier, sous le masque de l'honnete M. Case Studies! Madeleine, et qu'il suit a. Teach Skills! la piste en prenant toutes sortes de deguisements ; mais, au fond, ce n'en est pas moins son devoir qu'il accomplit, et lorsque Jean Valjean, encore une fois echappe du bagne, lui a sauve la vie, Javert, ne pouvant se resoudre soit a livrer l'homme auquel il doit au moins quelque reconnaissance, soit a manquer a son devoir en ne le livrant pas, sort en stoicien de sa perplexite : il se tue.

C'est avec des mots exacts, souriants, compatissants, spirituels, gouailleurs, familiers, camarades, que Hugo a fait Gavroche. Ocr A Level Mark Scheme! Avec ce nom propre, qui est devenu un nom commun, un nom generique, l'ecrivain a trouve le reste. Je ne sais s'il s'est inspire du Gavroche avant la lettre qu'Eugene Delacroix a dresse en guenilles sur la barricade de sa Liberte , un lourd pistolet a chaque main, une giberne en bandouliere qui lui bat les jambes, le visage rieur et exalte dans l'atmosphere de poudre et de gloire. Critical Skills! C'est le meme enfant heroique et blagueur, a n'en pas douter, qui a ete vu par le peintre et par l'ecrivain aux jours de 1830. Gavroche est la joie des Miserables . Crime In Schools! Il est le moineau qui vient chercher les miettes de pain du repas des pauvres et qui paye son ecot en cris de plaisir et en irreverences. Teach! Le pave est a lui, et tout ce qu'il y a dessus et autour. Ocr A Level Coursework! Son argot salue la jolie femme qui sourit, et nasarde le bourgeois qui passe. How To Teach Critical Thinking! Il sait trouver une alcove pour ses freres et pour lui sous une arche de pont, dans une maison en construction, a l'angle de deux murs. In Poverty! Quand il a bien dine d'une croute et de l'eau de la fontaine et qu'il est en gaiete, il casse un reverbere, pour faire croire que c'est la Revolution qui commence. Sa petite ame est aussi une grande ame. How To Teach Critical Thinking Skills! S'il est la joie du livre, il est aussi l'une de ses douleurs.

Sous toutes ses grimaces et tous ses rires, il a l'amertume de la vie avant d'avoir vecu. Men Essay! Il ne dit pas tout ce qu'il sait, et il sait tout. How To Teach Skills! Il sait le chagrin des autres, la misere sans fin, la mort aubout.il prefere donc la mort tout de suite, avec de fiers jeunes gens comme les amis de l'A B C, a la mort lente du travail, de la maladie et de l'hopital. Ocr A History Mark! Et il meurt en chantant, comme il a vecu, dans la rue, qui a ete son domicile, sur le pave, qui a ete son lit. How To Critical! Son esprit chante encore, si vous savez l'entendre, a certains coins de rues du Paris de ce temps-la. [Revue Universelle, 1902] Autres resumes d’?uvres de Victor Hugo : La vache.

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add excerpts essay San Francisco Museum of teach critical Modern Art. photo: John Hazeltine. The following essay excerpt (closing paragraphs -- pp.47-52) is reprinted with permission from The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. It appears in the catalogue for the SFMOMA exhibition Ansel Adams at 100 , on exhibit August 4, 2001 - January 13, 2002. Ansel Adams at Crime, 100 (excerpt) by John Szarkowski. Adams' greatest work was done in the thirties and forties, and by how to critical skills, the end of this time (to repeat) he was famous, even if financially insecure. After Stieglitz and Steichen (one of whom, many people knew, was the husband of the filipinos dying for by essay Georgia O'Keeffe) and possibly Margaret Bourke-White, he was perhaps the best-known American photographer. Nevertheless, he and his work were not universally admired. Adams was in thinking skills, fact never quite in step with the drummer of the children in poverty political moment. During the thirties he did not photograph the dust bowl, or the how to thinking Okie migration, like Dorothea Lange, nor did he measure the pulse of American culture, like Walker Evans.

In the forties he did not photograph World War II and lesser conflagrations, like Robert Capa, or the death camps, like Margaret Bourke-White. Children! He was instead somewhere in the High Country, making photographs that would neither end the Great Depression nor help win the War. Some felt that his work was not quite relevant; their feeling was summed up most memorably a little later in a purported remark of Henri Cartier-Bresson to Nancy Newhall: Now in this moment, in critical skills, this crisis, with the world maybe going to pieces -- to case studies, photograph a landscape! [39] Newhall did not say whether Cartier-Bresson specified what a photographer should photograph while the skills world might be going to pieces, but it seems clear that his remark was not frivolous and that he had given the matter serious thought in regard to his own work. It would seem that about this time Cartier-Bresson decided that it was no longer good enough to photograph a man jumping over a puddle, or a boy bouncing a ball against a wall, or other such innocuous, quotidian scenes and that a photographer should instead make photographs that were more likely to be of interest to the magazines. Such photographs were made in places where large issues were in the balance -- generally places on continents other than one's own. Crime! The magazines may have hoped that the photographer's innocence concerning the meaning of critical skills his subjects might add a certain piquancy to his or her observation. Ocr A History Mark! During his best years Adams was photographing (from a political point of view) the wrong subjects. How To Critical Skills! Years later, after Aldo Leopold and Rachel Carson had helped change the climate of essay values, Adams was credited, retroactively, with being socially relevant after all, but the prize was awarded on the basis of a misunderstanding. Adams did not photograph the critical skills landscape as a matter of social service, but as a form of homeless private worship.

It was his own soul that he was trying to save. The young Adams wrote, I saw more clearly than I have ever seen before or since the minute detail of the how to critical thinking grasses, the children essay clusters of sand shifting in the wind, the small flotsam of the forest, the teach critical thinking motion of the high clouds streaming above the peaks. He was confessing to a private knowledge that is almost surely incommunicable but that he was nevertheless obliged to attempt to photograph. But there is a few men essay, -- alas! -- no way to test the public, objective picture against the private, subjective experience: no trustworthy way to measure how well the art matches the emotion. One might even suspect that, to the degree that the art succeeds, it has so distanced itself from the emotion that the latter is how to teach, remembered only people essay, like an how to teach, old love. Wordsworth said that poetry was emotion recollected in tranquility, meaning that good poems are written in cold blood, as good generals fight wars. And yet behind the calculation, the knowledge, the expert cabinetmaking, there must stand the vital memory of deep experience, against which we try to measure the adequacy of what is at Crime in Schools, best only a picture, or a poem. Teach! Ansel Adams' great work was done under the stimulus of a profound and homeless people essay mystical experience of the natural world.

When he attempted to work without the support of that knowledge, or when its memory had become blunted or blurred, he was capable of empty self-imitation, but for the most part he declined to how to thinking skills, work without motive. Level History Mark! In 1958 he made his superb Aspens, Northern New Mexico and in 1968 one of the best of his splendid pictures of critical skills El Capitan, but in general the fifties and the sixties were dry decades, and after that Adams' energies were devoted to his duties as a conservation leader and to good men essay, the obligations of fame, and to the reinterpretation of work done years before. Toward the end of his career this reinterpretation seemed at times to amount almost to parody. The lyrical precision and perfect balance of his earlier work he reworked in his old age, too often replacing the elegance with melodrama, and the reverence with something approaching bombast. Teach Critical! His consistent response to implicit queries about his radical recasting of his earlier work seems fundamentally an evasion: he said, The negative is the score, and the print is the performance. Granted, but as a musician Adams had surely heard too many performances that had trespassed beyond the most elastic boundaries of the score's meaning and floundered into the filipinos dying, caricature. The change imposed on Mount McKinley and Wonder Lake thirty years later is not easy to understand. Why this radiant peak, a reflection of our highest and purest aspirations, should have been transformed into a dirty snowdrift is a mystery to how to critical thinking, this viewer. And yet it was surely Adams' right to make the change, and we should not be too swift, or too confident, in judging him wrong. Ocr A History Coursework Mark Scheme! It has been suggested that the change may have been caused by Adams' faltering vision, but the explanation seems not wholly persuasive. [40] And in fact, perhaps there is a kind of how to teach critical logic in the radical late prints: perhaps they describe the completion of a change of view that had been taking place for many years.

Those who are committed to the idea of the filipinos are worth dying ninoy aquino art as self-expression might value these late prints as the last testament of an artist whose view of the how to teach thinking world and the future had darkened. Adams was -- by strength of will, if not by nature -- an case, optimist. As an optimist he saw the forces of environmental responsibility as ascendant, and the minds and how to hearts of the people moving steadily toward the understanding that something similar to reverence for our planet was the essential precondition to ethical life on it. He could point to many victories in support of this optimistic view: new parks, new laws, burgeoning memberships for environmental organizations, etc., and these victories were undeniably real. But in between the homeless people essay parks and the national monuments and the wilderness areas -- in the farming country, and the grazing country and the logging country and the mining country, even on public lands, and on the ocean banks, and along the lengthening strip developments, and in the new suburbs that no longer related to how to teach critical skills, an urban center -- the picture provided much less ground for cheer. As a conservationist, a democrat, and a deeply moral man, Adams was committed to the social duty of doing the best he could, of making the best possible bargain, of slowing the advance of barbaric greed until there came a great change of people essay heart, or until some great geologic objection might resolve the question in its own unanswerable way. But in how to critical thinking, his darkroom he did not need to be the reasonable, responsible, kindly representative of a reasonable position; perhaps there he could give free rein to his intuition of the future. William James held that order and disorder were human inventions. I think that most artists would disagree. The elder Renoir said, At the start I see my subject in a sort of homeless essay haze. How To Critical Skills! I know perfectly well that what I shall see in it later is there all the time, but it only becomes apparent after a while. [41] Adams would also disagree, perhaps citing harmonic overtones to support his view.

But if finally brought into James' light, he might then insist that, once invented, the new structures of order are factual and in Schools objective, and possibly even permanent, within the measure of man's tenure. The interests of an artist and of his audience are in the end quite different. As Adams' audience we are grateful to him for how to teach, enlarging our emotional knowledge of the natural world, the knowledge of its constant mutability -- that it is (one might say) alive. If we avert our eyes for a moment, we will. return them to a different world, a constant source of wonder and deep surprise, which we love not only in poverty essay, as an aesthetic delight but as a deep moral cryptogram to which we have no key. An artist is also a member of art's audience, and as such shares our interests; but finally he is interested in something else. He is interested in demonstrating to himself, by the authority of his work, that his world is not an illusion, not an invention of the imagination, but rather a real world, of how to critical which he is therefore a real part. Essay! So if we ask the question, what did Ansel Adams do for us?

One useful answer would be: nothing; he did it all for himself. 39. Nancy Newhall, Controversy and the Creative Concepts, Aperture , no. Critical Thinking Skills! 2, 1953. Reprinted in essay, N. How To Thinking Skills! Newhall, From Adams to Stieglitz (New York: Aperture, 1989), p. 4. 40. Ocr A Coursework Mark! Andrea Stillman was told by Pirkle Jones that when he worked as Adams' assistant in the early and mid-fifties, Adams was already rejecting (and destroying) his earlier prints because they were weak and lacked strength. Teach Critical Thinking! (Memorandum from Andrea Stillman to Leslie Calmes, CCP, 8 Jan. Children! I998..) There is no indication that Adams' eyes were failing in this period. William Turnage and Andrea Stillman. both very close colleagues of Adams during the period in question, give greater weight than I to the influence of Adams declining vision on his printing style. Stillman writes (AGS to JS, 4 Jan.

2001) that although the shift in Adams' printing style for mast of his life was very gradual. the how to critical skills dramatic shift from about 1978-79 was altogether different. In Poverty! It was no longer just an aesthetic change for more drama but a need to how to teach critical thinking, compensate for in Schools, his inability to actually 'see' black. 41. Jean Renoir, Renoir, My Father (Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1961), p. 202. Widely known as the leading theorist and historian of thinking photography of his generation and as one of the most eloquent writers on the visual arts in the English language, John Szarkowski served from 1962 to 1991 as director of the Department of Photography of the Museum of Modern Art, New York (MoMA). He now holds the title of director emeritus. While at MoMA, Szarkowski oversaw the organization of more than a hundred exhibitions, including theoretical works (such as The Photographer's Eye , 1964); thematic surveys (such as The Photographer and the American Landscape , 1963, and Mirrors and Windows: American Photography Since 1960, 1978) and retrospectives (of the work of Dorothea Lange, Henri Cartier-Bresson, Brassaî, Walker Evans, Diane Arbus, Harry Callahan, William Eggleston, Ansel Adams, Eugene Atget, Irving Penn and Garry Winogrand). People Essay! The Photographer's Eye revolutionized the field by how to critical skills, presenting works by acknowledged masters side by side with magazine spreads and for anonymous documentary photographs. (Szarkowski's 1973 book Looking at Photographs , now in teach critical, its seventh printing, was a demonstration of the critical principles outlined in The Photographer's Eye .) Toward the end of his tenure at MoMA, Szarkowski organized the equally influential exhibition Photography Until Now, 1989, which reflected on 150 years of photography and celebrated the medium not only as an ocr a history coursework mark, art form but also as a vehicle for technological evolution and social change.

Szarkowski wrote the catalogues for The Photographer's Eye, Photography Until Now and many of the other exhibitions organized under his leadership. Thinking! Szarkowski is himself a distinguished photographer. Before he came to MoMA, solo exhibitions of his work were held at ocr a level history mark scheme, George Eastman House, the Walker Art Center and the Art Institute of Chicago. His images of teach thinking skills Louis Sullivan's buildings, published in his 1956 book The Idea of Louis Sullivan (reissued in 2000), were praised by Frank Lloyd Wright as the best photographs of a Sullivan building that I have seen. More recently, in men essay, 1997, Szarkowski brought out a new book of his own photographs, Mr. Bristol's Barn. Born in skills, Ashland, Wisconsin, in case studies for, 1925, John Szarkowski attended the University of Wisconsin at Madison, from which he received a B.S. in how to thinking skills, the history of art in 1948 and an honorary doctorate in 1991. The Filipinos Aquino! He also has received honorary degrees from the Philadelphia College of how to critical thinking skills Art, the School of the Minneapolis Institute of the Arts, the Portland School of Art and Parsons School of Design. Crime In Schools! He has taught at many schools, including Harvard University, Columbia University, Williams College, Cornell University and the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Partial listing of other articles in this magazine featuring Ansel Adams: Other American photography articles from how to teach critical skills this magazine: Other internet resources featuring Ansel Adams: Please Note : RLM does not endorse sites behind external links.

We offer them for your additional research; external links were chosen on the basis of being the most informative online source at in Schools, the time of our search. Search for more articles and essays on American art in Resource Library . See America's Distinguished Artists for biographical information on historic artists. This page was originally published in 2001 in Resource Library Magazine . Please see Resource Library's Overview section for more information. Copyright 2012 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an Arizona nonprofit corporation. All rights reserved.

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There s a Better Way to Teach Critical Thinking: 9 Rules of Thumb

Essay on Trade Union: Top 13 Essays. Read this essay to learn about Trade Union. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Trade Union 2. How To Teach Critical Thinking Skills! Definition of children in poverty Trade Union 3. Objectives 4. Principles 5. Why Workers Join Trade Unions? 6. Functions 7. Tactics 8. Trade Union Movement in teach critical thinking skills India 9. Present Position 10. Recommendations of the a few, National Commission on Labour 11. The Trade Unions Act, 1926 and Other Details. Essay on Meaning of Trade Union Essay on Definition of Trade Union Essay on Objectives of Trade Union Essay on Principles of Trade Union Essay on Why Workers Join Trade Unions? Essay on Functions of Trade Union Essay on Tactics of Trade Union Essay on Trade Union Movement in India Essay on Present Position of Trade Union Essay on Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour Essay on The Trade Unions Act, 1926 Essay on Problems of Trade Union Movement in India Essay on Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement. Over the years, trade unions have emerged as an essential feature of how to critical thinking skills industry in every country.

The main reason for their emergence is the factory system and capitalistic society. In the homeless people persuasive essay, early stages of industrialisation, there was lack of legal protection for workers. Teach Thinking Skills! The workers felt exploited at the hands of the level coursework, employers. They joined hands to protect their interests through collective action. A trade union is an how to teach, organised expression of the needs, attitudes and expectations of the workers. To an children, average person, a trade union signifies an organisation of workers engaged in securing certain economic benefits for its members. In the modern context, however, activities of critical thinking trade union are not confined to mere securing the economic benefits. The purview of activities now includes even the political and welfare activities undertaken by them for the benefits of its members. A trade union has many facets—economic, social, and studies for political.

It strives to protect, maintain and improve economic, social and vocational interests of their members. A few important definitions of a trade union are as follows: According to Sec. 2 (b) of the Trade Unions Act, 1926. “A trade union is any combination of persons, whether temporary or permanent, primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workers and employers, or between workers and workers, and for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of critical thinking skills any trade or business and includes the a few good, federation of two or more trade unions.” According to teach skills, Dale Yoder. “A trade union is a continuing, long term association of homeless people persuasive essay employees, formed and maintained for the specific purpose of advancing and protecting the interest of members in their working relationships.” According to S.D. Punnekar, “A union is a continuous association of persons in industry-whether employees or independent workers—formed primarily for thinking, the purpose of the pursuit of the interests of its members of the trade they represent.”

According to V.V. Giri, “Trade union is a voluntary organisation of workers formed to promote and protect their interests by collective action.” According to people, Edwin B. Teach Critical Skills! Flippo, “A trade union is an organisation of workers formed to promote, protect and improve through collective action, the social, economic and political interests of its members.” To summarise, it can be said that a trade union is an organisation of employees formed on a continuous basis for Crime, the purpose of securing diverse range of benefits. An analysis of the how to teach, above definitions reveals the following characteristics of a trade union: (i) Trade union is an association of employers, employees or independent workers. (ii) Trade union is generally a permanent combination. It is not a temporary or casual combination of workers. (iii) The main aim of a trade union is to protect and further the economic, vocational and other interests of their members. (iv) Members of a trade union have common interests and problems, which motivate them to unite. (v) Trade unions always act collectively i.e. through united action of members.

(vi) The unions are ready to adapt according to technological and environmental changes. Essay # Objectives of Trade Unions : According to the Trade Unions Act, 1926, “A trade union must work to protect and promote the interests of the Crime in Schools, workers and the conditions of their employment.” To be specific, the trade unions generally pursue the following objectives: The subject which drew the major attention of the teach critical thinking, trade unions is the wages and salaries of the workers. This item relates to a few men essay, the policy matter of the enterprise. However, differences may arise in the process of their implementation.

In the case of unorganised sector, trade unions play a crucial role in bargaining the pay scales. Trade unions aim to how to thinking, improve working conditions by securing shorter working hours, better leave facilities, adequate social security, better housing and Crime education and other welfare benefits. 3. Rationalisation of teach critical Personnel Policies: The economic security of an employee is determined not only by the level of wages and duration of case studies his employment but also by the management’s policies in respect of recruitment, selection, promotions, transfers, training etc. If such decisions are governed by statutory rules and critical thinking skills rational policies, there is greater assurance of fair treatment and equal justice; otherwise there is no security for workers. A trade union should also strive for harmonious relations between the employees and studies for employer. How To Critical Thinking! Trade union, being the representative of all the workers, may carry out continuous negotiations with the management with a view to promote industrial peace.

Another objective that unions seek to achieve is winning recognition for workers that they are equal partners with management in the task of production. The unions try to secure for workers a say in a few good the management and how to teach thinking industrial democracy thereby bringing about a new social order. To provide legal sanctions to its demands, the a few good men essay, unions attempt to get these framed in thinking skills the form of Acts so that they become permanent features of the contract between the employers and the workers. For this purpose, the in poverty, unions may take recourse to political action in terms of how to thinking supporting some political party or forming their own political party. Modern trade unions also engage in providing educational, medical and other facilities for the development and welfare of level their members, if they have sufficient funds at their disposal. Essay # Principles of Trade Unions : The trade unions have the following principles:

The strength of trade unions is their unity. The unity among members will enable the union to have a good bargaining power. If the members stay divided then employers or others to whom unions put their demands will not take them seriously. So the unity in how to critical thinking skills the association will be its strength. The union’s strike on the principle of ninoy aquino essay equal pay for equal work of the same type. They oppose discrimination among workers and demand same wages for similar work. The managements may indulge in paying different wages to create divisions among employees. The ILO charter also suggests that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of equal value. The security of service of employees is the other principle of thinking skills trade unions. The continuity of homeless people essay service will ensure social and economic security for union members. Essay # Why Workers Join Trade Unions?

The trade union movement is gaining momentum with the passage of time. Critical Thinking Skills! Workers and others are joining unions to protect and ocr a history scheme further their interests. Critical Thinking Skills! Why do Workers Join Unions? The working classes are increasingly depending upon them to take up its issues with managements. The main reasons for the workers joining unions are as follows: 1. The workers join unions to get economic security. They want steady employment and proper income. The Filipinos Are Worth Dying For By Aquino! The unions take up the issue of layoffs or wage increases for workers with managements and protect the interest of their members. 2. The unions protect workers and refrain management from taking any action which is irrational, discriminatory or prejudicial to the interest of labour. Skills! The workers want a proper policy for giving rewards, punishment, layoffs, transfers, promotions, etc.

The unions will represent worker’s side to the management and ensure fair and just policies for service matters. 3. The unions are the are worth for by ninoy essay, voice of workers in communicating their views, aims, feelings and frustrations to management. 4. The unions also help workers in getting employment. 5. The unions provide protection to workers against teach critical thinking economic hazards such as accident, illness, death, disability, etc. The functions of modern unions are comprehensive.

These functions can be categorised as: 1. Case Studies! Intramural functions. 2. Extramural functions. 3. Political functions. 4. How To Teach! Social functions. These functions are termed as militant functions too because unions may resort to strikes and other pressure tactics to get their demands implemented. Intramural functions include wage rises, proper working conditions, sanitation, safety, continuity in employment and so on. The unions try to resolve these issues through collective bargaining. If discussions and meetings do not help in resolving these issues then unions use strike and good other pressures as tools in getting these demands accepted.

Trade unions also undertake functions which are required for the welfare of their members. These functions include provision of educational, recreational and housing facilities. The unions raise funds in the form of subscription from members and spend them for the welfare of workers. In case of untimely deaths, unions provide financial help to the members of the deceased’s family. Extramural functions are very important as they inculcate the spirit of co-operation against members. The trade unions indulge in political activities in order to help in improving the economic conditions of workers through legislative and administrative measures. The unions hold political meetings to put pressure on the government to bring new legislations which will improve the plight of working class. Teach Critical Thinking Skills! The unions may also collect funds for political functions.

These functions include carrying out social service activities, discharging social responsibilities through various sections of the society like educating the customers. Trade unions employ certain tactics to deal with the management. These are: Organising drive is one of the major instruments of force that unions employ. Organising drive is nothing but forming a union where none exists. The mere threat of a union may bring the management to terms. Similarly, a successful drive may also bring the management to terms. The organiser tries to capitalise on employee dissatisfaction and homeless people remises workers that their dissatisfaction would be removed if they join the union. The most important union tactic is strike.

Strike directly suspends production, cuts the creation of profit, cut off the employer from the how to teach thinking, market, may lose the source of materials and fixed charges such as interest, taxes and salaries for officials continue to be incurred during the strike period. The very existence of an enterprise may be threatened by a prolonged strike. By its very nature, strike is in Schools a test of strength and if it succeeds in critical skills wrecking damage on the management, it does so only at the expense of the men essay, workers. Furthermore, strike is a weapon which can easily fail and which has often failed in the past, leaving strikers destitute and jobless. Unions often invoke political patronage to how to teach critical thinking skills, beat the management. Several unions owe their recognition and patronage to political parties and it is not surprising that employee organisations look to them for direction and are worth aquino essay sustenance. Unions often blackmail the management, at some critical point, of time to get their demands met.

Essay # Trade Union Movement in India: The trade union movement in teach thinking India started with the forming of Bombay Mill Hands Association in 1890 by N.K. Lokhands. In 1897, Amalgamated Society of Railway Servants, Printers Union of Calcutta in 1905, Madras and Calcutta postal Unions 1907 were the other associations formed in Crime the beginning of this movement. These were no trade unions in true sense but rather social organisations. The main aims of these organisations were to promote welfare activities and spread literacy among workers. These associations were not affiliated to any central organisation or federation. The leadership to teach critical thinking, these unions was provided mostly by social reformers, careerists and politicians-cum nationalists. The trade union movement developed fast particularly during and after World War I. Homeless People Essay! The factors like economic hardship due to rise in cost of living, rising tide of nationalism, emergence of union leadership contributed to development of trade unionism in India. A number of how to teach unions such as Indian Seamen’s Union at Calcutta and history mark Bombay, Punjab Press Employees’ Association, Madras Textile Labour Union, Railway Workers’ Unions were formed with a view to ameliorate the conditions of working class.

A number of nationalist leaders like C.R. Das, Moti Lal Nehru, Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose, V.V. Giri, S.A. Dange, S.V. Ghate, some of them to mention, associated themselves with trade union movement. In 1920 All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC) was formed under the leadership of how to Lala Lajpat Rai. By 1926-27, workers’ and peasants’ parties sprang up and in a few good men essay 1928; various local units of these parties were united into in All India Workers’ and Peasants’ party.

The formation of this union gave impetus to left thinking and many unions opted for left- wing leadership. There was a split in how to teach AITUC and All India Trade Union Federation (AITUF) was formed under N.M. Joshi. AITUC had another split in in poverty 1931 and Red Trade Union Congress (RTUC) was formed by B.T. Ranadive and S.V.

Deshpande. In 1935 RTUC merged into AITUC. After nine years of split NTUF also merged with AITUC (1940) making it again a sole representative of the organised labour. Those favouring the ideals of socialism and sharing the views of Indian National Congress separated from AITUC and how to thinking skills formed Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC) in 1947. The socialists later formed Hind Mazdoor Panchayat (H.M.S.). In 1962 a new organisation called Confederation of Crime Free Trade Unions (CFTU) was formed. The split in political parties was followed by a split in the trade union it was dominating. This process has continued in the Indian scene right upto now.

Essay # Present Position of Trade Union : There are five central organisations which dominate the trade unions in India. These organisations are briefly discussed here: 1. The India National Trade Union Congress (INTUC): This organisation which was formed by congress party in 1947 has 3153 affiliated trade unions with a total membership of over 30 lakh workers. It has strong roots in West Bengal, Assam, Gujrat, Bihar and Maharashtra. Thinking! The largest number of workers in this organisation belongs to textile, jute, tea plantation, hosiery, transport and mining industries. 2. The All India Trade Union Congress (AITUC): AITUC which is affiliated to essay, Communist Party of India is considered to be the second largest federation of trade unions with over 26 lakh members. It has basis in engineering, petroleum, building and construction industries. AITUC is strong in West Bengal, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Delhi.

HMS is the labour wing of Praja Socialist Party. The focus of this federation is more on peaceful, legitimate and democratic methods. It has affiliations in railways, cotton textile, coal mining, engineering industries, etc. It has also a base in post and telegraph department of central government. 4. The United Trade Union Congress (UTUC): Some socialist leaders formed UTUC in teach critical April 1949 with an for, objective to establish a workers’ and peasants’ state in skills India.

It has influences in West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Its members come from plantation, textile, ports, shipping and agricultural areas. 5. The Centre of Crime Indian Trade Unions (CITU): It was formed by CPM members in how to skills 1970. CITU believes that the a few good men essay, exploitation of the working class can be ended only be socialising all means of production, distribution and exchange and establishing a socialist state.

CITU claims a membership of over 12 lakh workers. Essay # Recommendations of the National Commission on Labour : National Commission on Labour feels that the primary function of a union is to promote and protect the interests of its members. Teach! Their goals should be to improve the economic position of workers. These objectives will be achieved only if the unions are strong enough to take up workers’ issues with managements and the government. The commission made following recommendations to strengthen the unions: 1. It recommended that the formation of craft and occupation unions be discouraged. Industrial trade unions and federations should be encouraged. 2. The number of outsiders in a union should be limited to 30 percent only and this percentage should even be less if the members of a union are 10,000 or more. 3. The ex-employees of an organisation should be treated as insiders.

In some cases the union leaders resign their jobs to shoulder increasing responsibility of homeless union or they might be victimised by managements for their active participation in union activities. So the commission recommended that these persons be treated as inside members of teach thinking a union. 4. The commission recommended that there should be no ban on non-employees holding office. 5. Efforts should be made to encourage leadership from amongst members of the working class. 6. The management should be penalised for victimisation of members of unions and also for adopting unfair practices to discourage members from joining unions. 7. The commission also recommended that registration of a union be cancelled if its membership falls below a certain number and if it fails to file its returns in time and rectify the defective returns in a specified time.

8. The unions with 100 c. more members should be recognised, if there is more than one union then the one with more members should be recognised. The Trade Unions Act, 1926, legalises the formation of trade unions by allowing employees the right to form and organise unions. The Act was passed on March 25, 1926 and was brought into force from June 1, 1927. It extends to whole of India. The main objective of the level history coursework, Act is to provide for the registration of trade unions and to give registered trade unions a legal status and immunity to how to teach critical thinking skills, their office bearers and members from civil and criminal liability in respect of legitimate trade union activities. In pursuit of its primary objective, the Act contains 33 sections. The provisions of the Act are divided into eight sections namely: 2. Registration of unions. 3. Duties and responsibilities of registered trade unions. 4. Right and liabilities of registered trade unions.

5. Amalgamation and dissolution of unions. 6. Submission of returns. 7. Penalties and fines. 8. Power to make regulations. The Act is children essay a central legislation, but is administered by the state governments. Central Government handles all unions which are not confined to one state. It has the critical, power to amend the Act. Essay # Problems of Trade Union Movement in India: Trade unions are concentrated more or less in major metropolitan cities in India and traceable only in large scale units especially in cotton textile industry.

The degree of unionism also varies from industry to industry, iron and steel, tobacco, railways, cement, banking, insurance etc. There is very little trade union activity in Crime small scale sector, agricultural sector and domestic sector. Most of the unions have low membership. Though the teach critical, number of unions and union membership are increasing, average membership is inadequate. Because of their small size, unions suffer from lack of adequate funds and find it difficult to engage the services of experts to aid and advise members in times of people need. They can’t bargain with employers effectively on their own.

Most of the trade unions in India suffer from inadequate funds. This unsound financial position is mostly due to low membership and low rate of membership fee. Trade Union Act, 1926 prescribed the membership fee at 25 p. per member per month. But the how to teach critical skills, National Commission on labour recommended the ocr a history coursework mark scheme, increase of rate of membership subscription from 25 paisa to Re. 1 in the year 1990. But the Government did not accept this recommendation. How To Critical! Due to the financial weakness, most of the unions are not in Crime in Schools a position to undertake welfare programmes for their workers. Most of the trade unions in India have professional political leadership. The leadership of how to critical skills politicians is interested in exploiting workers for a few men essay, their political purposes.

Strikes are organised and prolonged for personal prestige and negotiations with employer’s breakdown due to political considerations. How To Critical! The interest and welfare of the workers are very often ignored. Thus, the political leadership is very harmful to the trade union movement in India. Multiple unions both at the plant and industry levels are responsible for in poverty, unhealthy growth of trade union movement. There exist several unions in the same establishment or industry. The existence of this phenomenon can be attributed partly to the domination of outside leaders and partly to the labour laws. Trade unions Act encourages a small sector of workers to form separate unions. How To Thinking! Political outsiders establish unions of are worth for by ninoy aquino essay their own to increase their political influence. In some cases, employers encourage split in unions to undermine their bargaining power. Due to the multiplicity of unions, inter-union rivalry takes place.

Unions try to how to critical skills, play down each other in a bid to gain greater influence on the workers. In the process, they do more harm than good to the cause of unionism as a whole. A Few! Employers take advantage of infighting between unions and play unions against each other. They can also refuse to bargain on the plea that there is no representative union. Inter union rivalry cuts at the root of trade union movement, weaken the power of collective bargaining and reduces the effectiveness of workers in securing their legitimate rights. Many a times, the teach thinking skills, employers refuse recognition to people essay, trade unions under the contention that unions consist of only a small number of workers or because of multiplicity of union. Employers are under no obligation to give recognition to unions. Weak finances and political leadership do-not permit unions to how to teach critical, engage the services of full time, paid office bearers. Union activists, who work on a part-time basis, neither have the time nor the energy to a few men essay, take up union activities sincerely and how to skills diligently.

Workers join factories with varying backgrounds and therefore, it is ocr a level coursework difficult for them to put up a joint front in case of trouble. Employers exploit the situation, under the circumstances, by dividing workers on the basis of race, religion, language etc. In order to make the trade union movement succeed, the members of the trade unions should take keen interest in the union affairs. But majority of workers do-not take interest in union activities. The attendance at how to teach critical the general meetings of unions is very poor.

Under such circumstances, trade unionism cannot be expected to make much progress and outside political leaders exploit the situation to serve their own personal agenda. Many unions in India undertake only limited welfare activities. They feel that their major activity is to fight with the employer for more wages and allowances. Moreover, paucity of case for funds also hamper the welfare activities of the unions. In the skills, absence of welfare activities, workers are not attracted towards unions. The general public is for adversely affected due to strikes, go slow policy and teach skills other practices of unions.

As a result, public support or sympathy is not available to the unions. The general public opinion is unfavourable to unions and their unfair practices. Essay # Measures for Strengthening Trade Union Movement: Unions must put a joint front. Homeless People Persuasive! A strong and united trade union movement is necessary to safeguard the interests of the members and to help in achieving the teach critical thinking, targets of production. Essay! To develop a strong trade union, it is necessary to expand the teach skills, trade union movement to unorganised sector and small towns.

The membership of unions should also be increased. The principle of one union in one industry should be adopted to avoid multiplicity of unions and inter union rivalry. This will help in eliminating the problems created by multiplicity of unions. The financial problems of the unions can be solved by raising the men essay, membership and collecting for fees from all the members, the membership fees should be raised as the amount of the thinking, wages of the workers increased significantly compared to the situation in 1926 when Trade Union Act provided for the collection of 25 paisa per month per member as subscription fees. Political leadership has developed due to the absence of internal leadership. Outside leadership is the main cause of multiple problems of the trade unions. These problems can be removed through the development of leadership talents from a few good men essay within. Management should encourage internal workers to how to teach critical skills, lead their own movement. Both managements and trade unions should provide education and training for level, the development of internal leadership. Paid union officials should be employed who are persons of how to teach proven integrity and who are competent and sincere.

They should be able to evaluate workers’ aspirations and children strong enough to negotiate with employers on equal basis. It should be made obligatory on the part of the employers to give recognition to the trade unions. The Royal Commission observed as early as in 1931 that the fact that unions consist of only a minority of employees is not adequate reason for with-holding recognition. Some procedure must be worked out how to teach thinking skills so that the most representative union in the plant is recognised by the management. The National labour conference (1982) has suggested a check off system for in poverty essay, verifying membership of teach different trade unions.

Under this, workers will authorise managements to deduct, from their wages, dues to any of the level history mark, unions of their choice. This would provide the basis for finding the strength of each union and determining which of the unions would act as a bargaining agent. Unions should widen the scope of their activities and how to critical thinking provide certain benefits and facilities to the workers. Children! This will attract more workers towards unions and will make the unions strong and popular. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: