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Extracting business value via ORSA. July 2017 | FEATURE | RISK MANAGEMENT. Financier Worldwide Magazine. In the realm of decisionmaking and strategic analysis, the Own Risk Solvency Assessment (ORSA) tool is a valuable resource for writing helper helping insurers conduct risk and solvency assessments. Methodology Mistakes? This series of processes and procedures is designed to writing helper, ensure that an entity’s overall solvency needs are being met. The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) characterises ORSA as “an internal process undertaken by an insurer or insurance group to assess the adequacy of its risk management and current and methodology in a paper prospective solvency positions under normal and severe stress scenarios. An ORSA will require insurers to analyse all reasonably foreseeable and relevant material risks (i.e., underwriting, credit, market, operational and liquidity risks) that could have an impact on online helper an insurer’s ability to meet its policyholder obligations”. In terms of reach, ORSA regimes are now in force or under development in most of the significant insurance markets across the world. In Europe, for example, ORSA is an integral part of the Solvency II Directive (2009/138/EC) – the European Union (EU) law which codifies and harmonises the EU insurance regulation – as well as being a key component of the Pillar 2 framework.

Given its prevalence, the writing on eye development of ORSA implementation and the ability to derive tangible value from the processes and procedures involved is a key concern for insurers, not only in terms of risk assessment purposes, scenario analysis and data management, but also in guiding senior decisionmaking. Writing? Indeed, the application of an ORSA is regarded as a ‘top-down’ process, with board and senior management in methodology in dissertations the loop and fully responsible. A process requiring accuracy and precision, an ORSA, according to the 2016 Thomson Reuters report ‘Understanding ORSA – a global risk regulatory regime for online helper insurers’, must: (i) be proportional to the nature, scale and in Schools complexity of the business concerned; (ii) be assured through internal or external independent review; (iii) encompass all reasonably foreseeable and relevant material risks, creating a holistic risk profile that includes those risks for which there is quantitative information, as well as those that are more difficult to quantify, like operational and business risk (for groups it will include risks that arise from the structure of the group and events within it, and avoid double counting of capitals); (iv) compare the organisation’s risk profile with the risk appetite as set out by the board, demonstrating that the available capital resources are adequate when compared to online writing helper, the risk profile; and (v) be forward-looking and able to assess risk and capital resources for methodology the full period of the helper company’s strategic business plan. Dissertation Literature Review Outline? The Thomson Reuters report also states that, as ORSA is online helper a tool for supervisors to common methodology mistakes, understand the risk exposure and solvency position of insurers, organisations must provide supervisors with appropriate information to online writing helper, demonstrate the adequacy and soundness of their enterprise risk management (ERM) framework and processes. Furthermore, the report suggests that an in Schools, ORSA should be undertaken regularly, probably on an annual basis, as well as after any significant changes in online writing helper an organisation’s risk profile. Having fundamentally changed the way in which management teams approach strategic planning as well as their enterprise risk and capital management, the overriding challenge posed by ORSA is how insurers can extract the maximum value from essay on eye, its application to improve their risk and solvency position. ORSA has an important role to play within an evolving risk landscape, with a number of online, implementation challenges facing insurers. These include major regulatory and in dissertations political risks on the horizon, as well as continuous pressure on online returns. “The forward-looking element of writing on eye, ORSA is critical to online, ensuring all risks to the business are robustly assessed and that the insurer remains within its board’s risk appetite and appropriately capitalised as it implements its strategy,” says Mariano Selvaggi, the insurance lead at examples section in research paper Bovill. “A major implementation challenge is to align ORSA with other business reporting and strategic planning cycles to writing helper, make it a useful management tool rather than a regulatory exercise. Also, firms often struggle to complete a sufficiently robust assessment of risks over the longer time-horizon, including the identification of emerging risks.” Board ownership and involvement are key factors of an ORSA that can successfully mitigate risks in the long-term – helping to on eye, streamline processes to focus on the main messages and avoid lengthy reports, which can often obscure key information. In addition, ORSA dashboards and effective visuals can engage boards to retain oversight throughout.

For Gokul Sudarsana, a senior manager in the actuarial, risk analytics practice at Deloitte, the role of the corporate risk function to an insurance organisation has evolved substantially over the last decade, with ORSA among the more high-profile manifestations in this space. “A driving force is the writing helper trend toward risk-based prudential supervision, such as the Solvency II regime and common mistakes in dissertations the increased focus on risk governance under Pillar 2, which has transformed corporate risk from a compliance function to a key decisionmaker,” he asserts. “This is a central theme and outcome of the ORSA, whereby insurers must not only complete a solvency self-assessment based on writing their own risk management practices, but must also demonstrate that this analysis is integrated into their capital and strategic planning processes – the so-called ‘use test’. Most companies can handle the quantitative challenges of assessing capital adequacy under various scenarios; however, the real challenge to a successful implementation is risk culture.” Ultimately, senior managers are responsible for getting the organisational culture right by setting a tone at the top which encourages the cross-functional collaboration that is essential to turning the ORSA from a compliance exercise into a value-added management process. Undoubtedly, an ORSA is a valuable tool for embedding the risk management function across the on eye donation breadth of a business. “Advanced risk functions use ORSA to structure more intelligent conversations about material risks and online helper capital planning with the of methodology section board,” explains Mr Selvaggi. “Since regulators have also adopted a non-prescriptive approach to ORSA, firms do have the required flexibility to make the process and report both proportionate and reflective of their own idiosyncrasies. Insurers have strengthened their scenario analysis and stress testing capabilities, however this remains an area of relative weakness; particularly reverse stress testing as firms find it difficult to online writing, contemplate feasible extreme scenarios in common which the world looks significantly different from what they know. The consideration of potential remedial management actions in these extreme scenarios is online also paramount.” For Mr Sudarsana, the value of the ORSA process is in assessing capital adequacy and forecasting a firm’s solvency position. “Pillar 1 quantitative requirements are primarily supervisory metrics that are intended to ensure the common methodology financial system is adequately capitalised on aggregate,” he affirms. “They do not necessarily reflect, nor are they intended to reflect, the true risk profile of each specific company. A robust risk governance framework, and corresponding ORSA, is required to appropriately represent a company’s solvency position, taking into account portfolio-specific attributes and writing company-specific processes not captured under Pillar 1.” One area of writing for college creative writing, contention with ORSA is that insurers can see the process primarily as a regulatory requirement.

In this respect, while some good practices have emerged over the years, insufficient alignment between ORSA and online helper practical business planning and reporting cycles is still an issue in some quarters. “They should inform each other, but this is for college creative not always the case,” says Mr Selvaggi. “For example, an ORSA update is needed when the business considers significant events or strategic decisions, such as an acquisition, to writing helper, ensure the ORSA reflects any changes in the risk profile of the business. However, insurers are not always operationally equipped to do this efficiently, as it may be very costly and time consuming to re-run an internal model.” Another operational challenge is the examples paper need to ensure that board members have a sound understanding of the details and key assumptions which underpin the ORSA, so as to challenge conclusions effectively, regardless of whether the online assessment is based on internal models or a standard formula. For many organisations, of in Schools, course, value is the writing helper holy grail. Of Methodology? In terms of an ORSA, this means integrating the process with existing capital and strategy policies and procedures, so as to extract the maximum value from its implementation. “Firms should try to integrate ORSA as much as possible within strategic and capital planning processes, so that these analyses inform each other and maximise efficiencies,” suggests Mr Selvaggi. “All the good work and information that underpin the ORSA should be leveraged for other regulatory and statutory reporting purposes. Online Writing? In terms of boards, they are expected to understand key inter-linkages between business strategy, risks and writing on eye donation capital to make informed decisions, but timely and online writing sound management information is clearly a prerequisite.” While it is true that some insurers have a narrow perspective, viewing the ORSA as nothing more than a regulatory reporting requirement, other, more forward-thinking firms see the process as a good opportunity to enhance their strategic and what research paper operational planning. Moreover, companies that successfully implement a value-added ORSA recognise that risk and capital are inextricably linked, and that any organisational model in which the corporate risk and corporate finance functions operate in isolation cannot extract maximum value from the process. “It is important to online helper, represent the prompts students creative writing ORSA as a management process rather than a regulatory requirement,” says Mr Sudarsana. “At a minimum, results of the ORSA should directly inform the company’s risk appetite statement, from writing, which risk decisions are ultimately made. This feedback loop between solvency assessment and risk strategy is essential to a robust risk governance framework.

Companies will find that the prompts integration of ORSA into this process adds a new lens into capital optimisation, and in order to truly appreciate and extract value from the writing ORSA, companies will need to include this new perspective in their strategic decisions.” A formal requirement in Europe since January 2016, the ORSA is fast becoming an internationally adopted concept – for example, it is enshrined in Insurance Core Principle (ICP) 16 of the International Association of Insurance Supervisors – and a purveyor of emerging good practice across the forward-looking risk and capital assessment landscape. Adding value to writing for college, the regulatory and risk management toolkits of writing, many insurers, the ORSA shows all the signs of being on an upward trajectory in global adoption.

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Beauty of online writing helper a Flower “We can complain because rose bushes have thorns, or rejoice because thorn bushes have roses . Prompts For College. . - Abraham Lincoln” Most important living organism other than human beings are animals and plants. Flowers and weeds have a huge role in helper life that they tend to play. Dissertation. Flowers and weeds are completely different in which they grow to reproduce or grow to online helper, destroy. Knowingly that weeds also reproduce. Flowers are known to be a brightly colored and conspicuous example of such a part of. Flower , Human , Organism 1107 Words | 3 Pages. Flower arrangement is the combination of several elements to produce a visually pleasing display of fresh, silk or dried flowers . . Flowers are arranged in several basic designs, including vertical, horizontal, triangular, crescent, and oval arrangements. Other options include a minimal arrangement, such as the lazy “S” or “Hogarth’s Curve,” and free-standing arrangements. In A Research. Hogarth’s curve is named for writing English painter William Hogarth who introduced designs shaped like the curves of the letter “s” into.

Curve , Flower , Inflorescence 1059 Words | 4 Pages. The Flowers By: Alice Walker Characters: * Myop – daughter of a sharecropper. * Dead man – an old corpse found in the woods. What Methodology Paper. . Setting: * Farm – where the parents of Myop work. * Woods – where Myop wanders to writing, find flowers . Symbolism: * Summer – light-heartedness, carefree outlook in life the Crime most children hold. * Flower – innocence, universal symbol of joy and life. * Dead man – loss of helper innocence, reality of life. Methodology In Dissertations. * Noose – impossibility of remaining innocent. . Child , Childhood , Life 1232 Words | 4 Pages. A flower , sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, . also called angiosperms). Online Writing. The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of common mistakes sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of online helper sperm and egg from the same flower ). Some flowers produce diaspores. Flower , Flowering plant , Gynoecium 1007 Words | 3 Pages. Flowers For Algernon: Quarter Four Book Review: Flowers for Algernon, is a science fiction novel written by of methodology Daniel Keys. Online Writing Helper. . Taking place in the mid 1960s, the story revolves around Charlie Gordon, a mentally retarded young man from New York, whose life is review, completely altered when he becomes the test subject for an intelligence science experiment.

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Her short story, The Flowers , is from writing helper, 1973, a time where the Civil Rights Movement was trying to create an examples of methodology section paper, equal society, where blacks and online writing whites could live peacefully together. It was also a time, where many African-American people lived in is a research paper fear of the racism of the white (reportingcivilrights). A Story , English-language films , Flowers 1093 Words | 3 Pages. Flowers for Algernon In his novel, Flowers for Algernon, Daniel Keyes, tells the story of Charlie Gordon, a mentally retarded . Online Writing Helper. 32 year old man. An experimental surgery takes him from the darkness of stupidity, into the bright light of intelligence only to force him back into the dark. Enabling him to achieve a state if higher intelligence is thought to be an literature outline, improvement of online Charlie’s life. If it really is for the better becomes uncertain. Crime In Schools. Before the helper operation, Charlie’s intelligence and emotions. Charly , Daniel Keyes , Family 975 Words | 3 Pages.

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Charlie learns the ups and . downs of the life of writing a genius and was happy and carefree in his innocence. Eventually he learns shame and writing prompts writing it is the online writing only thing he remembers at writing prompts for college, the end of the story. All Charlie knew was that he wanted to be smart and this operation could get him his greatest desire in one easy procedure. Before long, the scientists first try this experiment on a mouse to. Flowers for Algernon , Human , Intelligence 1727 Words | 5 Pages. ?Shaminika Paris Ballard English 201.722 Professor Gardner 4/6/12 Essay 2` RELUCTANT TO CHANGE It is common for an individual to find comfort . in familiar surroundings after being faced with a traumatic experience. In William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily, the subject of the online story is in Schools, Emily Grierson, whose family in the South was once considered to be the closest thing to online, true aristocracy.

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It has a single big . flower as the focal point and drooping flower branches are added to each side. Rose is the writing main flower used as the focal point in this type of flower arrangement. Horizontal flower arrangements are very low and hence are suitable for center table decorations. Vertical arrangement- It is a very tall flower arrangement. Very tall stems of flowers and what is a methodology in a paper leaves like tulips, roses and carnations.

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?The nightingale and the rose 1. What is the student’s major? His major is phylosophy. 2. Is he experienced in mistakes love? No, he isn’t. The student . is the symbol of the young and naive person who is, at first, passioned by his philosophy books before he gets attracted in the arms of Love. 3. What troubles the writing young student at the beginning of the story? The student is in Schools, sad because the daughter of the proffessor promised to dance with him on condition that he brought her red rose , but he did not find any. A Story , English-language films , Interpersonal relationship 2185 Words | 5 Pages.

? Jessica Manginelli English 9H Per.1 12-04-12 Flowers It was the first day of Teacher Appreciation Week in 3rd grade, and no one really did . anything for their teacher except maybe give them a hug and say thanks, or maybe the occasional suck up would give them candy. So when Lamont walked in with a bouquet of rainbow colored flowers , everyone was highly impressed that such a “bad boy” would do something so kind for his teacher. That day he shocked everyone who paid attention, but his actions made. 2000s pop songs , Abuse , Bad 865 Words | 3 Pages. AS YOU LIKE IT HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE PLAY Introduction to Shakespeare When I read Shakespeare I am struck with wonder That such trivial people . should muse and thunder In such lovely language.

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UML, le langage de modlisation objet unifi. N de la fusion des mthodes objet dominantes (OMT, Booch et OOSE), puis normalis par l'OMG en 1997, UML est rapidement devenu un standard incontournable. Online Writing! UML n'est pas l'origine des concepts objet, mais il en en donne une dfinition plus formelle et apporte la dimension mthodologique qui faisait dfaut l'approche objet. Le but de cette prsentation n'est pas de faire l'apologie d'UML, ni de restreindre UML sa notation graphique, car le vritable intrt d'UML est ailleurs ! En effet, matriser la notation graphique d'UML n'est pas une fin en soi. Prompts Students Creative Writing! Ce qui est primordial, c'est d'utiliser les concepts objet bon escient et d'appliquer la dmarche d'analyse correspondante.

Cette prsentation a donc pour objectif, d'une part, de montrer en quoi l'approche objet et UML constituent un plus et d'autre part, d'exposer comment utiliser UML dans la pratique, c'est--dire comment intgrer UML dans un processus de dveloppement et comment modliser avec UML. Les textes qui composent la prsentation sont (volontairement) trs synthtiques, la manire de transparents qu'on projette au cours d'une formation. Il faut donc savoir lire entre les lignes, car il ne s'agit l que d'un tour d'horizon. Online! Cette prsentation ne se substitue donc ni aux formations plus acadmiques, ni aux ouvrages de rfrence. Article lu fois. Publié le 22 octobre 2007 - Mis à jour le 14 septembre 2009. I-A-1. Methodology Mistakes! Approche fonctionnelle vs. Helper! approche objet^ I-A-1-a.

La dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un problme informatique : une approche intuitive^ Exemple de dcoupe fonctionnelle d'un logiciel ddi la gestion d'une bibliothque : Le logiciel est compos d'une hirarchie de fonctions, qui ensemble, fournissent les services dsirs, ainsi que de donnes qui reprsentent les lments manipuls (livres, etc…). Mistakes! Logique, cohrent et intuitif. I-A-1-b. Online Writing! Le plus de l'approche fonctionnelle : la factorisation des comportements^ Une dcoupe fonctionnelle intelligente consiste factoriser certains comportements communs du logiciel. In Research! En d'autres termes : pour raliser une fonction du logiciel, on helper, peut utiliser un ensemble d'autres fonctions, dj disponibles, pour peu qu'on rende ces dernires un tant soit peu gnriques. Is A Methodology Research Paper! Gnial ! I-A-1-c.

Le revers de la mdaille : maintenance complexe en cas d'volution^ Factoriser les comportements n'a malheureusement pas que des avantages. Writing! Les fonctions sont devenues interdpendantes : une simple mise jour du logiciel un point donn, peut impacter en cascade une multitude d'autres fonctions. Dissertation! On peut minorer cet impact, pour peu qu'on utilise des fonctions plus gnriques et des structures de donnes ouvertes. Online Writing Helper! Mais respecter ces contraintes rend l'criture du logiciel et sa maintenance plus complexe. En cas d'volution majeure du logiciel (passage de la gestion d'une bibliothque celle d'une mdiathque par exemple), le scnario est encore pire. For College Writing! Mme si la structure gnrale du logiciel reste valide, la multiplication des points de maintenance, engendre par le chanage des fonctions, rend l'adaptation trs laborieuse. Online Writing! Le logiciel doit tre retouch dans sa globalit : I-A-1-d. Writing Prompts For College Writing! La sparation des donnes et des traitements : le pige !^ Examinons le problme de l'volution de code fonctionnel plus en dtail.

Faire voluer une application de gestion de bibliothque pour grer une mdiathque, afin de prendre en compte de nouveaux types d'ouvrages (cassettes vido, CD-ROM, etc. Online Writing Helper! ), ncessite : de faire voluer les structures de donnes qui sont manipules par les fonctions, d'adapter les traitements, qui ne manipulaient l'origine qu'un seul type de document (des livres). Il faudra donc modifier toutes les portions de code qui utilisent la base documentaire, pour grer les donnes et les actions propres aux diffrents types de documents. Il faudra par exemple modifier la fonction qui ralise l'dition des lettres de rappel (une lettre de rappel est une mise en demeure, qu'on envoie automatiquement aux personnes qui tardent rendre un ouvrage emprunt). Writing On Eye! Si l'on dsire que le dlai avant rappel varie selon le type de document emprunt, il faut prvoir une rgle de calcul pour chaque type de document. En fait, c'est la quasi-totalit de l'application qui devra tre adapte, pour grer les nouvelles donnes et raliser les traitements correspondants. Online Helper! Et cela, chaque fois qu'on dcidera de grer un nouveau type de document ! I-A-1-e.

1re amlioration : rassembler les valeurs qui caractrisent un type, dans le type^ Une solution relativement lgante la multiplication des branches conditionnelles et des redondances dans le code (consquence logique d'une trop grande ouverture des donnes), consiste tout simplement centraliser dans les structures de donnes, les valeurs qui leurs sont propres : Quoi de plus logique ? En effet, le dlai avant dition d'une lettre de rappel est bien une caractristique propre tous les ouvrages grs par notre application. Mais cette solution n'est pas encore optimale ! I-A-1-f. Crime In Schools! 2me amlioration : centraliser les traitements associs un type, auprs du type^ Pourquoi ne pas aussi rassembler dans une mme unit physique les types de donnes et tous les traitements associs ? Que se passerait-il par exemple si l'on centralisait dans un mme fichier, la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents et la fonction de calcul du dlai avant rappel ? Cela nous permettrait de retrouver en un clin d'oeil le bout de code qui est charg de calculer le dlai avant rappel d'un document, puisqu'il se trouve au plus prs de la structure de donnes concerne.

Ainsi, si notre mdiathque devait grer un nouveau type d'ouvrage, il suffirait de modifier une seule fonction (qu'on sait retrouver instannment), pour assurer la prise en compte de ce nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel. Online Writing! Plus besoin de fouiller partout dans le code. Ecrit en ces termes, notre logiciel sera plus facile maintenir et bien plus lisible. Prompts For College! Le stockage et le calcul du dlai avant rappel des documents, est dsormais assur par une seule et unique unit physique (quelques lignes de code, rapidement identifiables). Pour accder la caractristique dlai avant rappel d'un document, il suffit de rcuprer la valeur correspondante parmi les champs qui dcrivent le document.

Pour assurer la prise en compte d'un nouveau type de document dans le calcul du dlai avant rappel, il suffit de modifier une seule fonction, situe au mme endroit que la structure de donnes qui dcrit les documents : En rsum : centraliser les donnes d'un type et les traitements associs, dans une mme unit physique, permet de limiter les points de maintenance dans le code et facilite l'accs l'information en cas d'volution du logiciel : Les modifications que nous avons apport notre logiciel de gestion de mdiathque, nous ont amen transformer ce qui tait l'origine une structure de donnes, manipule par des fonctions, en une entit autonome, qui regroupe un ensemble de proprits cohrentes et de traitements associs. Helper! Une telle entit s'appelle. Dissertation Review Outline! un objet et constitue le concept fondateur de l'approche du mme nom ! Un objet est une entit aux frontires prcises qui possde une identit (un nom). Online! Un ensemble d'attributs caractrise l'tat de l'objet. Prompts Students Creative! Un ensemble d'oprations (mthodes) en dfinissent le comportement. Writing! Un objet est une instance de classe (une occurrence d'un type abstrait). Common Methodology In Dissertations! Une classe est un type de donnes abstrait, caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes des objets et permettant de crer des objets possdant ces proprits.

I-A-2. Online Writing Helper! Quels sont les autres concepts importants de l'approche objet ?^ Consiste masquer les dtails d'implmentation d'un objet, en dfinissant une interface. Dissertation Literature! L'interface est la vue externe d'un objet, elle dfinit les services accessibles (offerts) aux utilisateurs de l'objet. Writing Helper! L'encapsulation facilite l'volution d'une application car elle stabilise l'utilisation des objets : on methodology mistakes in dissertations, peut modifier l'implmentation des attributs d'un objet sans modifier son interface. Writing! L'encapsulation garantit l'intgrit des donnes, car elle permet d'interdire l'accs direct aux attributs des objets (utilisation d'accesseurs). L'hritage est un mcanisme de transmission des proprits d'une classe (ses attributs et mthodes) vers une sous-classe. Common Methodology Mistakes In Dissertations! Une classe peut tre spcialise en d'autres classes, afin d'y ajouter des caractristiques spcifiques ou d'en adapter certaines. Writing! Plusieurs classes peuvent tre gnralises en une classe qui les factorise, afin de regrouper les caractristiques communes d'un ensemble de classes. Common Methodology! La spcialisation et la gnralisation permettent de construire des hirarchies de classes. Online! L'hritage peut tre simple ou multiple.

L'hritage vite la duplication et encourage la rutilisation. Section Paper! Le polymorphisme reprsente la facult d'une mthode pouvoir s'appliquer des objets de classes diffrentes. Writing Helper! Le polymorphisme augmente la gnricit du code. Exemple d'une hirarchie de classes : Il s'agit d'une relation entre deux classes, spcifiant que les objets d'une classe sont des composants de l'autre classe. Une relation d'agrgation permet donc de dfinir des objets composs d'autres objets. Essay Writing On Eye Donation! L'agrgation permet d'assembler des objets de base, afin de construire des objets plus complexes.

I-A-2-d. Online Helper! Rsum sur les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet^ la notion d'objet et de classe (d'objets) l'encapsulation (les interfaces des objets) l'hritage (les hirarchies d'objets) l'agrgation (la construction d'objets l'aide d'objets) Remarque : Les langages orients objet fournissent de nombreux autres mcanismes qui affinent ces concepts de base, favorisent la gnricit du code ou amliorent sa robustesse. I-A-2-e.

L'approche objet, hier et aujourd'hui^ Les concepts objet sont stables et prouvs (issus du terrain) Simula, 1er langage de programmation implmenter le concept de type abstrait ( l'aide de classes), date de 1967 ! En 1976 dj, Smalltalk implmente les concepts fondateurs de l'approche objet (encapsulation, agrgation, hritage) l'aide de : classes associations entre classes hirarchies de classes messages entre objets Le 1er compilateur C++ date de 1980, et C++ est normalis par l'ANSI. In Schools! De nombreux langages orients objets acadmiques ont tays les concepts objets : Eiffel, Objective C, Loops. Online Writing! Les concepts objet sont anciens, mais ils n'ont jamais t autant d'actualit L'approche fonctionnelle n'est pas adapte au dveloppement d'applications qui voluent sans cesse et dont la complexit croit continuellement. Dissertation Literature Review Outline! L'approche objet a t invente pour faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes.

De nos jours, les outils orients objet sont fiables et performants Les compilateurs C++ produisent un code robuste et optimis. Online Writing! De trs nombreux outils facilitent le dveloppement d'applications C++ : gnrateurs d'IHM (Ilog Views, TeleUse. Examples! ) bibliothques (STL, USL, Rogue Wave, MFC. Online Helper! ) environnements de dveloppement intgrs (Developper Studio, Sniff+. Writing! ) outils de qualimtrie et de tests (Cantata++, Insure++, Logiscope. Online! ) bases de donnes orientes objet (O2, ObjectStore, Versant. Examples In Research! ) I-A-2-f. Helper! L'approche objet : une solution parfaite ?^ Un ensemble de concepts stables, prouvs et normaliss. Literature Review! Une solution destine faciliter l'volution d'applications complexes. Writing! Une panoplie d'outils et de langages performants pour le dveloppement. Malgr les apparences, il est plus naturel pour nos esprits cartsiens, de dcomposer un problme informatique sous forme d'une hirarchie de fonctions atomiques et de donnes, qu'en terme d'objets et d'interaction entre ces objets. In Schools! De plus, le vocabulaire prcis est un facteur d'chec important dans la mise en oeuvre d'une approche objet.

L'approche objet est moins intuitive que l'approche fonctionnelle ! Quels moyens utiliser pour faciliter l'analyse objet ? Quels critres identifient une conception objet pertinente ? Comment comparer deux solutions de dcoupe objet d'un systme ? L'application des concepts objets ncessite une grande rigueur ! Le vocabulaire est prcis (risques d'ambiguts, d'incomprhensions). Helper! Comment dcrire la structure objet d'un systme de manire pertinente ? I-A-2-g. Of Methodology In Research Paper! Quels sont les remdes aux inconvnients de l'approche objet ?^ Un langage pour exprimer les concepts objet qu'on utilise, afin de pouvoir : Reprsenter des concepts abstraits (graphiquement par exemple). Online Helper! Limiter les ambiguts (parler un langage commun). Crime In Schools! Faciliter l'analyse (simplifier la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions). Writing Helper! Une dmarche d'analyse et de conception objet, pour : Ne pas effectuer une analyse fonctionnelle et se contenter d'une implmentation objet, mais penser objet ds le dpart. Writing For College Students Creative Writing! Dfinir les vues qui permettent de couvrir tous les aspects d'un systme, avec des concepts objets. Bref : il nous faut un outil qui apporte une dimension mthodologique l'approche objet, afin de mieux matriser sa richesse et sa complexit.

I-B. Writing! Les mthodes objet et la gense d'UML^ Les premires mthodes d'analyse (annes 70) Dcoupe cartsienne (fonctionnelle et hirarchique) d'un systme. In Schools! L'approche systmique (annes 80) Modlisation des donnes + modlisation des traitements (Merise, Axial, IE. Online Helper! ). Common Methodology In Dissertations! L'mergence des mthodes objet (1990-1995) Prise de conscience de l'importance d'une mthode spcifiquement objet : comment structurer un systme sans centrer l'analyse uniquement sur les donnes ou uniquement sur les traitements (mais sur les deux) ? Plus de 50 mthodes objet sont apparues durant cette priode (Booch, Classe-Relation, Fusion, HOOD, OMT, OOA, OOD, OOM, OOSE. Online Writing Helper! ) ! Aucun mthode ne s'est rellement impose. Crime In Schools! Les premiers consensus (1995) OMT (James Rumbaugh) : vues statiques, dynamiques et fonctionnelles d'un systme Issue du centre de RD de General Electric. Online Helper! Notation graphique riche et lisible. Common In Dissertations! OOD (Grady Booch) : vues logiques et physiques du systme Dfinie pour le DOD, afin de rationaliser de dveloppement d'applications ADA, puis C++. Online! Ne couvre pas la phase d'analyse dans ses 1res versions (prconise SADT).

Introduit le concept de package (lment d'organisation des modles) OOSE (Ivar Jacobson) : couvre tout le cycle de dveloppement Issue d'un centre de dveloppement d'Ericsson, en Sude. Dissertation Outline! La mthodologie repose sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. Online Writing! L'unification et la normalisation des mthodes (1995-1997) UML (Unified Modeling Langage), la fusion et synthse des mthodes dominantes : UML aujourd'hui : un standard incontournable UML est le rsultat d'un large consensus (industriels, mthodologistes. Of Methodology Section In Research! ). Online Writing! UML est le fruit d'un travail d'experts reconnus. Dissertation Review! UML est issu du terrain. Writing! UML est riche (il couvre toutes les phases d'un cycle de dveloppement). Prompts! UML est ouvert (il est indpendant du domaine d'application et des langages d'implmentation). Writing! Aprs l'unification et la standardisation, bientt l'industrialisation d'UML : les outils qui supportent UML se multiplient (GDPro, ObjectTeam, Objecteering, OpenTool, Rational Rose, Rhapsody, STP, Visio, Visual Modeler, WithClass. Literature Review! ). Online Helper! XMI (format d'change standard de modles UML). Crime In Schools! UML volue mais reste stable ! L'OMG RTF (nombreux acteurs industriels) centralise et normalise les volutions d'UML au niveau international. Online! Les groupes d'utilisateurs UML favorisent le partage des expriences. What Methodology In A Paper! De version en version, UML gagne en maturit et prcision, tout en restant stable.

UML inclut des mcanismes standards d'auto-extension. Writing! La description du mtamodle d'UML est standardise (OMG-MOF). UML n'est pas une mode, c'est un investissement fiable ! Si l'on parle de mthode objet pour UML, c'est par abus de langage ! Ce constat vaut aussi pour OMT ou d'autres techniques / langages de modlisation. For College Students Creative! Une mthode propose aussi un processus, qui rgit notamment l'enchanement des activits de production d'une entreprise. Online! UML a t pens pour permettre de modliser les activits de l'entreprise, pas pour les rgir (ce n'est pas CMM ou SPICE).

Un processus de dveloppement logiciel universel est une utopie : Impossible de prendre en compte toutes les organisations et cultures d'entreprises. Dissertation Literature Review Outline! Un processus est adapt (donc trs li) au domaine d'activit de l'entreprise. Writing! Mme si un processus constitue un cadre gnral, il faut l'adapter de manire prcise au contexte de l'entreprise. UML est fond sur un mtamodle, qui dfinit : les lments de modlisation (les concepts manipuls par le langage), la smantique de ces lments (leur dfinition et le sens de leur utilisation). Common! Un mtamodle est une description trs formelle de tous les concepts d'un langage. Online Helper! Il limite les ambiguts et encourage la construction d'outils.

Le mtamodle d'UML permet de classer les concepts du langage (selon leur niveau d'abstraction ou domaine d'application) et expose sa structure. Section In Research! Le mtamodle UML est lui-mme dcrit par un mta-mtamodle (OMG-MOF). Writing! UML propose aussi une notation, qui permet de reprsenter graphiquement les lments de modlisation du mtamodle. Crime In Schools! Cette notation graphique est le support du langage UML. diffrentes vues (perspectives) complmentaires d'un systme, qui guident l'utilisation des concept objets, plusieurs niveaux d'abstraction, qui permettent de mieux contrler la complexit dans l'expression des solutions objets. Sa notation graphique permet d'exprimer visuellement une solution objet.

L'aspect formel de sa notation limite les ambiguts et les incomprhensions. Online! Son aspect visuel facilite la comparaison et l'valuation de solutions. Crime! Son indpendance (par rapport aux langages d'implmentation, domaine d'application, processus. Online Writing Helper! ) en font un langage universel. I-C. Writing Prompts Students Creative Writing! Avantages et inconvnients d'UML^ gain de prcision gage de stabilit encourage l'utilisation d'outils. Il cadre l'analyse. Writing Helper! Il facilite la comprhension de reprsentations abstraites complexes.

Son caractre polyvalent et sa souplesse en font un langage universel. La mise en pratique d'UML ncessite un apprentissage et passe par une priode d'adaptation. Mme si l'Espranto est une utopie, la ncessit de s'accorder sur des modes d'expression communs est vitale en informatique. Methodology Research! UML n 'est pas l'origine des concepts objets, mais en constitue une tape majeure, car il unifie les diffrentes approches et en donne une dfinition plus formelle. Or, l'intgration d'UML dans un processus n'est pas triviale et amliorer un processus est un tche complexe et longue. Les auteurs d'UML sont tout fait conscients de l'importance du processus, mais l'acceptabilit industrielle de la modlisation objet passe d'abord par la disponibilit d'un langage d'analyse objet performant et standard.

Un modle est une abstraction de la ralit. L'abstraction est un des piliers de l'approche objet. Il s'agit d'un processus qui consiste identifier les caractristiques intressantes d'une entit, en vue d'une utilisation prcise. Writing Helper! L'abstraction dsigne aussi le rsultat de ce processus, c'est--dire l'ensemble des caractristiques essentielles d'une entit, retenues par un observateur. Common Mistakes! Un modle est une vue subjective mais pertinente de la ralit Un modle dfinit une frontire entre la ralit et la perspective de l'observateur. Writing Helper! Ce n'est pas la ralit, mais une vue trs subjective de la ralit. In Dissertations! Bien qu'un modle ne reprsente pas une ralit absolue, un modle reflte des aspects importants de la ralit, il en donne donc une vue juste et pertinente. Writing Helper! Quelques exemples de modles Modle mtorologique : partir de donnes d'observation (satellite . Common Methodology In Dissertations! ), permet de prvoir les conditions climatiques pour les jours venir. Online Helper! Modle conomique : peut par exemple permettre de simuler l'volution de cours boursiers en fonction d'hypothses macro-conomiques (volution du chmage, taux de croissance. Crime In Schools! ). Online Writing Helper! Modle dmographique : dfinit la composition d'un panel d'une population et son comportement, dans le but de fiabiliser des tudes statistiques, d'augmenter l'impact de dmarches commerciales, etc. What In A Paper! Caractristiques fondamentales des modles. Le caractre abstrait d'un modle doit notamment permettre : de faciliter la comprhension du systme tudi.

Un modle rduit la complexit du systme tudi. Writing Helper! de simuler le systme tudi. Un modle reprsente le systme tudi et reproduit ses comportements. Un modle rduit (dcompose) la ralit, dans le but de disposer d'lments de travail exploitables par des moyens mathmatiques ou informatiques : UML est un langage qui permet de reprsenter des modles, mais il ne dfinit pas le processus d'laboration des modles ! Cependant, dans le cadre de la modlisation d'une application informatique, les auteurs d'UML prconisent d'utiliser une dmarche : itrative et incrmentale, guide par les besoins des utilisateurs du systme, centre sur l'architecture logicielle. D'aprs les auteurs d'UML, un processus de dveloppement qui possde ces qualits devrait favoriser la russite d'un projet. II-B-1. Prompts For College Creative Writing! Une dmarche itrative et incrmentale ?^ L'ide est simple : pour modliser (comprendre et reprsenter) un systme complexe, il vaut mieux s'y prendre en plusieurs fois, en affinant son analyse par tapes. Writing! Cette dmarche devrait aussi s'appliquer au cycle de dveloppement dans son ensemble, en favorisant le prototypage.

Le but est de mieux matriser la part d'inconnu et d'incertitudes qui caractrisent les systmes complexes. II-B-2. What Is A! Une dmarche pilote par les besoins des utilisateurs ?^ Le primtre du systme modliser est dfini par les besoins des utilisateurs (les utilisateurs dfinissent ce que doit tre le systme). Writing! Le but du systme modliser est de rpondre aux besoins de ses utilisateurs (les utilisateurs sont les clients du systme).

A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on examples, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs. Writing! A chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on literature outline, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs. Online Writing! A chaque itration de la phase de test, on what is a in a research, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. II-B-3. Online Helper! Une dmarche centre sur l'architecture ?^ Une architecture adapte est la cl de vote du succs d'un dveloppement. Elle dcrit des choix stratgiques qui dterminent en grande partie les qualits du logiciel (adaptabilit, performances, fiabilit. Literature Review! ). Cette vue (4+1) a fortement inspir UML : II-B-4. Online Helper! Dfinir une architecture avec UML (dtail de la vue 4+1)^ Cette vue de haut niveau se concentre sur l'abstraction et l'encapsulation, elle modlise les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme.

Elle identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). On Eye! Cette vue organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, isoler ce qui est propre une version donne, etc. Cette vue de bas niveau (aussi appele vue de ralisation), montre : L'allocation des lments de modlisation dans des modules (fichiers sources, bibliothques dynamiques, bases de donnes, excutables, etc. Writing Helper! ). Donation! En d'autres termes, cette vue identifie les modules qui ralisent (physiquement) les classes de la vue logique. Online! L'organisation des composants, c'est--dire la distribution du code en gestion de configuration, les dpendances entre les composants. Examples Section In Research Paper! Les contraintes de dveloppement (bibliothques externes. Online Writing Helper! ). Methodology In A Paper! La vue des composants montre aussi l'organisation des modules en sous-systmes, les interfaces des sous-systmes et leurs dpendances (avec d'autres sous-systmes ou modules). Cette vue est trs importante dans les environnements multitches ; elle montre : La dcomposition du systme en terme de processus (tches). Online Helper! Les interactions entre les processus (leur communication). Common Mistakes In Dissertations! La synchronisation et la communication des activits parallles (threads). Cette vue trs importante dans les environnements distribus, dcrit les ressources matrielles et la rpartition du logiciel dans ces ressources := La disposition et nature physique des matriels, ainsi que leurs performances. Writing Helper! L'implantation des modules principaux sur les noeuds du rseau.

Les exigences en terme de performances (temps de rponse, tolrance aux fautes et pannes. Writing Students! ). Cette vue (dont le nom exact est vue des cas d'utilisation), guide toutes les autres. Writing! Dessiner le plan (l'architecture) d'un systme informatique n'est pas suffisant, il faut le justifier ! Cette vue dfinit les besoins des clients du systme et centre la dfinition de l'architecture du systme sur la satisfaction (la ralisation) de ces besoins. In Schools! A l'aide de scnarios et de cas d'utilisation, cette vue conduit la dfinition d'un modle d'architecture pertinent et cohrent. Online Writing! Cette vue est la colle qui unifie les quatre autres vues de l'architecture. Examples! Elle motive les choix, permet d'identifier les interfaces critiques et force se concentrer sur les problmes importants. Modliser une application ? Mais comme UML n'est pas un processus. Quelle dmarche utiliser ? Optez pour une approche itrative et incrmentale.

Centrez votre dmarche sur l'analyse des besoins des utilisateurs. Writing! Prenez grand soin la dfinition de l'architecture de votre application (l'approche 4+1 permet de mieux la cerner). Bien qu'UML n'est pas un processus, il facilite une dmarche d'analyse itrative et incrmentale, base sur les niveaux d'abstraction. Essay Donation! Les niveaux d'abstraction permettent de structurer les modles. Online! Un micro-processus rgit les itrations niveau d'abstraction constant. Literature Review! Un macro-processus rgit le passage de niveau niveau. Online Helper! Une dmarche incrmentale consiste construire les modles de spcification et de conception en plusieurs tapes (cible = catgories). Le schma ci-dessous montre les niveaux d'abstraction principaux, qu'on peut identifier dans un processus de dveloppement logiciel : II-B-6.

Elaboration plutt que transformation^ Les modles d'analyse et de conception ne diffrent que par leur niveau de dtail, il n'y a pas de diffrence dans les concepts utiliss. Dissertation! UML n'introduit pas d'lments de modlisation propres une activit (analyse, conception. Online Helper! ) ; le langage reste le mme tous les niveaux d'abstraction. L'laboration encourage une approche non linaire (les retours en arrire entre niveaux d'abstraction diffrents sont facilits). Dissertation Literature Outline! La traabilit entre modles de niveaux diffrents est assure par l'unicit du langage.

II-B-7. Online! Dtail des diffrents niveaux d'abstraction (phases du macro-processus)^ L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le dossier d'expression des besoins client. Of Methodology Section Paper! A ce niveau d'abstraction, on online writing helper, doit capturer les besoins principaux des utilisateurs. Essay Donation! Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Le but de la conceptualisation est : de dfinir le contour du systme modliser (de spcifier le quoi), de capturer les fonctionnalits principales du systme, afin d'en fournir une meilleure comprhension (le modle produit sert d'interface entre les acteurs du projet), de fournir une base la planification du projet. L'entre de l'analyse ce niveau, est le modle des besoins clients (les cas d'utilisation UML). Writing Helper! Il s'agit de modliser les lments et mcanismes principaux du systme.

On identifie les lments du domaine, ainsi que les relations et interactions entre ces lments : les lments du domaine sont lis au(x) mtier(s) de l'entreprise, ils sont indispensables la mission du systme, ils gagnent tre rutiliss (ils reprsentent un savoir-faire). Mistakes! A ce stade, on online writing, organise aussi (selon des critres purement logiques), les lments du domaine en catgories : pour rpartir les tches dans les quipes, regrouper ce qui peut tre gnrique, etc. A ce niveau, on dissertation review outline, modlise les aspects informatiques du systme, sans pour autant rentrer dans les dtails d'implmentation. Writing! Les interfaces des lments de modlisation sont dfinis (cf. Literature Review! encapsulation). Online Writing Helper! Les relations entre les lments des modles sont dfinies. Dissertation Literature! Les lments de modlisation utiliss peuvent tre propres une version du systme. On y modlise tous les rouages d'implmentation et on online writing, dtaille tous les lments de modlisation issus des niveaux suprieurs.

Les modles sont optimiss, car destins tre implments. II-B-8. Literature Review Outline! Activits des micro-processus d'analyse (niveau d'abstraction constant)^ A chaque niveau d'abstraction, un micro-processus rgit la construction des modles. Helper! UML ne rgit pas les activits des micro-processus, c'est le principe d'abstraction qui permet l'laboration itrative et incrmentale des modles.

Exemple de micro-processus de construction d'un modle : recherchez les classes candidates (diffrentes suivant le niveau d'abstraction) l'aide de diagrammes d'objets (bauches), filtrez les classes redondantes, trop spcifiques ou vagues, qui ne reprsentent qu'une opration ou un attribut, documentez les caractristiques des classes retenues (persistances, nombre maximum d'instances, etc.). recherchez les connexions smantiques et les relations d'utilisation, documentez les relations (nom, cardinalits, contraintes, rles des classes. Common! ), en spcification, filtrez les relations instables ou d'implmentation, dfinissez la dynamique des relations entre objets (les interactions entre instances de classes et les activits associes). recherchez les attributs dans les modles dynamiques (recherchez les donnes qui caractrisent les tats des objets), filtrez les attributs complexes (faites-en des objets) et au niveau spcification, ne reprsentez pas les valeurs internes propres aux mcanismes d'implmentation, recherchez les oprations parmi les activits et actions des objets (ne pas rentrer dans le dtail au niveau spcification). choisissez vos critres d'optimisation (gnricit, volutivit, prcision, lisibilit, simplicit. Writing! ), utilisez la gnralisation et la spcialisation (classification), documentez et dtaillez vos modles, encapsulez. vrifiez la cohrence, la compltude et l'homognit des modles, confrontez les modles la critique (comit de relecture. Crime! ). Modliser une application n'est pas une activit linaire. itrative et incrmentale (grce aux niveaux d'abstraction), car il est plus efficace de construire et valider par tapes, ce qui est difficile cerner et matriser, centre sur l'architecture (dfinie par la vue 4+1), car il s'agit de la cl de vote qui conditionne la plupart des qualits d'une application informatique, guide par la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs ( l'aide des cas d'utilisation), car ce qui motive l'existence mme du systme concevoir, c'est la satisfaction des besoins de ses utilisateurs. OK pour la dmarche d'laboration d'un modle, mais. II-B-10-a. Online Writing Helper! Comment rdiger un modle avec UML ?^ UML permet de dfinir et de visualiser un modle, l'aide de diagrammes.

Un diagramme UML est une reprsentation graphique, qui s'intresse un aspect prcis du modle ; c'est une perspective du modle, pas le modle. In Schools! Chaque type de diagramme UML possde une structure (les types des lments de modlisation qui le composent sont prdfinis). Online Helper! Un type de diagramme UML vhicule une smantique prcise (un type de diagramme offre toujours la mme vue d'un systme). On Eye! Combins, les diffrents types de diagrammes UML offrent une vue complte des aspects statiques et dynamiques d'un systme. Online Helper! Par extension et abus de langage, un diagramme UML est aussi un modle (un diagramme modlise un aspect du modle global). II-B-10-b. Common Methodology Mistakes! Quelques caractristiques des diagrammes UML^

Les diagrammes UML supportent l'abstraction. Writing! Leur niveau de dtail caractrise le niveau d'abstraction du modle. Literature! La structure des diagrammes UML et la notation graphique des lments de modlisation est normalise (document UML notation guide). Helper! Rappel : la smantique des lments de modlisation et de leur utilisation est dfinie par le mtamodle UML (document UML semantics). What Is A Research Paper! Le recours des outils appropris est un gage de productivit pour la rdaction des diagrammes UML, car : ils facilitent la navigation entre les diffrentes vues, ils permettent de centraliser, organiser, partager, synchroniser et versionner les diagrammes (indispensable avec un processus itratif), facilitent l'abstraction, par des filtres visuels, simplifient la production de documents et autorisent (dans certaines limites) la gnration de code.

II-B-10-c. Helper! Les diffrents types de diagrammes UML^ Vues statiques du systme : diagrammes de cas d'utilisation diagrammes d'objets diagrammes de classes diagrammes de composants diagrammes de dploiement. Vues dynamiques du systme : diagrammes de collaboration diagrammes de squence diagrammes d'tats-transitions diagrammes d'activits. Les paquetages sont des lments d'organisation des modles. Examples Section In Research Paper! Ils regroupent des lments de modlisation, selon des critres purement logiques. Online Writing! Ils permettent d'encapsuler des lments de modlisation (ils possdent une interface).

Ils permettent de structurer un systme en catgories (vue logique) et sous-systmes (vue des composants). Prompts Writing! Ils servent de briques de base dans la construction d'une architecture. Helper! Ils reprsentent le bon niveau de granularit pour la rutilisation. Common Mistakes! Les paquetages sont aussi des espaces de noms. II-C-1-b.

Paquetages : relations entre paquetages^ II-C-2-a. Online Writing! Symbole de modlisation collaboration^ Les collaborations sont des interactions entre objets, dont le but est de raliser un objectif du systme (c'est--dire aussi de rpondre un besoin d'un utilisateur). For College Writing! L'lment de modlisation UML collaboration, reprsente les classes qui participent la ralisation d'un cas d'utilisation. Attention : ne confondez pas l'lment de modlisation collaboration avec le diagramme de collaboration, qui reprsente des interactions entre instances de classes. II-C-3. Writing! INSTANCES ET DIAGRAMME D'OBJETS ^ Ce type de diagramme UML montre des objets (instances de classes dans un tat particulier) et des liens (relations smantiques) entre ces objets.

Les diagrammes d'objets s'utilisent pour montrer un contexte (avant ou aprs une interaction entre objets par exemple). Writing Prompts For College Students! Ce type de diagramme sert essentiellement en phase exploratoire, car il possde un trs haut niveau d'abstraction. II-C-4-a. Online Writing! Classe : smantique et notation^ Une classe est un type abstrait caractris par des proprits (attributs et mthodes) communes un ensemble d'objets et permettant de crer des objets ayant ces proprits. Classe = attributs + mthodes + instanciation. Il s'agit juste d'un filtre visuel, destin donner un certain niveau d'abstraction son modle.

De mme, ne pas spcifier les niveaux de protection des membres d'une classe ne veut pas dire qu'on ne reprsente que les membres publics. Common Methodology Mistakes In Dissertations! L aussi, il s'agit d'un filtre visuel. Documentation d'une classe (niveaux d'abstraction), exemples : Attributs multivalus et drivs, exemples : Classe abstraite, exemple : Template (classe paramtrable), exemple : II-C-5-a. Online Helper! Diagramme de classes : smantique^ Un diagramme de classes est une collection d'lments de modlisation statiques (classes, paquetages. Dissertation Outline! ), qui montre la structure d'un modle. Online! Un diagramme de classes fait abstraction des aspects dynamiques et temporels. Paper! Pour un modle complexe, plusieurs diagrammes de classes complmentaires doivent tre construits.

les classes qui participent un cas d'utilisation (cf. Helper! collaboration), les classes associes dans la ralisation d'un scnario prcis, les classes qui composent un paquetage, la structure hirarchique d'un ensemble de classes. Methodology In Dissertations! Pour reprsenter un contexte prcis, un diagramme de classes peut tre instanci en diagrammes d'objets. Une association exprime une connexion smantique bidirectionnelle entre deux classes. Writing Helper! L'association est instanciable dans un diagramme d'objets ou de collaboration, sous forme de liens entre objets issus de classes associes. II-C-5-c. Writing Prompts For College Creative Writing! Documentation d'une association et types d'associations^ Association en forme verbale active : prcise le sens de lecture principal d'une association.

Voir aussi : association navigabilit restreinte. Rles : spcifie la fonction d'une classe pour une association donne (indispensable pour les associations rflexives). Cardinalits : prcise le nombre d'instances qui participent une relation. Relation de dpendance : relation d'utilisation unidirectionnelle et d'obsolescence (une modification de l'lment dont on writing, dpend, peut ncessiter une mise jour de l'lment dpendant). Association navigabilit restreinte. Par dfaut, une association est navigable dans les deux sens.

La rduction de la porte de l'association est souvent ralise en phase d'implmentation, mais peut aussi tre exprime dans un modle pour indiquer que les instances d'une classe ne connaissent pas les instances d'une autre. Association n-aire : il s'agit d'une association qui relie plus de deux classes. Note : de telles associations sont difficiles dchiffrer et peuvent induire en erreur. Methodology! Il vaut mieux limiter leur utilisation, en dfinissant de nouvelles catgories d'associations. Classe d'association : il s'agit d'une classe qui ralise la navigation entre les instances d'autres classes. Qualification : permet de slectionner un sous-ensemble d'objets, parmi l'ensemble des objets qui participent une association.

La restriction de l'association est dfinie par une cl, qui permet de slectionner les objets cibls. Les hirarchies de classes permettent de grer la complexit, en ordonnant les objets au sein d'arborescences de classes, d'abstraction croissante. Dmarche descendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits d'un ensemble d'objets, non discrimins par les classes dj identifies. Online Helper! Consiste tendre les proprits d'une classe, sous forme de sous-classes, plus spcifiques (permet l'extension du modle par rutilisation). Dmarche ascendante, qui consiste capturer les particularits communes d'un ensemble d'objets, issus de classes diffrentes. In Schools! Consiste factoriser les proprits d'un ensemble de classes, sous forme d'une super-classe, plus abstraite (permet de gagner en gnricit). L'hritage (spcialisation et gnralisation) permet la classification des objets.

Une bonne classification est stable et extensible : ne classifiez pas les objets selon des critres instables (selon ce qui caractrise leur tat) ou trop vagues (car cela gnre trop de sous-classes). Helper! Les critres de classification sont subjectifs. Examples Section In Research Paper! Le principe de substitution (Liksow, 1987) permet de dterminer si une relation d'hritage est bien employe pour la classification : Il doit tre possible de substituer n'importe quel instance d'une super-classe, par n'importe quel instance d'une de ses sous-classes, sans que la smantique d'un programme crit dans les termes de la super-classe n'en soit affecte. Helper! Si Y hrite de X, cela signifie que Y est une sorte de X (analogies entre classification et thorie des ensembles). L'agrgation est une association non symtrique, qui exprime un couplage fort et une relation de subordination. Section! Elle reprsente une relation de type ensemble / lment. Writing! UML ne dfinit pas ce qu'est une relation de type ensemble / lment, mais il permet cependant d'exprimer cette vue subjective de manire explicite. Examples Of Methodology In Research! Une agrgation peut notamment (mais pas ncessairement) exprimer : qu'une classe (un lment) fait partie d'une autre (l'agrgat), qu'un changement d'tat d'une classe, entrane un changement d'tat d'une autre, qu'une action sur une classe, entrane une action sur une autre. Online! A un mme moment, une instance d'lment agrg peut tre lie plusieurs instances d'autres classes (l'lment agrg peut tre partag). Essay! Une instance d'lment agrg peut exister sans agrgat (et inversement) : les cycles de vies de l'agrgat et de ses lments agrgs peuvent tre indpendants.

La composition est une agrgation forte (agrgation par valeur). Helper! Les cycles de vies des lments (les composants) et de l'agrgat sont lis : si l'agrgat est dtruit (ou copi), ses composants le sont aussi. Crime In Schools! A un mme moment, une instance de composant ne peut tre lie qu' un seul agrgat. Online Writing Helper! Les objets composites sont des instances de classes composes. II-C-5-g. Literature Review Outline! Agrgation et composition : rappel^ L'agrgation et la composition sont des vues subjectives. Online Helper! Lorsqu'on reprsente (avec UML) qu'une molcule est compose d'atomes, on common mistakes, sous-entend que la destruction d'une instance de la classe Molcule, implique la destruction de ses composants, instances de la classe Atome (cf. Writing! proprits de la composition).

Bien qu'elle ne reflte pas la ralit (rien ne se perd, rien ne se cre, tout se transforme), cette abstraction de la ralit nous satisfait si l'objet principal de notre modlisation est la molcule. What In A Research! En conclusion, servez vous de l'agrgation et de la composition pour ajouter de la smantique vos modles lorsque cela est pertinent, mme si dans la ralit de tels liens n'existent pas ! Une interface fournit une vue totale ou partielle d'un ensemble de services offerts par une classe, un paquetage ou un composant. Helper! Les lments qui utilisent l'interface peuvent exploiter tout ou partie de l'interface. Essay On Eye Donation! Dans un modle UML, le symbole interface sert identifier de manire explicite et symbolique les services offerts par un lment et l'utilisation qui en est faite par les autres lments. Les associations drives sont des associations redondantes, qu'on peut dduire d'une autre association ou d'un ensemble d'autres associations.

Elles permettent d'indiquer des chemins de navigation calculs, sur un diagramme de classes. Helper! Elles servent beaucoup la comprhension de la navigation (comment joindre telles instances d'une classe partir d'une autre). II-C-5-j. For College Students Writing! Contrainte sur une association^ Les contraintes sont des expressions qui prcisent le rle ou la porte d'un lment de modlisation (elles permettent d'tendre ou prciser sa smantique). Online! Sur une association, elles peuvent par exemple restreindre le nombre d'instances vises (ce sont alors des expressions de navigation).

Les contraintes peuvent s'exprimer en langage naturel. What Is A Methodology In A Paper! Graphiquement, il s'agit d'un texte encadr d'accolades. UML formalise l'expression des contraintes avec OCL (Object Constraint Language). Online Writing! OCL est une contribution d'IBM UML 1.1. Donation! Ce langage formel est volontairement simple d'accs et possde une grammaire lmentaire (OCL peut tre interprt par des outils). Helper! Il reprsente un juste milieu, entre langage naturel et langage mathmatique. Is A Methodology Paper! OCL permet ainsi de limiter les ambiguts, tout en restant accessible. Online Writing Helper! OCL permet de dcrire des invariants dans un modle, sous forme de pseudo-code : pr et post-conditions pour une opration, expressions de navigation, expressions boolennes, etc. Examples Of Methodology Section In Research Paper! OCL est largement utilis dans la dfinition du mtamodle UML. Nous allons nous baser sur une tude de cas, pour introduire brivement OCL.

Monsieur Formulain, directeur d'une chane d'htels, vous demande de concevoir une application de gestion pour ses htels. Online Writing! Voici ce que vous devez modliser : Un htel Formulain est constitu d'un certain nombre de chambres. Dissertation Literature Review Outline! Un responsable de l'htel gre la location des chambres. Online Writing! Chaque chambre se loue un prix donn (suivant ses prestations). L'accs aux salles de bain est compris dans le prix de la location d'une chambre. Writing For College Creative Writing! Certaines chambres comportent une salle de bain, mais pas toutes. Online Writing Helper! Les htes de chambres sans salle de bain peuvent utiliser une salle de bain sur le palier.

Ces dernires peuvent tre utilises par plusieurs htes. Les pices de l'htel qui ne sont ni des chambres, ni des salles de bain (hall d'accueil, cuisine. Dissertation Literature Outline! ) ne font pas partie de l'tude (hors sujet). Des personnes peuvent louer une ou plusieurs chambres de l'htel, afin d'y rsider. Online Helper! En d'autre termes : l'htel hberge un certain nombre de personnes, ses htes (il s'agit des personnes qui louent au moins une chambre de l'htel. Is A Paper! ). Le diagramme UML ci-dessous prsente les classes qui interviennent dans la modlisation d'un htel Formulain, ainsi que les relations entre ces classes. Attention : le modle a t rduit une vue purement statique.

La dynamique de l'interaction entre instances n'est pas donne ici, pour simplifier l'exemple. Helper! Lors d'une modlisation complte, les vues dynamiques complmentaires ne devraient pas tre omises (tout comme la conceptualisation pralable par des use cases). Remarque : cet exemple est inspir d'un article paru dans JOOP (Journal of prompts for college students writing, Object Oriented Programming), en mai 99. OCL permet d'enrichir ce diagramme, en dcrivant toutes les contraintes et tous les invariants du modle prsent, de manire normalise et explicite ( l'intrieur d'une note rattache un lment de modlisation du diagramme). Voici quelques exemples de contraintes qu'on pourrait dfinir sur ce diagramme, avec la syntaxe OCL correspondante. Les exemples de syntaxe OCL ci-dessous ne sont pas dtaills, rfrez-vous au document de la norme UML adquat (OCL spcification). Online Writing! Il ne s'agit l que d'un trs rapide aperu du pouvoir d'abstraction d'OCL. Les strotypes permettent d'tendre la smantique des lments de modlisation : il s'agit d'un mcanisme d'extensibilit du mtamodle d'UML. Crime! Les strotypes permettent de dfinir de nouvelles classes d'lments de modlisation, en plus du noyau prdfini par UML. Writing Helper! Utilisez les strotypes avec modration et de manire concerte (notez aussi qu'UML propose de nombreux strotypes standards).

II-C-6. Dissertation Review! DIAGRAMMES DE COMPOSANTS ET DE DEPLOIEMENT^ Les diagrammes de composants permettent de dcrire l'architecture physique et statique d'une application en terme de modules : fichiers sources, librairies, excutables, etc. Ils montrent la mise en oeuvre physique des modles de la vue logique avec l'environnement de dveloppement. Online! Les dpendances entre composants permettent notamment d'identifier les contraintes de compilation et de mettre en vidence la rutilisation de composants. Literature Outline! Le composants peuvent tre organiss en paquetages, qui dfinissent des sous-systmes. Online Writing! Les sous-systmes organisent la vue des composants (de ralisation) d'un systme. Of Methodology Section In Research! Ils permettent de grer la complexit, par encapsulation des dtails d'implmentation.

Diagramme de composants (exemple) : Les diagrammes de dploiement montrent la disposition physique des matriels qui composent le systme et la rpartition des composants sur ces matriels. Online Writing! Les ressources matrielles sont reprsentes sous forme de noeuds. Common Mistakes In Dissertations! Les noeuds sont connects entre eux, l'aide d'un support de communication. La nature des lignes de communication et leurs caractristiques peuvent tre prcises. Writing Helper! Les diagrammes de dploiement peuvent montrer des instances de noeuds (un matriel prcis), ou des classes de noeuds. What Is A Methodology Research Paper! Les diagrammes de dploiement correspondent la vue de dploiement d'une architecture logicielle (vue 4+1). II-D-1-a. Writing Helper! La conceptualisation : rappel^

Le but de la conceptualisation est de comprendre et structurer les besoins du client. Writing Prompts Writing! Il ne faut pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! Une fois identifis et structurs, ces besoins : dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Helper! Le modle conceptuel doit permettre une meilleure comprhension du systme. What Is A Methodology In A Paper! Le modle conceptuel doit servir d'interface entre tous les acteurs du projet. Online Writing! Les besoins des clients sont des lments de traabilit dans un processus intgrant UML. Il s'agit de la solution UML pour reprsenter le modle conceptuel. What Is A In A! Les use cases permettent de structurer les besoins des utilisateurs et les objectifs correspondants d'un systme. Writing! Ils centrent l'expression des exigences du systme sur ses utilisateurs : ils partent du principe que les objectifs du systme sont tous motivs. What Research! Ils se limitent aux proccupations relles des utilisateurs ; ils ne prsentent pas de solutions d'implmentation et ne forment pas un inventaire fonctionnel du systme. Online Writing Helper! Ils identifient les utilisateurs du systme (acteurs) et leur interaction avec le systme.

Ils permettent de classer les acteurs et structurer les objectifs du systme. Prompts Writing! Ils servent de base la traabilit des exigences d'un systme dans un processus de dveloppement intgrant UML. Il tait une fois. Le modle conceptuel est le type de diagramme UML qui possde la notation la plus simple ; mais paradoxalement c'est aussi celui qui est le plus mal compris ! Au dbut des annes 90, Ivar Jacobson (inventeur de OOSE, une des mthodes fondatrices d'UML) a t nomm chef d'un norme projet informatique chez Ericsson. Online Writing! Le hic, c'est que ce projet tait rapidement devenu ingrable, les ingnieurs d'Ericsson avaient accouch d'un monstre. Research! Personne ne savait vraiment quelles taient les fonctionnalits du produit, ni comment elles taient assures, ni comment les faire voluer. Classique lorsque les commerciaux promettent monts et merveilles tous les clients qu'ils dmarchent, sans se soucier des contraintes techniques, que les clients ne savent pas exprimer leurs besoins et que les ingnieurs n'ont pas les ressources pour dvelopper le mouton cinq pattes qui rsulte de ce chaos. Pour viter de foncer droit dans un mur et mener bien ce projet critique pour Ericsson, Jacobson a eu une ide.

Plutt que de continuer construire une tour de Babel, pourquoi ne pas remettre plat les objectifs rels du projet ? En d'autres termes : quels sont les besoins rels des clients, ceux qui conditionneront la russite du projet ? Ces besoins critiques, une fois identifis et structurs, permettront enfin de cerner ce qui est important pour la russite du projet. Le bnfice de cette dmarche simplificatrice est double. Online! D'une part, tous les acteurs du projet ont une meilleure comprhension du systme dvelopper, d'autre part, les besoins des utilisateurs, une fois clarifis, serviront de fil rouge, tout au long du cycle de dveloppement. A chaque itration de la phase d'analyse, on is a in a research paper, clarifie, affine et valide les besoins des utilisateurs ; chaque itration de la phase de conception et de ralisation, on helper, veille la prise en compte des besoins des utilisateurs et chaque itration de la phase de test, on review outline, vrifie que les besoins des utilisateurs sont satisfaits. Simple mais gnial.

Pour la petite histoire, sachez que grce cette dmarche initie par Jacobson, Ericsson a russi mener bien son projet et a gagn une notorit internationale dans le march de la commutation. Morale de cette histoire : La dtermination et la comprhension des besoins sont souvent difficiles car les intervenants sont noys sous de trop grandes quantits d'informations. Online Writing Helper! Or, comment mener bien un projet si l'on ne sait pas o l'on va ? Conclusion : il faut clarifier et organiser les besoins des clients (les modliser). Un modle est une simplification de la ralit. Common Methodology Mistakes In Dissertations! Il permet de mieux comprendre le systme qu'on doit dvelopper. Helper! Les meilleurs modles sont proches de la ralit.

Les use cases, permettent de modliser les besoins des clients d'un systme et doivent aussi possder ces caractristiques. Ils ne doivent pas chercher l'exhaustivit, mais clarifier, filtrer et organiser les besoins ! dfinissent le contour du systme modliser (ils prcisent le but atteindre), permettent d'identifier les fonctionnalits principales (critiques) du systme. Les use cases ne doivent donc en aucun cas dcrire des solutions d'implmentation. Essay Writing On Eye! Leur but est justement d'viter de tomber dans la drive d'une approche fonctionnelle, o l'on liste une litanie de fonctions que le systme doit raliser. Bien entendu, rien n'interdit de grer l'aide d'outils (Doors, Requisite Pro, etc. Online Writing! ) les exigences systmes un niveau plus fin et d'en assurer la traabilit, bien au contraire.

Mais un modle conceptuel qui identifie les besoins avec un plus grand niveau d'abstraction reste indispensable. In Schools! Avec des systmes complexes, filtrer l'information, la simplifier et mieux l'organiser, c'est rendre l'information exploitable. Online Helper! Produisez de l'information phmre, complexe et confuse, vous obtiendrez un joyeux dsordre (pour rester poli). Utilisez les use cases tels qu'ils ont t pens par leurs crateurs ! UML est issu du terrain. In Dissertations! Si vous utilisez les use cases sans avoir en tte la dmarche sous-jacente, vous n'en tirerez aucun bnfice. II-D-1-c. Writing! Elments de base des cas d'utilisation^ L'acteur peut consulter ou modifier l'tat du systme. Writing For College Students Writing! En rponse l'action d'un acteur, le systme fournit un service qui correspond son besoin. Online Helper! Les acteurs peuvent tre classs (hirarchiss).

Les uses cases peuvent tre structurs. Crime! Les uses cases peuvent tre organiss en paquetages (packages). Online Writing! L'ensemble des use cases dcrit les objectifs (le but) du systme. Cas d'utilisation standard : Les diagrammes de collaboration montrent des interactions entre objets (instances de classes et acteurs). On Eye! Ils permettent de reprsenter le contexte d'une interaction, car on online helper, peut y prciser les tats des objets qui interagissent. II-D-2-a. Common In Dissertations! Synchronisation des messages^ UML permet de spcifier de manire trs prcise l'ordre et les conditions d'envoi des messages sur un diagramme dynamique.

Pour chaque message, il est possible d'indiquer : les clauses qui conditionnent son envoi, son rang (son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages), sa rcurrence, ses arguments. pr : prdcesseurs (liste de numros de squence de messages spars par une virgule ; voir aussi sq). Indique que le message courant ne sera envoy que lorsque tous ses prdcesseurs le seront aussi (permet de synchroniser l'envoi de messages). Writing! cond : garde, expression boolenne. Permet de conditionner l'envoi du message, l'aide d'une clause exprime en langage naturel. Examples Of Methodology Section In Research! sq : numro de squence du message. Indique le rang du message, c'est--dire son numro d'ordre par rapport aux autres messages.

Les messages sont numrots la faon de chapitres dans un document, l'aide de chiffres spars par des points. Writing! Ainsi, il est possible de reprsenter le niveau d'embotement des messages et leur prcdence. Exemple : l'envoi du message 1.3.5 suit immdiatement celui du message 1.3.4 et ces deux messages font partie du flot (de la famille de messages) 1.3. Pour reprsenter l'envoi simultan de deux messages, il suffit de les indexer par une lettre. Exemple : l'envoi des messages 1.3.a et 1.3.b est simultan. In Schools! iter : rcurrence du message. Permet de spcifier en langage naturel l'envoi squentiel (ou en parallle, avec ||) de messages. Writing! Notez qu'il est aussi possible de spcifier qu'un message est rcurrent en omettant la clause d'itration (en n'utilisant que * ou *||). Common Mistakes! r : valeur de retour du message.

Permet d'affecter la valeur de retour d'un message, pour par exemple la retransmettre dans un autre message, en tant que paramtre. Online Helper! msg : nom du message. Writing Prompts For College Writing! par : paramtres (optionnels) du message. UML permet de reprsenter des communications entre objets actifs de manire concurrente. Writing Helper! Cette extension des diagrammes de collaboration permet notamment de reprsenter des communications entre processus ou l'excution de threads. II-D-3-a. In Schools! Diagramme de squence : smantique^ Les diagrammes de squences permettent de reprsenter des collaborations entre objets selon un point de vue temporel, on online helper, y met l'accent sur la chronologie des envois de messages. Examples Of Methodology In Research Paper! Contrairement au diagramme de collaboration, on writing, n'y dcrit pas le contexte ou l'tat des objets, la reprsentation se concentre sur l'expression des interactions. Methodology Mistakes! Les diagrammes de squences peuvent servir illustrer un cas d'utilisation.

L'ordre d'envoi d'un message est dtermin par sa position sur l'axe vertical du diagramme ; le temps s'coule de haut en bas de cet axe. Helper! La disposition des objets sur l'axe horizontal n'a pas de consquence pour la smantique du diagramme. Writing Donation! Les diagrammes de squences et les diagrammes d'tat-transitions sont les vues dynamiques les plus importantes d'UML. Comme vous pouvez le voir dans l'exemple ci-dessus, UML propose un certain nombre de strotypes graphiques pour dcrire la nature du message (ces strotypes graphiques s'appliquent galement aux messages des diagrammes de collaborations) : Message dont on writing, ne spcifie aucune caractristique d'envoi ou de rception particulire. Dissertation Literature Review! message minut (timeout) Bloque l'expditeur pendant un temps donn (qui peut tre spcifi dans une contrainte), en attendant la prise en compte du message par le rcepteur. Online Writing! L'expditeur est libr si la prise en compte n'a pas eu lieu pendant le dlai spcifi. Methodology In A Paper! message synchrone. Bloque l'expditeur jusqu' prise en compte du message par le destinataire. Online! Le flot de contrle passe de l'metteur au rcepteur (l'metteur devient passif et le rcepteur actif) la prise en compte du message. Prompts Students Writing! message asynchrone.

N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur. Writing! Le message envoy peut tre pris en compte par le rcepteur tout moment ou ignor (jamais trait). Literature Review Outline! message drobant. N'interrompt pas l'excution de l'expditeur et ne dclenche une opration chez le rcepteur que s'il s'est pralablement mis en attente de ce message. Sur un diagramme de squence, il est aussi possible de reprsenter de manire explicite les diffrentes priodes d'activit d'un objet au moyen d'une bande rectangulaire superpose la ligne de vie de l'objet. On peut aussi reprsenter des messages rcursifs, en ddoublant la bande d'activation de l'objet concern. Pour reprsenter de manire graphique une excution conditionnelle d'un message, on writing, peut documenter un diagramme de squence avec du pseudo-code et reprsenter des bandes d'activation conditionnelles. Ne confondez la priode d'activation d'un objet avec sa cration ou sa destruction. Is A Methodology In A Paper! Un objet peut tre actif plusieurs fois au cours de son existence (voir exemple ci-dessus). Helper! Le pseudo-code peut aussi tre utilis pour indiquer des itrations (avec incrmentation d'un paramtre d'un message par exemple). Methodology In A! Le retour des messages asynchrones devrait toujours tre matrialis, lorsqu'il existe. Online Helper! Notez qu'il est fortement recommand de synchroniser vos messages, comme sur l'exemple qui suit.

L'exemple qui suit prsente aussi une alternative intressante pour la reprsentation des branchements conditionnels. Examples Of Methodology Section Paper! Cette notation est moins lourde que celle utilise dans l'exemple ci-dessus. Helper! Prfrez aussi l'utilisation de contraintes celle de pseudo-code, comme dans l'exemple qui suit. Afin de mieux comprendre l'exemple ci-dessous, veuillez vous rfrer aux chapitres sur la synchronisation des messages. Essay Donation! Notez aussi l'utilisation des contraintes pour documenter les conditions d'envoi de certains messages. Un message rflexif ne reprsente pas l'envoi d'un message, il reprsente une activit interne l'objet (qui peut tre dtaille dans un diagramme d'activits) ou une abstraction d'une autre interaction (qu'on peut dtailler dans un autre diagramme de squence).

II-D-4-a. Helper! Diagramme d'tats-transitions : smantique^ Ce diagramme sert reprsenter des automates d'tats finis, sous forme de graphes d'tats, relis par des arcs orients qui dcrivent les transitions. Literature Review! Les diagrammes d'tats-transitions permettent de dcrire les changements d'tats d'un objet ou d'un composant, en rponse aux interactions avec d'autres objets/composants ou avec des acteurs. Helper! Un tat se caractrise par sa dure et sa stabilit, il reprsente une conjonction instantane des valeurs des attributs d'un objet. In Schools! Une transition reprsente le passage instantan d'un tat vers un autre.

Une transition est dclenche par un vnement. Online Writing Helper! En d'autres termes : c'est l'arrive d'un vnement qui conditionne la transition. Of Methodology Paper! Les transitions peuvent aussi tre automatiques, lorsqu'on ne spcifie pas l'vnement qui la dclenche. Online Writing! En plus de spcifier un vnement prcis, il est aussi possible de conditionner une transition, l'aide de gardes : il s'agit d'expressions boolennes, exprimes en langage naturel (et encadres de crochets). tats, transition et vnement, notation : II-D-4-b. In A Research Paper! Super-Etat, historique et souches^ Un super-tat est un lment de structuration des diagrammes d'tats-transitions (il s'agit d'un tat qui englobe d'autres tats et transitions).

Le symbole de modlisation historique, mmorise le dernier sous-tat actif d'un super-tat, pour y revenir directement ultrieurement. Le diagramme d'tats-transitions ci-dessous, montre les diffrents tats par lesquels passe une machine laver les voitures. En phase de lustrage ou de lavage, le client peut appuyer sur le bouton d'arrt d'urgence. Helper! S'il appuie sur ce bouton, la machine se met en attente. Prompts For College! Il a alors deux minutes pour reprendre le lavage ou le lustrage (la machine continue en phase de lavage ou de lustrage, suivant l'tat dans lequel elle a t interrompue), sans quoi la machine s'arrte. Writing Helper! En phase de schage, le client peut aussi interrompre la machine. Crime In Schools! Mais dans ce cas, la machine s'arrtera dfinitivement (avant de reprendre un autre cycle entier).

On peut aussi associer une action l'vnement qui dclenche une transition. La syntaxe est alors la suivante : vnement / action Ceci exprime que la transition (dclenche par l'vnement cit) entrane l'excution de l'action spcifie sur l'objet, l'entre du nouvel tat. Exemple : il pleut / ouvrir parapluie Une action correspond une opration disponible dans l'objet dont on online, reprsente les tats. Common Methodology Mistakes In Dissertations! Les actions propres un tat peuvent aussi tre documentes directement l'intrieur de l'tat. UML dfinit un certain nombre de champs qui permettent de dcrire les actions dans un tat : entry / action : action excute l'entre de l'tat exit / action : action excute la sortie de l'tat on online writing helper, vnement / action : action excute chaque fois que l'vnement cit survient do / action : action rcurrente ou significative, excute dans l'tat. Attention, les actions attaches aux clauses entry et exit ne sont pas excutes si l'vnement spcifi dans la clause on writing prompts students creative writing, survient. Writing! Pour indiquer qu'elles peuvent tre excutes plusieurs fois l'arrive d'un vnement, reprsentez l'arrive d'un vnement rflexif, comme suit : II-D-4-d. Prompts For College Writing! Etats concurrents et barre de synchronisation^ Pour reprsenter des tats concurrents sur un mme diagramme d'tats-transitions, on online helper, utilise la notation suivante : Dans l'exemple ci-dessus, l'automate K est compos des sous-automates L et M. L et M s'activent simultanment et voluent en parallle. On Eye Donation! Au dpart, l'objet dont on online, modlise les tats par l'automate K est dans l'tat composite (E-L1, E-M1).

Aprs l'vnement Tr1, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). Common Methodology Mistakes In Dissertations! Par la suite, si l'vnement Tr2 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2). Online Writing Helper! Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, M ne passe pas dans l'tat E-M1, car cette transition est contrainte par l'tat de L ([in E-L3]). Dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M2), si Tr3 survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L2, E-M2). What Is A Research! Si c'est Tr4 qui survient, K passe dans l'tat composite (E-L3, E-M1). Online Helper! Et ainsi de suite. Attention : la numrotation des vnements n'est pas significative.

Pour synchroniser les sous-automates d'une agrgation d'tats, il faut contraindre les transitions, comme dans l'exemple ci-dessus ([in E-L3]). La barre de synchronisation permet de reprsenter graphiquement des points de synchronisation. In Schools! Les transitions automatiques qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Writing Helper! On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. UML permet aussi de paramtrer les vnements, comme dans l'exemple suivant : II-D-4-f. Is A Paper! Echange de messages entre automates^ Il est aussi possible de reprsenter l'change de messages entre automates dans un diagramme d'tats-transitions. Online Writing Helper! Cette notation particulire n'est pas prsente ici. Crime! Veuillez vous rfrer l'UML notation guide. II-D-5-a.

Diagramme d'activits : smantique^ UML permet de reprsenter graphiquement le comportement d'une mthode ou le droulement d'un cas d'utilisation, l'aide de diagrammes d'activits (une variante des diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Online Writing Helper! Une activit reprsente une excution d'un mcanisme, un droulement d'tapes squentielles. Writing On Eye! Le passage d'une activit vers une autre est matrialis par une transition. Writing! Les transitions sont dclenches par la fin d'une activit et provoquent le dbut immdiat d'une autre (elles sont automatiques). Essay Writing On Eye Donation! En thorie, tous les mcanismes dynamiques pourraient tre dcrits par un diagramme d'activits, mais seuls les mcanismes complexes ou intressants mritent d'tre reprsents. activits et transition, notation : Pour reprsenter des transitions conditionnelles, utilisez des gardes (expressions boolennes exprimes en langage naturel), comme dans l'exemple suivant : Il est possible de synchroniser les transitions l'aide des barres de synchronisation (comme dans les diagrammes d'tats-transitions). Les transitions qui partent d'une barre de synchronisation ont lieu en mme temps. Online Helper! On ne franchit une barre de synchronisation qu'aprs ralisation de toutes les transitions qui s'y rattachent. L'exemple suivant illustre l'utilisation des barres de synchronisation : Afin d'organiser un diagramme d'activits selon les diffrents responsables des actions reprsentes, il est possible de dfinir des couloirs d'activits.

Il est mme possible d'identifier les objets principaux, qui sont manipuls d'activits en activits et de visualiser leur changement d'tat. Programmer en C++ n'est pas concevoir objet ! Seule une analyse objet conduit une solution objet (il faut respecter les concepts de base de l'approche objet). What Methodology In A Research! Le langage de programmation est un moyen d'implmentation, il ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet. Online! UML n'est qu'un support de communication ! L'utilisation d'UML ne garantit pas le respect des concepts objet : vous de vous en servir bon escient. Concevoir objet, c'est d'abord concevoir un modle qui respecte les concepts objet ! Le langage et UML ne sont que des outils.

Multipliez les vues sur vos modles ! Un diagramme n'offre qu'une vue trs partielle et prcise d'un modle. Methodology Mistakes In Dissertations! Croisez les vues complmentaires (dynamiques / statiques). Online Helper! Restez simple ! Utilisez les niveaux d'abstraction pour synthtiser vos modles (ne vous limitez pas aux vues d'implmentation). Crime In Schools! Ne surchargez pas vos diagrammes. Writing Helper! Commentez vos diagrammes (notes, texte. In Schools! ). Online Writing Helper! Utilisez des outils appropris pour raliser vos modles ! Vous avez aim ce tutoriel ? Alors partagez-le en cliquant sur les boutons suivants : Copyright 2007 Laurent Piechocki. In Schools! Aucune reproduction, même partielle, ne peut être faite de ce site et de l'ensemble de son contenu : textes, documents, images, etc. Writing! sans l'autorisation expresse de l'auteur.

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college essay uconn Look into online the offices of the baby boomer crowd and see past the is a in a paper, neatly pressed suits, ties, and Botox injections; look into the time when their days were spent fighting the powers that be. Pressing the boundary of online writing helper known independence not for the gratification of Crime being the rebel without a cause but the online writing helper, satisfaction of being apart of a movement. Now look into writing on eye the classroom of high school seniors with their admissions letters and freedom in the midst. Stress levels at the all time high because FAFSA plus scholarships still have not met their “needs” for online, the ever increasing cost of college. Blame it on the rap music, MTV, BET, VHI, and video games for what research, the lack of activism from the college students. Blame it on the lack of morals being taught within the home or maybe the alternate lifestyles of the parents. It is imperative that the “older crowd” find a scapegoat to point the finger at instead of taking the blame and feeling guilty. Could this notion be the writing helper, answer to all of life’s problems? For once, can the frontrunners in campus activism stand up from their pristine mahogany desks and open the eyes of “my people” and help us realize that it is possible to have the power to change. I have never been denied the right to Crime, go to the school of my choice nor have I been told that this opportunity is not fit for my sex.

I cannot fathom being told to sit in the back of the bus or seeing my loved one sold like property. Online. I haven’t had to watch the news and in Schools, see a group of people being obliterated. For the first time in my sheltered life, I will have to go buy my own groceries let alone pay my own bills and online, even that might be a stretch. I stand firm when I say, now is the time for review outline, change. I need the woman who marched alongside her peers so that she could have a fighting chance in the workplace to tell me that I am using her life in vain. I need that man from online, Atlanta, Georgia whose “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” was scrutinized in my AP English class to tell me that I have turned his dream into a nightmare. The only problem is they can’t. Is it because the opportunities are endless that they are taken for granted? I am apart of the silver platter generation because the Real World that I know premieres on MTV with a group of seven strangers.

I challenge my peers to forego the brainwashing of the tabloid news to turn to more trustworthy sources. I challenge the in Schools, news media to produce stories that lack superficiality and have depth. I challenge the parents to push your children and demolish the online, hands-off approach when raising us. The college that the 1960’s student knew hasn’t gone far. It is shielded from what is a methodology paper, our eyes because the issues aren’t addressed. Campuses are priding themselves on exclusivity and competitiveness. However many applicants they can decline can make the silver platter kids feel more honored to attend since society now salutes achievements rather than the online writing helper, journey that it took to writing, get there. Instead of writing helper boycotting or marching, we set higher goals for literature, ourselves and strive for helper, perfection. Now the focus is on the individual becoming better rather than the group. We took one extreme and took it to the other end of the spectrum. Writing Prompts Writing. Back then people lived a free life not worried about helper, spending their summer taking an SAT Prep course or organizing a group to literature outline, promote business plans but to actually embrace culture and create their own.

Natasha Denson, a graduate student in the Prairie View A#038;M College of Nursing doesn’t spend her days organizing a peace effort for third world countries who cannot receive quality medicine not because she doesn’t care but because she doesn’t have time to embrace her career endeavors without a professional mindset. Writing Helper. She is methodology in dissertations passionate about helping society; however her constant nights being miserable and studying will shadow the true beauty of the career she chose. Who could be the possible blame for us “silver platter kids” overlooking the creative outlets that college has to offer? Are we less beneficial to writing, society for not having the rebellious nature that our parents did? Or maybe would it be possible to accept the essay writing donation, ever evolving face of online writing helper education? To think that my generation is the first to not undergo a life altering movement such as Civil Rights, the Holocaust, Segregation, or Vietnam almost makes me think that we are weak. Would it do this piece any justice as to say that we are a society that is no longer focused on the issues rather than self advancement.

To alter that state of in Schools mind would almost be impossible unless those involved in the protests would come out of hibernation and online writing helper, say that it is okay to not believe in what is of methodology section paper being said on TV. Writing Helper. Most are even ashamed to share their humble beginning with their children so why would we want to even involve ourselves with changing our society. I mean who wants to take the reigns of their life and change the pitfalls of the methodology research paper, government or better yet, the helper, world. I have a more independent disposition than my mother but she had more fire in her heart. Music had meaning and the news had purpose. Crime In Schools. People were respectable and children had manners. This is my call to arms not to helper, who you think is “my people” but all people to become lax about perfection and common mistakes, self amelioration. Parents, Stop worrying about your past and how the Neighborhood Watch committee will accept you. Embrace your struggle and share it with your children for they will never know if you don’t teach them.

Don’t allow the internet and writing helper, TV to raise them on issues that you should speak on. My peers, stop updating your Facebook status with nonsense and writing on eye, look to helping others. What’s the matter with college? To answer that, we have to understand why the ones who made it great accomplished what they did. They were not feeble minded and online helper, scared. They tested standards. They were not trying to examples of methodology section in research, find the fountain of youth because they had it inside the whole time.

Now look into helper the offices of those students who went into prompts for college students hiding behind their suits and ties. Maybe once they accept who they were and embrace it, so will their offspring. Online Writing. College as it was known is methodology still there, it will just take that one heart full of fire to break the online writing, standards and the right struggle to bring it back to essay writing on eye donation, the forefront.. The Matter with College is Big Business. The matter with college now is that it is big business, big expensive business. Every year they keep raising the online writing, tuition cost as if every year college students are going to become millionaires. Well I have been in common methodology college for three year and I’m still not a millionaire. Writing Helper. For such a high cost my college experience has been nothing but a wallet busting version of examples high school. You still have the test and the papers and the teachers who either don’t know what they are doing or need to retire, but now that you’re in online college you get to have a huge loan attached to your name when you graduate or should I say if you graduate. The college institution has been alive and kicking for many years.

It is funny how the same ridged ways they use to teach college, they are still teaching today. I believe that the outside world has changed so much that some of dissertation literature review that change should be reflected in online writing the standard college class room. It brings me great joy when I think of the ridiculously high priced college books. The amount of money I have spent on college books I could have feed most of dissertation review outline Latin America. Writing. As if to methodology in dissertations, insult you further students are given a fraction of the text book cost if they decided to writing helper, sell the what is a in a research, book back to the school.

Many of my fellow students have decided to keep their books instead. Today it seems the college institution has become has become a fast food establishment of writing helper sorts, pushing dull unhealthy information into the gaping mouths of students and then pumping them out as fast as possible much like an affluent home owner trying to stop his basement from flooding. Maybe when the U.S. stops competing Asia to see who has the smarts students, then the American education system will see some real change. I mean the kind change where one does not have to go to an Art college to be creative or allowed to for college writing, think outside of the box. On a final note it has come to my attention that college student don’t know what the hell to protest anymore. I have heard more protest against programs like affirmative action then the online helper, slaughter on Iraq or the starvation of African babies.

It seems today that many college students have come to believe that society has finally become fair. That programs established to help many of the people fighting against them are unnecessary. I cannot understand why the writing on eye, college students of today are so stuck in a dream world. Why are students more concerned about keeping a minority from getting his or her entrance spot than trying to keep their fellow military students alive or trying to online helper, stop the world from becoming one giant disease infested pool party (reference to global warming for the clueless). Maybe the matter with college is that it is over methodology in a research paper, rated, out online writing dated and unsophisticated. Dissertation Review Outline. Maybe the problem is that America as a whole has stop holding college up to online, a higher standard. Is A In A Research Paper. Maybe the crisis is that people have stop demanding that college is an institution that expands the minds of students, teaches them the worldly issues that are truly important and provides them an educational service at affordable rates.

Only time will tell if America’s higher education institutions gets it right. Let us hope that we do not have to online, witness see high dropouts and low entrance levels before we see some real change. In “What’s the writing prompts creative writing, Matter With College,” Rick Perlstein contends that college used to matter for three major reasons: it was a haven of intellectual and cultural self-discovery, a key to socioeconomic mobility, and a radical break from online writing, both high school and the real world. Perlstein is correct in examples section in research paper assuming that college no longer represents the writing helper, discrete experience it once did. Writing On Eye. However, he does not account for the fact that it no longer should.

The reshaping of the online writing, boundaries of the college experience in no way diminishes college’s significance as an intellectual incubator or the means to mobility. College still matters: if anything, it matters more today. My high school experience, like that of most American high school students, was a far cry from Harrison Morris’ “they sort of let me do whatever I wanted.” Campus policemen in golf carts maintained strict discipline, and our numerous course requirements allowed similarly little room for deviance in what is a research paper our class schedules. I spent most of online my time there watching the clock, as harried teachers tried to impart state-mandated curricula to an overcrowded classroom. Given this experience, Harrison Morris surely would have counted me among the “profoundly uncreative” when I first arrived at Beloit College, a girl more concerned with the status of literature outline her haircut than that of world affairs. Perlstein believes that college as a “mystic world apart, where 18-year-olds discover themselves for the first time in a heady atmosphere of cultural and intellectual tumult” is an outdated notion. What, then, can explain my transformation at Beloit, from a gum-popping, eternally bored teenager to the opinionated and curious woman I am today? Sitting in small classrooms with peers who enjoyed learning, tackling interesting subject material, and helper, answering to professors who expected nothing less than our best unleashed my intellectual curiosity and mistakes, introduced me to a new world.

Colleges that change lives are far from extinct. Despite the similarities between Perlstein’s college experience and my own, I agree that college has changed in a fundamental way. Online Writing. College no longer represents the radical break from the real world that it used to. It increasingly “cuts against the presumption that the campus should be a place radically apart from the rest of society,” and we like it that way. Is this necessarily a negative? Does the entrance of the real world into our studies somehow cheapen our intellectual pursuits?

I argue that it does nothing but enhance them. We are no longer content to spend four years studying, deconstructing, and asking questions about the world only to do nothing about our findings. We are not comfortable remaining within the lofty halls of the dissertation review outline, ivory tower: we are eager to test our skills and theories in the world around us. Our desire to do so makes sense in context. From the war on drugs to the war in Iraq, we have witnessed too many mistakes made by those who refuse to step outside the bounds of theory and abstraction and confront on-the-ground realities. Colleges have responded to this desire, and many have incorporated internships and other experiential learning opportunities into the curriculum. Given this truth, perhaps it is time to give the much-maligned “organization kid” a break. Writing. Perlstein and methodology mistakes in dissertations, Brooks paint organization kids as overscheduled automatons, faceless cogs in the college bureaucracy that schedules students’ self-exploration. In their view, the organization kid epitomizes everything that is helper wrong with the modern-day college experience.

Perhaps today’s organization kid is suspicious to the baby boomers because she appears neither radical nor alienated, and therefore hardly revolutionary. But please don’t let her exterior fool you. The baby boomer generation is now the establishment. The status quo students face today is different from that of writing for college creative our parents. Online. Social ills like racism, sexism, and the disenfranchisement of the poor are no less pervasive than they were in the 1960s, but they are now manifested more subtly. As our society evolves, so must our methods of promoting social change. Last year, a group of writing donation concerned Beloit students approached the helper, administration, asking them to Crime in Schools, make a tangible commitment to remedying our campus’ lack of racial diversity. To be sure, small changes came frustratingly slowly, and the process remains far from finished. However, the point is that they listened to us: dialogue between students and administration is possible in online helper a way that it was not 40 years ago.

Students are able to make progress towards change within the system, before we resort to taking over buildings. I am an organization kid, replete with the impressive credentials. I make no attempt to hide that my ultimate aim is to essay, become a cog in helper the great American bureaucracy, for it is that bureaucracy that holds the power in our society. Born into a white, middle class family, I have been granted extraordinary unearned privilege. I am a direct beneficiary of the civil rights movement; I am the daughter you took to work. I am aware of the great debt I owe society. For this reason, I work towards attaining a position of for college power where I can actively influence social change.

In today’s world, I can channel my dissatisfaction with the status quo most effectively by “opting in” to the system, a decision that is perhaps incomprehensible to a generation that rebelled by “opting out.” During the last weeks of our senior year, members of online writing our Sociology class complained that we were sick of the college’s hypocrisy, the slow pace of is a methodology paper bureaucratic change, and the sense of confinement on online helper a small campus we had grown eager to writing prompts for college creative, escape. If Perlstein had been with us that day, he would have found ample support for his conclusions. Therefore, our surprise was palpable when our professor replied, “Every senior class has the same complaints.” He continued, “Your frustration with this place means that Beloit has done its job. We claim to develop students into engaged, active citizens, sensitive to contradiction and constantly questioning. The fact that you are now able to turn these skills around on us means two things: you got what you came for, and you’ve outgrown this place.” That I was eager to leave Beloit College in no way cheapens my experience there, and it makes me no less nostalgic for the most influential four years of my life. Yeah, I’d say college still matters. Where Art Thou Oh College Experience? The college experience is not as necessary as it was in the sixties and seventies.

Society has changed and online writing helper, we have changed with it. We, as students no longer need the embodied idea of college to be able to “figure ourselves out.” Because of writing prompts for college students creative this, students are no longer molding colleges. Colleges are molding students. Online Helper. College is, essentially, a means to a career.

It is just another step we must take, not so much the voyage of self-discover claimed in the 1960’s. The whole idea is to continue to section in research paper, prepare students for the next step in their life. Writing. In high school, we are prepared for college. College…internships. Internships…assistant job. Assistant job…associate job. Associate job…etc. Reagan has seemed to have gotten his social-mobility community, sans the “noisy, dissident minority” (for that dissident minority is no longer present at what methodology paper, every school, only represented at a dissident minority of schools). Colleges are paving the itinerate path for online helper, the young, eager minds of students. But why on earth, you may wonder, would students allow this to happen? It’s because you don’t have to discuss your ideas with other people.

There really is no learning what you are about, there is dissertation only finding your niche and sticking to it. And how do you do that? The media will tell you, no need to put in any effort. Want to support Bush? You’re Fox news. Want to oppose Bush? You’re CBS news. Not really interested in Bush, but intrigued by Pars Hilton’s recent release from jail?

WB11 news. Have no idea who Bush is, but can recite the names of every one of Paris Hilton’s dogs? E! “news.” There is no need to listen to other people’s thoughts and ideas, no need to decide if you agree or disagree. All you have to do to find a friend is match your category. “What news channel do you watch?” If their answer matches yours or at least falls into a category you can conceivable tolerate, hang out, talk about how utterly the same you are. No match?

Walk away, this person will only offer opposition (not growth!). This niche idea doesn’t only writing helper attach itself to the news, that’s just my example. TV, music, people, everything has a genre, everything is categorized. Surprisingly enough, this categorizing, this separation, is largely caused by globalization. Everyone can talk to everyone who can talk to everyone. On Eye. So how do you weed out the ones not worth talking to (because otherwise you will undoubtedly be presented with the online helper, lofty goal of dissertation literature review outline personally communicating with every human being in the world)? You find your niche. And in you’re niche you live. In the “old days,” for helper, college students anyway, your niche was your college. Essay Writing On Eye Donation. Without this ability to online writing helper, communicate with absolutely anyone, your niche was limited to your physical vicinity. This niche, though, was made up of people with different backgrounds and thoughts and ideas and beliefs – all becoming shareable within the niche.

The difference is writing for college creative writing this – back then, your niche was wherever you were, whoever you were with, whatever they were saying. Your niche was physical. Today, your niche is more or less intellectual. Online Writing Helper. Why bother talking to the person who lives in the dorm room next to you when you can talk to people who already “know you,” already “get you” on your little wired-up PC. This is, of writing prompts students writing course, not true for everyone. There are always exceptions. Not everyone has been caught by helper, the niche wave, but you have to dissertation review, make a sincere effort to broaden your horizon, to broaden your perspective, on life. Some people do this by going abroad. But then again, I’ve known a few that have gone abroad with friends and only hung out with those friends the entire semester.

Same niche, just a change of scenery. Now it may be obvious that I may not think this intellectual niche business is the greatest thing since sliced bread, but I’m not completely knocking it. After all, I am a product of the intellectual niche society. When my computer screen cracked and online, my dear friend of a machine went missing for over a month, I mourned my loss and examples section in research paper, grumbled about being cut off from the online writing, entire world. There are, in fact, positives to this trend. With these technologies, you have more options. Teens especially are provided with more outlets for whatever it is Crime in Schools they need an helper outlet for.

You have more options. Dissertation Outline. But with these options, people tend to limit themselves. When you have the option to have your favorite chocolate glazed donut every day, why bother trying the strawberry frosted? When you are satisfied with your niche, why bother traveling outside of its borders where strange and unknown flavors await you? The intellectual niche is not an evil of online society (like global warming or Hitler). It’s just an inevitable consequence of an ever-changing society. The direction our society has driven, the prompts for college creative, developments we’ve made – they have their positives and they have their negatives. Sure nowadays our college experience may not be what it was in the “glory days” (you know those days when people walked uphill both ways to school barefoot in the snow). But at least if my care breaks down on helper the side of the road, global communication, globalization, allows me to call for a ride and some good old-fashioned Triple A.

As I said, society has changed, and we have changed with it. Paper. I may never have the ideal 1960’s college experience. But, in writing the same respect, those attending school in the 2050’s will never have the ideal 2000’s college experience (because perhaps a “classroom” to them will mean an online community of essay on eye usernames holding discussion through VoIP conferences, not a physical space). And people like myself will sit around grumbling about the glory days. You know, back when college was college. A Shifting Focus: Collegiate Life from the 60’s through Today. As colleges and universities nationwide train the future All-Stars of the American workforce, today’s society witnesses a kind of intense academic focus to which past generations were unaccustomed. Rick Perlstein’s article “What’s the Matter With College?” ushers in this era of coffee-infused all-nighters and writing helper, privately tutored study sessions with one alarmingly simple, yet valid statement – “College as America used to examples of methodology section in research paper, understand it is coming to an end.” Perlstein’s article poses one question to the readers that is writing largely answered in the article itself. The idea that “higher education for methodology mistakes in dissertations, Americans is more important than ever” explains exactly why college students no longer “lead the culture.” The pressing need for college-educated individuals has transformed our nation into an increasingly competitive breeding ground of unflinching career-seekers with blueprinted futures.

Forget “arguing night and day” over societal issues in the dorm lounge, today’s college students duke it out with a much less animated adversary – coursework. While escalating tuition rates devour thousands of dollars of their “hip baby-boomer” parents’ resources, students’ social lives dwindle with relentless course loads and discomforting fears of the slightest academic misstep. There is little room for error, much less imagination, when one pursues an occupation since America has embraced a Darwin-esque “survival of the fittest” mindset towards employment, where preparation seemingly begins at birth. From an early age, our students are sat on a standardized test-ridden merry-go-round of memorization and writing, repetition. When they step off this carousel and into common mistakes college life, should America really expect more than the “insanely uncreative” bunch mentioned in Perlstein’s article?

Our “fill-in-the-bubble” society, as I like to think, has crippled students’ youthful creativity (what remains of it) while commending narrow-minded, “inside-the-box” thinking sufficient enough only for multiple choice questions. Today, the online writing helper, Internet stimulates those students looking for a “radically more democratic and diverse culture” – those few who have survived the monotonous academic barrage of American schools with a tattered, yet malleable imagination. The World Wide Web satisfies a vast contingent of literature would-be “revolutionaries” reminiscent of the 1960’s and 1970’s, providing a safe-haven for writing helper, all to literature, preach their words via websites, podcasts, blogs, even videos. However, this online retreat has welcomed its users, including college students, into a mesmerized state of amenable seclusion while literally sheltering them from reality. The Internet, thought only to be opening one beneficial door to online information, has literally slammed shut millions of others in dorms and households nationwide. It has transformed our living quarters into isolation chambers, and sentenced us (or perhaps, it is more likely that we have sentenced ourselves) to countless hours in front of the computer screen. The tool intended to helper, expand our thoughts works simultaneously to contain them, and with a tinge of writing for college students creative irony channels our fresh ideas back into the receptive online community, enfeebling our chances of any impact on the outside world. American society has single-handedly molded its own “Youtube Generation,” and online writing helper, has become reliant on a virtual world to quiet those unorthodox minds, those modern-day “noisy, dissident minorities” that may very well place society’s focus back on college campuses.

This same networking mecca, with its AOL Instant Messengers and dissertation review, webcam-ready chat rooms, has effortlessly evolved into the universal hub of rapid communication. Conversations are initiated by a simple click of the mouse, and old friends are morphed into icons with personalized screen names. While college students make almost exploitative use of these and other now-commonplace conveniences such as the helper, cell phone, American society sits intricately connected at dissertation literature outline, an almost uncomfortable proximity. Consequently, the “radical break” provided by college in the 1960’s and 1970’s is now a subtle, regulated split from helper, one’s high school days. The era of the Sunday “obligatory 30 second phone call on the dorm phone” to the parents has given way to the full-time job of literature review outline incessant text messaging and online, daily checkup dials to friends at what is a methodology in a research, home. The “liberating moment” experienced by freshmen in college is still noticeably present, but students must now endure the steady pull of the home front while they struggle to adapt to writing, a foreign environment. Students are no longer forcibly thrust into a collegiate chaos with self-reliance as their sole confidant, but instead babied through any negligible difficulty by a familiar voice at the other end of the line. Improvisation deserves no place in Crime in Schools the collegiate dictionary, for the idea of “winging it” is much too venturesome with familial guidance on speed dial. Online. America once again has itself to blame for plugging up yet another outlet of innovation and ingenuity.

College students nowadays lack the “it” factor that set the muted liberal minds of past generations aflame with radical concepts and unconventional ideas. The trailblazing “trial-and-error” technique of the 1960’s and 1970’s has taken a backseat to the “tried-and-true” method of current college students, who seek only conventional solutions to mundane matters. Perhaps the phrase “no flavor added” epitomizes the stale lifestyle of America’s not-so-independent thinkers, whose own flavors of prolificacy may only be tasted with a return to what is a methodology research, the extreme levels of online writing self-reliance seen within the college culture of the ’60’s and what is a methodology in a research paper, ’70’s. A less rigid guidance plan at student orientation paired with mere course suggestions throughout one’s undergraduate career (no parents allowed) may prove to be American colleges’ winning recipe for resurrection from their usual humdrum routine of churning out uniform numbers of single-skilled robots. Online Helper. We could surprise ourselves by prompts students, injecting a little ad-lib “spice” back into the lives of our nation’s next Great Hopes, and conceivably return colleges nationwide to their merited central place in online the broader society. As a supplement to my own and Mr. Perlstein’s findings, I offer these words of advice: Blur the Crime, implacably focused minds of our college students for a minute and turn the magnifying glass on America in its entirety.

Perhaps it is our society that should be in more of a sweat about online helper, plans for the distant future. One need not be a med school graduate to diagnose our nation’s condition: a lethal addiction to the over-regulated, ultra-competitive collegiate sport of career-seeking. The disease coincides with a dilatory decay of creativity, where the remnants of ingenuity and originality escape into common methodology an online community or evanesce in a herculean heap of writing helper coursework. It is only when we break this time-hardened addiction that maybe then we will discover what really is the dissertation review, matter with college in the twenty-first century. In the sense that Rick Perlstien discusses why college life and college students are an increasingly inconsequential bunch of online writing helper people to the direction of the nation, its politics and its culture, he is absolutely correct. Essay. As a current university student, I cannot dispute his allegations and this should be no.

surprise. It is important however, that we all understand the reasons for this change between the generations. Helper. I believe there are three overarching explinations for examples section, this; first, we live in an increasingly isolated society, second, college is no longer a unique experience, and third, the out of online helper control costs of a. The “organization students” which Mr. Perlstien discusses in his commentary participate in these things so heavily because that’s all there is left. Common In Dissertations. The college experience which he describes has become diluted beyond recognition by online writing helper, isolated and often dysfunctional suburban kids playing endless video games, watching Comedy Central twelve hours a day and drinking to get “wasted.” While this is obviously not universally true, it has so clearly taken over writing for college writing, Perlstien’s idyllic description, that in order to find that intellectual conversation, that spontaneous creativity, those like Perlstien must search out these experiences in these all-consuming student groups. This is of course a product of our increasingly isolated society, which is arguably a product of the first generation that grew up largely in writing the suburbs, and a result of new web services of our generation such as MySpace, Facebook, AIM, and more. Our suburban childhood has been the most coddled, homogeneous, sterile existence in the history of the writing prompts for college students creative, world. The type of homogeneous isolated environments college students of our generation come from are so void of creative inspiration, and online, human interactions that students from these backgrounds.

often cannot relate that well to other people, how to have fun with others, or just have fun with intellectual conversation. This lack of creativity and prompts creative, coddled isolation is online helper helped along by policies and infrastructure that require our kids to be bussed door to door less than half a mile to their school, that. create placeless streets and single standard existence across the 48 contiguous states. The MySpace generation is the most narcissistic generation in years, and what is a methodology research, it will has a profound effect on college life. The tools of the most recent Time “person of the online, year,” MySpace, Facebook, YouTube and AIM, serve to further isolate students from human interaction with eachother, and the society at large and are largely void of “spontaneous creativity.” Students are now spending hours of for college their day on these sites writing about helper, their most recent social gossip, or self pontificating, or IM’ing eachother, or checking away messages during that non-class time that so defined the in Schools, life of a college student in Mr. Perlstien’s time. Is it really surprising that such an inward-oriented generation is disinterested and inactive in writing the politics of our time? While certainly many university students are interested and active, there is not a critical mass as there once was, and the population of in research disinterested apathetic students seems to have an overwhelming effect on the remainder.

This brings me to my second point: College is no longer a unique experience. In the most practical sense, an online writing helper undergraduate education is required for our generation to function in society, and Masters degrees are increasingly required for decent paying jobs in many industries. Often, students are pushed. into college whether they are ready or interested or absolutely not, simply because it’s the only route leading to benefits, faster promotions, and the elusive “American dream.” The type of college life that Perlstien relishes cannot be achieve with this type of student body. But the real importance of this is that universities have lowered themselves to this thinking. The institutions have diluted themselves to meet this type of demand, and thereby now lack creativity and flexibility. Many, if not dare I say most. programs of colleges and universities are set up as training sites to churn out mindless soldiers for all sectors of our economy.

It does not help that this critical mass of students who are so focused on the job at the end of the 4-year rainbow realize that their simple 4-year degree is increasingly worthless for their promised reward, and must continue on, collecting more dream-shattering debt. This brings me to my final point, the outrageous cost of this required higher education. During my parent’s years in college, the late 60’s and essay on eye, early 70’s, four years of college cost the online writing helper, equivalent of a tiny portion of his father’s annual income, yet now one year at examples section in research paper, his alma matter is about $46,000. Sure, there are scholarships out there but the truth is online that being in college is a massive long term burden. The late night intellectual conversation and spontaneous creativity of in Schools Mr. Perlstien simply cannot be a part of the.

experience of those who have to work every waking hour of their college existence outside of class to limit the dramatic effects such long term debt will have on their future. For an writing alarmingly large number of students and families, college is a survival game that has long term consequences which place limits on graduates years after completion. Certainly everything I describe here is not universal of all college students, I am simply noting overarching trends in college life. This should not be seen as a commentary bashing my peers for their behavior, but rather a short primer on ingrained problems within our society which must be addressed together from many fronts, my final point being the easiest one to solve. We will need big ideas and brave politicians to help slow this gutting of future generations before it is too late for all of society. Morose in the Machine: Why College Doesn’t Matter, But Should. “Education is the path from cocky ignorance to miserable uncertainty” College! The word in itself represents a platonic ideal of success.

And therein lies the problem. Through freshman and sophomore and examples, junior years of high school, I worked hard sometimes because I enjoyed the work but often because I had to helper, do the work. The gatekeepers demand their dues – strong academic record, high standardized test scores, extracurriculars. High schoolers bob their heads in fealty; work all night finishing papers or labs, ensuring no slip will sully our GPA; pay obeisance in the form of test prep courses or community service; and ask in return only that we might attend a prestigious institution of higher education. Admissions officers with titles like “input control specialist” process applications, sort the grain from the chaff, wielding enormous power to crush the hopes of donation anxious teenagers with the click of a mouse button. These teenagers, socially conditioned to view college as an end in itself – rather than as a means – wait while admissions officers determine their life’s worth. Eventually the letters arrive, thin or fat, harbinger of failure or herald of joy.

And the following September, millions of American eighteen-year-olds, free at last from parents, troop off for their first taste of independence. But soon enough our eagerness turns to sour brine as we are mistreated by an impersonal bureaucracy. Within a year or two, the motivating force for most is no longer “education” but rather “paying off loans” or “not disappointing my parents” or “having fun before I shuffle off into the drudgery of the writing, real world.” Most 18-year-olds are not ready to decide our life’s ambition, and the two years (10 classes? 11?) we are given to decide our major is but a small fraction of what our life holds for us. It is absurd to ask a (hormonal, sex-addled, lonely, bewildered) teenager what she is dissertation doing with her life, and no less absurd to expect her to discover it in such a brief span. Some fortunate few – many in “hard” fields, the sciences or mathematics – are well-suited to the college environment, and it is these students we see hunched over their textbooks on a Saturday night. Most meander, distracted by the parties, the booze, the parents, the freedom – and they forget (if they ever knew) why they stepped onto campus in the first place. Information overload in this modern age devalues learning – Wikipedia substitutes for real research, as students feel too busy to delve into a dusty book and prefer the easy accessibility of the writing, internet. We are receive advise, are told what to think, talk on cellphones, chat online, check Facebook, worry about examples in research paper, money or sex or parents.

We have no time to breathe and recognize our good fortune. And so we do not. College is a great opportunity best suited to students confident of writing helper what it is they hope to extract from the four years they spend there. College is opportunity – and yet all too many of us let that opportunity turn to mediocrity because at 18 we have not the mistakes in dissertations, experience to online helper, take advantage of it. Only in hindsight do we recognize it for what it truly is – a gateway to the world and what is a paper, everything in it. Most of us are too busy fretting over loans, getting wasted or high, or pondering that most important question – what the online, hell am I doing here? We pretend that everyone should go to college, as though spending four years and thousands upon thousands of dollars will transfigure wide-eyed teenagers to productive members of society. College should be open to all ready and willing to writing, pour sweat and tears into online writing helper making the most of it.

That kind of dedication is not present in most teenagers. We deceive ourselves into thinking everyone should go to college because we think of college as an end in itself, a triumph of societal virtue. How often are we told of a child being “first in their family” to donation, attend college? These stories inspire hope that America remains a society where anyone can succeed. But how many of those children, whose parents toiled to online helper, give them that opportunity, go to in a paper, college and vanish into the bureaucratic apparatus, which aims to emboss knowledge upon puerile youth’s blank slate? The act of attending a university is writing helper not enough – what really matters is what we take from the experience, what it prepares us to do, how it changes our ideas about the world and dissertation outline, enables us to bring those ideas to fruition. Helper. College must be more than a machine that takes naive teenagers and churns out reliable taxpayers. Many should go to prompts creative, college – not at 18 or 19, but at 21 or 25 or 30, after they mature enough to take their studies seriously (some will be ready at 18, but not most). They should spend some time in the “real world,” work jobs, have sex, drink alcohol, learn something of writing life outside the sheltered halls of university before they move into them. To get the essay on eye, most out of the experience, students should be ready to ask tough questions of professors, poke holes in theories, take intellectual responsibility in a way that demands both self-confidence and the ability to take a chance, to writing helper, be wrong, to look the fool.

College should be about honesty – not just about knowing, about writing for college, collecting facts, but about knowing what we don’t know and understanding how to turn facts into wisdom. The omnipresent, sprawling bureaucracy that administrates the online writing helper, modern university bears a share of the blame. All too often, the writing donation, college is run for the benefit of alumni and parents – not for its students. It’s all about the money – wheedling as much of it away from alumni and parents as possible while funding student activities that cast the university in online helper a good light and hiding those which do not match its image away in basements or closets. Students notice this kind of marketing strategy, notice the way administrators are never seen except to make speeches about how much money the examples of methodology, university has raised – we notice, and adjust our attitude accordingly.

If nobody cares about us, why should we care about the school? Academia itself is another culprit – many students struggle connect our professors’ lectures to anything we might encounter in life. Professors rightfully expect diligence from we students (which many do not have at eighteen) and students should expect certain things in return, chief among them the online writing helper, honesty and humility to admit that most fields are not bound by iron laws with right and essay on eye donation, wrong answers. Online Writing Helper. Modesty is hard to find in what methodology in a paper the bastion of higher education, but its presence can never be harmful. And students should demand more than facts – we should be given the tools to assemble, from raw knowledge, wisdom – a much rarer and more valuable commodity. College should teach us how to think – should break down cocky ignorance and online writing, teach us to question not only the world around us but also ourselves. It should not be inaccessible to anyone for economic reasons – but it should be closed to those unready to writing prompts students, accept its challenge. And if I graduate miserable, I should be miserable for all the things I have not learned, not because I foolishly double-majored in French Literature and Anthropology and can’t find a job to pay off $100,000 in student loans. What’s Really the Matter with College? College as America used to understand it is coming to an end. Gone are the days of extemporaneous late-night philosophical conversations in monastic dorm lounges.

Instead, colleges these days are brimming with kids who, rather than asking the online, fundamental questions of humanity, obsess about methodology mistakes, how they are going to writing helper, fit into the economy after graduation. This is the sordid state of college in dissertation literature America nowadays. Writing. According to Rick Perlstein, anyway. But does his depiction reflect reality? Is there really such a disparity between the utopian college “city states” of the mid-century and college campuses today? I think not. A day before my college orientation, I drove with my parents from Fayetteville, AR to Sarasota, FL. After twenty hours in my mom’s white minivan, we pulled up to the bustling student center. I unloaded my bags, hugged goodbye to my parents, and then promptly turned to walk towards my new dorm and into dissertation literature review outline a different world. Writing Helper. As I neared the dorms, the outline, melodies of John Coltrane and John Cage reached my ears from recordings blaring from speakers on dorm balconies.

Pungent marijuana smoke wafted by helper, me in delightful spurts and barefooted classmates smiled and invited me into their rooms. My first week of college was an endless procession of dancing, streaking, partying, and research, philosophical conversations. Quite utopian. The partying has subsided over the past two years, but the philosophical conversations have augmented in online writing helper quality and mistakes in dissertations, quantity. I participate in ongoing discussions with my friends that run the intellectual gamut: the online writing, efficacy of democracy, the for college writing, role of women in Roman society, the life patterns of sea hairs in Sarasota bay. Helper. Perhaps, then, my experience is not so different from Mr. Perlstein’s in the 1960’s, with his late-night intellectual debates at the University of Chicago. But then again, there are plenty of moments when students at my college must think about their futures. We have to decide whether it’s going to be graduate school, a job, or the review, Peace Corps. We have to think about money and paying off loans.

But were Perlstein’s contemporaries in the 1960’s and 70’s totally unconcerned about online helper, these aspects of is a methodology paper life? In order to find out, I asked this question to my parents and some of helper their friends, who attended college forty years ago. Crime In Schools. My mom, a graduate from UC Davis, told me that her college experience was liberating and writing helper, enlightening, but always haunted by the question: “What I am going to essay on eye, do to make money when I graduate?” For my dad, growing up in southern Louisiana, college answered the “What am I going to do next?” question for a little while longer: “You had three choices: go work, go into the military, or go to college. But even if you went to college, it was geared towards what you were going to online, do afterwards.” I’ve received similar responses from the others I interviewed. Evidently, college students back in the day were indeed concerned about “what comes next” and how to what is a methodology research, pay for it. They didn’t, as Perlstein would have it, all have an enlightening experience in writing helper a utopian college atmosphere that was unadulterated by the economic burdens of the real world. In this sense, perhaps the college experience back then was not so different from my experience now. Rather than adopting Perlstein’s stark juxtaposition between college as it used to be and what it is today, I think we are better off highlighting the similarities: students have always liked to learn stuff and discuss ideas, yet are justifiably concerned about quotidian issues like having enough money to pay for expenses. By recognizing this immutable similarity, perhaps we can discuss a more fundamental issue: why does there have to be this tension between learning for the sake of writing donation learning and plugging into the economy?

I think the answer lies in Perstein’s critique of university bureaucracy. Instead of allowing a student to pursue questions and projects that interest her in an organic and individual manner, the bureaucracy attempts to online writing, routinize every facet of her self-exploration. Is A Paper. She has to online helper, accumulate credit hours, take required classes, declare a major, and keep up her GPA. We’ve come to think that the only way to succeed in life is to common methodology in dissertations, display the acceptable numbers and check off the appropriate boxes. But is looking good to helper, the bureaucracy the mistakes in dissertations, only way, or even the best way, to succeed economically in our epoch of globalization and Internet? Last week I met a twenty-three-year-old college drop out who is an avid online gamer. He is also, as it turns out, the writer and director of a new Australian television series that is all about gaming.

This young man flies around the world interviewing the creators of new games, filming retirees using WI bowling in their nursing homes, and edifying his viewers on the history of Nintendo. He has this show because one day he and a friend decided to make a pitch to writing helper, ABC (Australian Broadcasting Company), and the company loved it. Here is a young man with passion, expertise, some rudimentary marketing skills, and dissertation literature review, no college GPA or GRE score who is flourishing in writing the world economy. But this is not meant to undermine the importance of college. College is, after all, a place of high-density meme exchange between professors and students, and writing on eye, amongst students, as well as a fecund space for pursing ideas and online, passions.

Rather, this example demonstrates that ideas and creativity are central to forming enjoyable and lucrative projects in today’s world, and that university bureaucracy is probably just getting in the way. Maybe there wouldn’t be such a long-standing tension in of methodology in research college students between learning and fitting into the economy if there were colleges that supported and guided students through personalized academic projects that the student is truly passionate about. Fortunately, there are a few colleges that endorse this educational philosophy, and I happen to go to one of them. When I tell my friends from high school about writing, The New College of Florida, they often roll their eyes. Invariably, they’ll ask: “So, is it really true that you don’t have grades? You’re telling me that you actually work one on one with your professors as an methodology undergraduate? They really give you page-long evaluations of your work? Do you really have independent study projects and small group tutorials?” And the answer, to their bemusement, is always “yes.” Instead of plodding through a prescribed academic regimen, we work one-on-one with professors to online, pursue projects that incorporate our academic and personal passions. Writing On Eye. Our culminating project–the senior thesis–integrates all of our projects and experiences at New College.

What is more, this kind of creative and personalized approach to online, learning prepares us for launching successful projects in the world after college. Rather than worrying about dissertation literature, how we will fit into a pre-established firm or bureaucracy when we graduate, we are excited about the projects we will bring about. I know I am, anyway. The Freedom to helper, Apply (in 500 Words or Less) By the time I had finally mailed off my final application, I held such a passionate disdain for the general realm of essay on eye donation college admissions that I almost felt bitter towards my acceptance letters. Online Writing Helper. I cannot deny that I was thrilled, even ecstatic, to send in examples of methodology section my matriculation letter, but as I declared myself a member of the class of 2010 I felt a lingering contempt for the process that had gotten me there.

I thought of the hundreds of dollars my family had spent towards testing fees, application fees, traveling to visit various campuses, even the online helper, postage to mail off my nine–yes, nine–applications. It all felt like a waste. And then, I got to college. What a difference. Crime. What a change from the desperately monotonous three months I had spent at home post-graduation, teaching six year-olds how to hit forehands each morning and ringing up groceries in the afternoon. During my orientation I found myself surrounded by over 700 students my age, all of online writing whom seemed eager to socialize and expose themselves to review outline, new ideas, new people–really, a new lifestyle. As much as I had appreciated my public school education, nothing could have prepared me for helper, the countless debates, discussions, and lectures that followed throughout my first semester. My classes, seemingly a confused, jumbled selection made by a confused liberal arts freshman, all seemed to come together in methodology in a research paper my Sociology class.

As my professor pushed us to dissect the likes of Marx, DuBois, Durkheim, and online writing helper, Mills, I began to make connections between the African Diaspora and DuBois’ passionate prose, or Virginia Woolf’s distressed realizations in A Room of examples of methodology section paper One’s Own. I could not only feel that I was learning when I stayed up through the helper, night writing essays or argued for my interpretation of a passage in class, but even as I walked across the dissertation review outline, quad to online writing helper, lunch, and became instinctively aware of the methodology in dissertations, crunch of a leaf under my sneaker: I felt stimulated, both intellectually and socially, in online ways I had never experienced in my rural Vermont hometown. In my own experience, the problems I see embedded in American colleges may not be separate from the universities altogether, but their academic foundations are certainly not to be blamed. Is A In A Paper. Rather, I see the problems rooted in online writing the admissions process, which seems to clash entirely with the very spirit and goals of higher education. While the essence and lure of American colleges is freedom of expression, of dissertation review outline thought, of social life, and helper, exposure and access to these newfound freedoms, the new nature of examples of methodology in research admissions seems to be centered on strict guidelines and online, acquired advantages, such as ability to pay for and attend SAT classes, that are available primarily through access to money–a trend mirrored by rising tuition fees.

The admissions essay epitomizes these restrictions. A high school senior eager to dissertation review, pour out online her heart about a service trip to paper, Guatemala or to writing, honor a grandfather may be told that it’s “too cliche” and Crime in Schools, that they’d be better off to write about something else–something more obscure. “Try to make the admissions reader learn something about you.” The catch is, it can’t be about something they might have learned about some other high school senior. I became disillusioned with my own essay somewhere around the fifth draft, when my brother told me I should rework my entire conclusion. I nearly broke down out of frustration when I asked, “But isn’t it supposed to be my writing?” I had to stop before comments about helper, “Word choice” and “Evoke more emotion” completely concealed the ink and made my work an unrecognizable amalgamation of edits from my parents, my siblings, my college counselor aunt, a number of teachers, and so on. I gave up and section paper, sent it in. I also grew increasingly resentful of the SAT when a classmate told me that the number of words, adherence to the “five-paragraph form” and helper, relevant historical references were all directly proportional to one’s score in the new Writing section. This only strengthened my belief that the College Board was effectively removing creativity and, yes, freedom, from high school academics. My Advanced Placement Physics class senior year, for example, had been called Honors Physics when my brother had taken it before increased competition had forced our high school to designate five AP courses. As Honors Physics, my brother tells me the class focused on hands-on learning and used a textbook only sparingly. For one project he and his friends constructed a potato launcher and determined the physics of the what is a in a research, spud’s air travel.

In my AP class, with the online writing helper, same imaginative instructor, the in Schools, course depended on a prescribed textbook to online writing helper, determine the topics for daily lectures and exams. Literature Review Outline. I was lucky to pass the class as a dispirited second-semester senior, but not before I used two pages of the online helper, essay section in the AP test to write a letter to the College Board, citing my dissatisfaction with the changes they had forced high schools to literature, make in order to writing, “compete.” On this point I agree with Mr. Perlstein’s assertion that the line between college and market has narrowed significantly over the years. What Is A Research Paper. But from my personal experience, I maintain that colleges–or more specifically, college professors and students–still provide an online writing environment in which students are invited to explore the new.

One of the in Schools, most influential college professors I have had implored us, his students in a James Baldwin course, to take advantage of the online helper, fact that while in college, “you are the most free you will ever be.” His tone was almost desperate; his motivation genuine. Prompts. If colleges today have lost their “centrality,” as Mr. Perlstein claims, in helper the American mindset, then it is not the fault of the universities themselves but of the bureaucratic processes that characterize their admissions. Once we allow creativity and freedom to explore outside of our campuses, our students will willingly embrace the alienated radicalism that Mr. Perlstein so yearns for. Ironically, though, in what research my own college essay I wrote about my nostalgia for years I hadn’t been alive for, and pined for the freedom of rebellion I imagined in my parents’ teenage years throughout the sixties and seventies. My generation, I felt, was restricted by helper, a more conformist culture that barred teenagers from being, well, teenagers. In the end, though, I accepted this change so long as a basic desire to rebel exists–and I believe this desire is alive and well on college campuses. The passage of prompts for college writing time, and the changes it may bring, does not necessarily eliminate the principles and online writing helper, practices of the past.

American colleges and their students may incorporate new beliefs and evolve over time, but they will remain what they are–a respite from the real world, a chance to widen one’s intellectual mindset and social experiences–so long as the processes that determine their student bodies become less impersonal and embrace this attitude as well. However, I do believe it is the student’s responsibility to take advantage of the freedom offered on college campuses, and to extend the tradition of radicalism behind his or her parents’ hazy memories. Hell, you’re in college! You’re as free as you’ll ever be. The Lack of Collectivity and the College Experience.

There are a lot of dead birds in Hyde Park. Dissertation Review Outline. I don’t know if they’re on every college campus–they must be, but I guess I just never noticed these birds before coming to the University of Chicago. I’ve always been troubled by the sight of a dead bird; I can’t see one without thinking of their long-standing symbolic value of freedom. Online Writing. They are unbound by gravity as we are bound, but crushed, dead they are a freedom purloined. This removal of methodology in a paper freedom is a starting point for the transformation of the college experience from the 1960s. College cannot be what it once was; the collectivity of the college lifestyle has disintegrated to a singular experience in which it has become impossible to care outside of oneself.

It seems that college campuses must be strewn with dead birds–the death of freedom has begun the end of the significance that college once had. College in the ’60s meant freedom: no parents, a liberal environment, ability to vote, cigarettes, marijuana, and of course, alcohol–all of this deluged upon the coming-of-age college freshman. Helper. However, now this latter piece of the freedom is gone. One can no longer enter into college being able to drink alcohol. This sounds petty, yes, but in the quest to preserve the archetypical college experience, students seek to drink, which is section in research not a very difficult task. However, the wayward outlaws of the collegiate scene must do their activities clandestinely. Shutting off the online writing helper, world from what they do to what is a methodology paper, prevent being kicked out of the dorms. When one must remove oneself from the populous to maintain the ideal college experience, the importance of college is liquidated.

College becomes a singular experience, a separation from everyone. This singularity has only been strengthened by the technologies of our age. Facebook, MySpace, Wikipedia, they are all technologies based on the interconnectivity of humanity. One can look at the Facebook profile of his elementary school best friend while reading the Wikipedia article about Angelina Jolie’s children (which was updated by some stranger in, perhaps, Taiwan). All of online helper this while he sits comfortably, in his pajamas, in what is a in a his dorm room, in another city, in another world. In the singular access to these interconnected technologies, the writing, collective is abject; the physicality of anything has been rejected and replaced with ones and of methodology section in research, zeros. It becomes apparent that connectivity is a form of false collectivity. And this is dangerous; to live singularly with the thought that life is in any way collective (when it is only synthetically connective) we begin slouching towards Bethlehem.

The non-collective form of life creates inward thinking–college campuses are supersaturated with students who can only live in one world, and that is his or her own. As for writing, the University of Chicago, and other institutions of its caliber, this problem is only made worse by every student living inside of examples of methodology section in research his or her head, thinking only about theories and big problems for four years. Writing Helper. The inward thinking is only then exasperated by the new collegiate mentality that college is the level of education one must receive to someday attain a well-paying job. Living with the false collectivity only continues the destruction of greater meaning behind the college experience. Though, I admit I love Facebook and Wikipedia and theories and big problems. They are not the essay writing, only causes of the death of collectivity.

The abject state of collectivity is online helper due in part also to the lack of urgency in common mistakes the time that college students now exist. The draft for the Vietnam War is over, the murders of students on the Kent State campus is online helper too long ago, and literature outline, there is nothing in writing helper our time that is akin to these. Vietnam and Kent State are in the AP US History textbooks; they’re not in our lives. Thus this sense of urgency to the life of the 18 to 21-year-old has been removed. Immediacy is the last place where collectivity could have mattered, but without imperative need to act or speak or scream or protest, to even jest at the possibility of a collective mattering anymore is absurd. The only what is a methodology in a research paper urgent event in our day comes from Virginia Tech. Helper. That is to say this horrible event, created by the isolation and of methodology in research paper, excessive singularity of an individual, is the online writing, only thing left to fear. Dissertation. Without collectivity, there is nothing to fight off this cruel alienation, only the further isolation of individuals. This new alienation is no longer one group’s departure from writing, society-at-large, but individual separations from the former subculture itself.

With no immediacy to bring us together, there is nothing to be saved, nothing to matter. The individual experience has extrapolated out the ability to care. Is A Paper. The liquidation of urgency from the everyday lives of college students has made it impossible to care outside of oneself. Writing Helper. The false collectivity and inward thinking of common mistakes in dissertations our generation has ended any chance for sympathy to exist. W.E.B. Dubois wrote that, “the tragedy of the age… [is] that men know so little of helper men” and it seems now that this thought, over 100 years later, has reemerged. Students do not know or care in the way that students cared about humanity in the tumultuous 1960s. This faux-pathos of our generation attempts to borrow from the sentiments of the past, but they mean nothing without sympathy, without urgency. University of Chicago’s campus group Students Take Action Now: Darfur (STAND) marvelously shows this principle. Upon denying some students’ requests that the university divest from Sudan, the administration decided to donate $200,000 to the Darfur cause. In reaction to this, STAND entered the administration building with a sack of pennies.

When denied access to the office of the administrator to whom they wished to speak, one member of the group poured the sack of pennies onto a secretary’s desk saying, “This is what we think about their $200,000.” This action accomplished nothing; it raised no awareness aside from students on campus who found the incident embarrassing. Methodology Mistakes. STAND knows nothing about the people of online writing helper Darfur. The action was not for Darfur–this “act of writing protest” was meant only to online helper, benefit STAND. The only people who can care anymore are those of us who congregate on apartment back porches and critically laugh at STAND. We are the back porch dwellers who drink and Crime, smoke and ponder these problems on late night ventures of the mind, and then write essays for the New York Times in some hope that we could change the world or, at writing helper, least, think about it. We are the review, last possible hope for the collective, for pathos to survive, but we’re not doing well. Frozen by online writing, fear of failure, by the lack of a collective; there is only thought, complete inaction. We know that caring has passed; we are the research paper, remaining collectives but too small to do anything. There are too many birds collapsing from the sky. Online Writing. Freedom, collectivity, sympathy for humanity have died.

It is no wonder why college isn’t what it used to Crime in Schools, be–too many dead birds all over the place. Our human race can only online writing helper achieve happiness if love reaches its conclusion, and each of is a us finds his loved one and restores his original nature. Writing Helper. -Aristophanes (via Plato) We are there on campus, somewhere. Look hard enough and you will find us. You know us well. There we are — walking to class, cell phone in hand, iPod in pocket, conversation in one ear, music in the other. The conversation ends. The phone goes away.

And the other headphone takes its place. We are not every student, but we capture an unsettling type. We are the ones who cut ourselves off from communication, who isolate ourselves from those around us. We are self-creating, self-producing, self-consuming individuals. As we walk to class, we close our ears to in research paper, the words of others and plug into ourselves — into the music we choose and writing, the identities we cobble together for is a in a paper, ourselves. We know the unalienable rights the Declaration of Independence recognizes — life, liberty, and the pursuit of online helper happiness. In A Research. In college, recognizing we are in firm possession of the first two, we devote our attention and energies to exercising the third, and we do it on our own. The reference point is always the self; the guiding principle whatever we think will make us happy; the arbiter of decision our consent and writing helper, choice. We hear the lament often–that we can see outlines of the isolated individuals modernity promised in ourselves and those around us. We who enter lecture halls, pull out our computers, and spend the hour not engaging with the of methodology section paper, professor’s arguments but instead immersing ourselves in Facebook, MySpace, and Google News, blinking at our computer screens, we may not embody Nietzsche’s Last Man, but we do suggest the Last Man’s deluded self-satisfaction. Our actions express a belief, perhaps unacknowledged, certainly not self-examined, that we have little to learn from the past and those who lived in it.

Progress alone is our teacher. Online. What we perhaps do not recognize is that this idolizing of progress and writing prompts students creative, unreflective consent is limiting our minds, our capacity to study the good, and ultimately our ability to live happy lives. The colleges and online, universities continue to serve a venerable purpose: beyond education, they show where we are heading and what we are leaving behind. The college is the institution where civilization can attempt to guard culture from progress-obsessed fashion. It is in the college that we can take the time to examples of methodology in research, guide human passions towards reason, or at the least a more reflective passion. The fashion of our time is self-discovery, followed by self-expression and self-improvement, and this fashion is founded upon a conviction in the sovereignty of the individual and the primacy of online helper consent as a good in itself. The self-satisfied, deliberately disconnected students on campus signal that fashion is creeping over culture within the colleges and examples of methodology section paper, working a misunderstanding of the online, philosophy of consent. Dissertation Literature Review. And we, the students–and the rest of the country–should be worried by the foundation upon writing which we now build. The individual who chooses to alienate himself from methodology, society is the logical extension of the online, theory of examples paper social contract in online helper political philosophy, the of methodology in research paper, theory that tells us legitimacy emerges from consent. Social contract theory was founded upon writing a philosophical myth, the what methodology in a, state of nature, which held human beings to be solitary, distrustful creatures not inclined by online writing, nature to form communities or engage in politics.

We know today from science that this view of human nature is false, that we are gregarious, social creatures that come together in communities. We as humans are by nature dependent. But the social contract theory remains strong, and what is a methodology paper, the doctrine of online legitimacy-by-consent threatens to is a research paper, bring about something remarkable. We students can see among us individuals taking themselves out of society and back to the state of nature. What was a philosophical myth is becoming an writing helper unsettling reality. Those of us who believe that, through the doctrine of the individualized social contract, we are freeing ourselves to bring about a golden age of progress, are in fact making a tragic, paradoxical error.

Self-satisfaction is a sign of stagnation. It indicates that we believe we already know what is best for us, without need for dissertation literature review outline, further reflection. Helper. Progress is not actually possible here. Consent and custom alone cannot answer us when we ask, What is good? Consent alone cannot answer why we should consent in Crime the first place, and writing helper, the philosophy of progress has ironically brought us no further on the question of how we should live.

We are in fact more likely to be convinced that there is no answer, and that we should just experiment to find what “works” in this new utilitarian state of in Schools nature. Helper. We see this in college. The tools we thought would bring us happiness leave us in section paper despair and anger, feeling betrayed by online, the theory’s promise. We are left as snakes eating our own tails, forever seeking happiness but destroying the what methodology paper, grounds and ignoring the means to pursue it. The self-defined, self-consuming student is troubling because he does not look outside himself in seeking happiness. What is good becomes good because he affirms that it is good, because he consents to its claim to goodness.

If this doctrine of the good continues to grow unchallenged in our minds as we pass through college, our society will begin to see its effects. It is writing helper difficult to be confident about public consensus of any kind when consent can be withdrawn at any instant when it no longer seems personally satisfying to an individual. College continues to matter because it provides a space counter to fashion, where students can slow down and nurture a philosophy of life more robust and noble than contract and unreflective consent. On Eye. The college is the final institution that asks us to decide whether we will devote our lives entirely to ourselves or to online, others as well. Section. It asks us to consider Solzhenitsyn’s observation that the line between good and writing, evil passes through every human heart, and what methodology paper, then asks us to choose where in us that line will run. It is when we leave our families, when we feel most like autonomous individuals, that we must be confronted and challenged. When the chances are greatest that our focus will shift to the individual and to unreflective consent, we must reflect on the possibility that there is some external good that we can know and online, that might guide us in a philosophy of life. Examples Of Methodology Section Paper. The most fundamental learning remains learning to distinguish the good from the bad. Writing Helper. How will we know what to do with our treasured individualism if we do not know towards what we should direct our individual energies?

The constitution of a state, since at least the time of Aristotle, has meant more than the political regime. It also denotes the character of the state, itself inextricably linked to methodology in a research, the character of the people. What a people judges to be good informs all that it does and defines its character. Online. It is in college that, in the starkest forms, most of us are confronted with the question of the good and civic character. Ignoring the question is itself an answer to the question. Our answers will determine the set of futures our world will have. How we continue to grapple with this question will determine which future it is. It’s not a hard decision to attend college after a successful high school career. Examples Of Methodology Section. It may be just as easier to continue one’s studies after a poor performance in school. Online. With so many colleges and universities in what is a methodology in a research paper America why wouldn’t someone want spend their early twenties gallivanting around a college campus?

It’s the perfect opportunity to gain “experience” without learning a thing. That’s the misconception that students today must continually rectify when explaining their purpose for studying at writing helper, a university. In the competitive college arena there is little opportunity to dawdle–it seems from day one you must be steadfast in your decision to continue your studies for when an employer asks to see a resume there best be myriad internships and extracurriculars listed. However, are these experiences important for mistakes, college or is college important for these sorts of experiences? As I enter my fourth and final year at an American institution for higher learning I have begun to think about the dreaded future and the past three years I have spent toiling away in college. One lustrum ago I chose to spend my college career studying dramatic writing: I was supported in online my decision but I could tell that when I graduated I was going to have to Crime, prove to family and friends that studying a fine art was worth it. I hadn’t thought much of their reservations until recently when a few close friends already found job offers waiting in their mailboxes.

I was only recently learning what I wanted to do and without the helper, proper experience I wasn’t going to be getting any posh job offers. What happened to essay, the “college experience”? With the internet so prevalent in society one does not need to go to a university in order to immerse themselves in an atmosphere of similar peers. Online communities provide such interactions between people–why spend a fortune on a college experience you can for the price of a cable bill? Yet we still attend college in increasing numbers. Online. Is it because we can think of nothing else to of methodology in research paper, do after high school? Or is there something new that makes a young student want to attend an expansive university? College as American used to understand it isn’t coming to an end–it has come to an end. From their first year students are expected to know their career goals and map out the classes and pre-graduate jobs that will land them in a success career.

Brave are the online, few that come to in Schools, university without a life plan, braver are those hoping to writing helper, ride the experience. There is dissertation literature review outline a higher justification for attending college in our age. Now there are new goals for students in writing helper a more cosmopolitan college setting. International students and international opportunities make going to examples in research, college a necessity for the young intelligentsia. Students from across the world who flock to writing, American universities make it imperative that everyone attend–the campus has become our global commons. As many schools push for their students to study abroad–or set up satellite universities in foreign countries–the world finds itself growing smaller once again. Now student discourse is most important. As international relationships seem to be ever tenuous we must prove that our future will be forever safe in the hands of the world’s student-body. In years prior, college may have been a means to foster a love for writing creative writing, arts while honing a professional skill.

It has quickly become the most important stage for online writing, international relations. According to “Open Doors 2006? international student enrollment, which had decreased from writing prompts creative writing, 2003-2005, remained level from 2005-2006, it is imperative that international students feel welcome in the United States and vice-versa. There should be no field or area that a student does not feel comfortable in–education shatters boundaries. In the already international city of New York there were many instances of international experiences but there were also many was to avoid these foreign encounters. At my university and in online writing helper my classes we are forced to break through uncomfortable and confront our difference.

While abroad I encountered the same thing and it was I who was now the methodology, minority and my perspective grew in so many ways. Writing. Through the common methodology mistakes, uncomfortable I found a sort of peace, an understanding that my differences were not something to hide but something to share. I wish my resume could have a little column listing the countries I have been to. Not for bragging purposes but to show how a glimpse into the lives of online others opens up an insatiable hunger to know everyone. I only wish that each experience leads me closer to a happier existence with those I share the world with. Looking back at my tenure in school I came to a conclusion: I learned a lot about what I wanted to do and a lot more about what I didn’t want to for college creative, do. Most of online my time was spent in trial and error situations. I dabbled in accounting, lost interest in publishing, and found solace in everything else around me. It is an interesting feeling when one finds comfort in something so simple.

It is even more intriguing to understand that this simple fact, a desire to know, gives purpose in the most painless ways. I fought myself over methodology mistakes in dissertations, why college matters for online writing, many days and examples in research paper, during many intervals throughout my college life. There were times when I found myself hating my time in school, but still drawn to a life in education. There will always be critics of college, especially as costs rise and much of a professional career is learned through hands on helper experience, but no other institution allows for Crime in Schools, open international debate for the sole purpose of online writing helper learning. Had the students of America remained at home after high school and had the young scholars of abroad not come to our universities I would not want to see what the state of the world would be in 25 years. I know we should not have to Crime in Schools, worry because each day, in the classes and dorms of our colleges, the future world leaders are discussing the state of the world through music, literature, and online, stories.

As Storytelling Goes, So Goes The College Experience. Last Fall, when a hundred and writing prompts students creative writing, fifty students at The Cooper Union in New York City staged a sit-out, the protestors who made up the loosely organized crowd wondered to each other how long the protest might last and how successful it ultimately might be. Should the protest be suspended over night? Would the sit-out carry through the weekend? A resolution came more quickly than anyone anticipated: by late afternoon the Dean of Students announced that the President, George Campbell, who had earlier made a reluctant and sheepish appeal to the crowd of helper students, agreed to meet the writing prompts for college, demands of the protest. These demands, which were particular and online writing helper, minute, ensuring shuttle service and common in dissertations, 24 hour access to the new, temporary studio space in Long Island City, seemed less important than the victory itself. Next to me, a student who was surprised by the administration’s quick turn around said, “I wonder what they were afraid of.”

College today does not relate much to the 1960’s and 70’s campus activism that Rick Perlstein depicts in online his article, “What’s The Matter with College?” In retrospect, our protest, while irritated at methodology mistakes in dissertations, moments, was less radical than it was pleasant. There was more contention, dissidence and noise in the on and off Slayer album playing from somebody’s stereo than there was in the protest itself. And the Slayer analogy works: A distant ancestor and evolution of the online, 70’s Led Zeppelin, Slayer is essay donation hard and online writing helper, loud, but it’s not nearly as influential. If college as America used to know it is disappearing, and with it its stardom and national attention, as Perlstein argues, then the college student America used to know has disappeared alongside it. Most college students don’t want to be subversive, they want to be accepted. And they want to make money. As Louis Menand reported in the May 2007 New Yorker, business is by far the number one undergraduate major, beating out English in the number of dissertation outline bachelor degrees awarded by twenty-two per cent to four per cent. Or maybe it’s that America doesn’t find college romantic anymore: it’s just an helper expensive place to gamble online or play World of Warcraft.

Why do college and college students no longer lead culture? One, slightly different answer, has to do with the decline of section another once venerable national obsession: storytelling. “The nature of online writing helper every real story” Walter Benjamin wrote in his essay, “The Storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nikolai Leskov,” “contains, openly or covertly, something useful.” (That college should contain something useful seems obvious but is perhaps not always true, since nearly half of the people who go to college drop out.) For Benjamin, storytelling can be an education itself. What Is A Methodology In A Research Paper. To be able to learn from either side of the writing, story–telling one or listening to one– requires the execution of examples of methodology skills that scoring well on the SAT’s doesn’t, including the ability to think for online, oneself and interpret for Crime, oneself the usefulness of writing something. The claim that storytelling has a diminished role in society might sound as strange now as it did in Benjamin’s time, or, for that matter, sound as strange–especially to high school seniors and their parents–that college today isn’t much of an issue. The latest and last Harry Potter book sold just over eight million copies in its first twenty-four hours, seemingly an indication that storytelling has as much presence as ever. But the storytelling of Harry Potter novels, or any novel, differs from the dying art of storytelling that Benjamin writes about.

For Benjamin, the success of the is a methodology in a research paper, novel marks the first step in online helper the decline of examples of methodology section storytelling. Online Writing. The distinction between a novel and writing students writing, oral storytelling becomes important because oral storytelling demands a human interaction. The college student today may be more connected than the college student of the writing helper, past, but that connection is writing prompts students creative tenuous. Online Writing. E-mail and text messaging may be a source of constant access to the world outside of campus, but it’s also another form of isolation. For Benjamin, this isolation is the Crime, problem. He writes, “the communicability of experience is decreasing,” which might be rephrased as: when people talk, increasingly they have no advice to give or even anything noteworthy to tell each other. The critic Harold Bloom has written that reading is necessary to “restore our solitude,” a beautiful defense of literature, but one that indicates the important difference between the oral storytelling that Benjamin talks about and the storytelling of novels. For Benjamin, the differences are basic but important.

A story must have some kind of online advice and demands a human interaction, while a novel has no guidance to give and demands solitude. If the latter has a search for truth, the former has at its core a search for what research paper, wisdom, which Benjamin calls “counsel woven into online writing the fabric of real life.” In the experience of sharing or listening to an unfolding story lies counsel, and it is here that wisdom can be found. As with the on eye, decline of storytelling, in online helper the disappearing valuable college experience we no longer have a search for wisdom, but a search for information. Benjamin calls information the most dangerous threat to storytelling, a communication that must appear credible, a requirement that puts it at odds with storytelling. For Benjamin, the story that is writing prompts for college creative writing phenomenal and online helper, least like information–perhaps least credible– cannot explain itself or be didactic. The counsel within a story cannot be filtered but its own explanation. Methodology Mistakes. Because of helper this, storytelling as a form of dissertation outline education is a much more open form of education than any institutional education and writing, the experience of a story always demands a personal interpretation.

But the institution is mistakes in dissertations not to blame. As Benjamin writes, without a means to communicate experience, “we have no counsel either for ourselves or for others.” To be able to online writing, learn from storytelling demands the ability to learn from experience. Perlstein observes that the college experience today hardly resembles the booming social experiments of 60’s and 70’s college campuses, where there was as much, or more, to learn from an afternoon arguing with Ralph Ellison in the dorm lounge as there was to learn in the classroom. Perlstein touches on the problem, that “as a discrete experience, ‘college’ has begun to disappear.” If the college experience fails to grasp the national imagination it may be because the what is a methodology research paper, college experience has no more useful stories to tell. Or at least, the writing helper, ability to tell those stories has vanished. I took a day off life to see the methodology mistakes in dissertations, world in a better way. It has become the only option, rather than a possible option. As a member of the online, emerging youth generation, there is common mistakes no question as to whether or not someone will go to college, and rather, when they will go, how much it will cost and what institution they will eventually choose. Because we face a different educational climate than generations before us, the connection between students has suffered greatly.

But what is the connection and why is it necessary? On many an afternoon, my friends and I clamor in a local tea cafe and discuss everything from writing, relationships to class work. A common topic, a common connecting topic, rather, is the discussion of politics. A close friend is passionate about Crime in Schools, gay and lesbian rights, finding the need to participate in the ever growing civil rights movement because he can identify himself as such. Online. Another friend talks of common methodology her personal experiences as a Muslim American; a female dedicated to online, her religion as well as the authentic experience of a college student. As well, I can list my own personal experiences as a black female wondering through Honors coursework where I am as unfamiliar to the setting as the author of a textbook, and how those learning opportunities have shaped my opinion about the global society we now live in. A common factor, therefore, of our discussions, regardless of whether or not the issue at on eye, hand directly relates to writing helper, us, is the fact that it is some issue, some important issue that we can at least begin to understand. We understand because we are faced with the images and writing, thoughts of those who are, as well, going through the battles of religion, of immigration, and discrimination. These issues, these thoughts on politics are engaging, and leave us wanting to experience more, to do more as we progress through our collegiate years.

Organizations on campus abound for opportunities to express our desire to change the world, to see a better future for ourselves and the generations that have yet to come. And yet, what about the online writing, here and the now? What about the prompts for college students writing, needs for online writing, change for one single entity that does not divide us, that we can all relate to what is a research paper, as living, breathing beings in higher education? What needs, someone might ask. What could one possibly need to change, with our university’s and colleges sprawled across this great country, common quads consumed with freshly cut great green grass and students psyche’s wrapped around Nietzsche and Dostoevsky? I write this with a local paper splayed across my bed sheets, just-drying stains from online helper, chai tea spilled litter the methodology mistakes, front page headlines. It has come to the point now that I read, simply to read, and writing, don’t aesthetically pay a great deal of attention to the political leanings of each paper. My generation pretends that this is Crime somehow important in matters of the world, or at least, in their world, such as genocide in Africa and the plight of Hurricane Katrina evacuees, and yet they don’t do anything significant to help the problem. We talk about writing helper, things, but we don’t actually do them, which, I suppose, is better than the generation before us, the generation that spent a great deal of time trying to save the whales or stop Starbucks from corporate takeover.

For them, saving the animals or stopping mild gentrification were purposeful causes because, simply, they had foreseeable solutions. Genocide in a country of a continent most often ignored is a little less simple. And with generations previous, these issues that were fought over were issues that directly related to an 18-22 year old person in the United States. But now, the newspaper would be, more or less, paying to on eye, read about the problems of the world that we can’t solve. That’s all the helper, media has become as of late, an outlet for the troubles of the world, only Crime showing us quick glimpses of our societies troubles, leaving out both the writing helper, bare, raw atrocities and also forgoing a solution for the next segment. It’s hard to go there, to Crime, read that, to do so purposefully.

College as America used to online writing, understand it is writing students coming to an end, therefore, because of the world we live in today. How can one feel impassioned to have an experience that is so utterly radical than their lives previous when they have felt no need to diverge from what they have always known? How can one feel the desire to gain a ‘true college experience’ with the world in our hands, our singular, individualistic hands, and the ideas of helper others literally at in research paper, grasp through the writing helper, stroke of a keyboard? Here is a truth, bottle it up, keep it in your pocket and writing donation, take it with you wherever and whenever. Appreciate it, come back to it, and online helper, don’t forget it. We are lost. We are a post-modern society and I hate post-modernism. For some reason it signifies a loss of society, a loss of creativity and writing donation, insight.

Who can blame this generation for their lack of helper enthusiasm for authenticity, for the need for a “city state” within green lawns and red brick buildings, for Crime, the ever-present reality that the dreams of youth no longer exist, and online writing, instead, everything else only really matters? Nothing is truly our own and as this continues to be the common mistakes, norm, so too does the writing helper, de-evolution of the collegiate experience. The Children of Marx and Coca-Cola. There’s College, and there’s COLLEGE. Both are decidedly American concepts. When I told my teachers at my international highschool in Switzerland that I would be attending Columbia come Fall, they congratulated me and handed me reading lists. My classmates, most of whom were continuing their studies in Europe, reacted differently. Their idea of in Schools college in America was more Animal House than academia: they begged me not to turn into a fat sorority girl with a drinking problem, lamenting that that I would soon be sharing a small double room with a field hockey player from Virginia Beach. Both my teachers and my friends were right. Writing Helper. I’ve learned a lot – not enough, but a lot. There have also been nights I don’t remember.

Orientation week felt more like summer camp than university, and disillusion set in on the thirty-seventh occasion I told a classmate that no, I did not speak Swiss, or Swedish for that matter. Common Methodology Mistakes. About halfway through my first year I realized that college in online writing America comes with a choice: College vs. COLLEGE. You can chose College and spend your nights studying and writing on eye, drinking coffee while making connections between Existentialism and film noir; or you can chose COLLEGE and stumble into class still wearing pajamas, intending to chat with friends online rather than ask questions, and use the Presidential debates as an excuse to helper, take tequila shots at every uttered “terrorist.” Fewer and fewer students are choosing College – that is, college as America once understood it. The undergraduate years are no longer considered the time to experiment, to find oneself, to make mistakes and to pursue ones passions; it’s simply the first step towards finding a good job that will hopefully cover rent, medical insurance, that house and those cars. College is an investment, not an experience, and this mentality that is essay writing so prevalent in America today renders learning for learning’s sake pointless: for all intents and purposes, nobody cares if you can tell the difference between Godot and Godard. Online Writing. Outside academia, intellectualism is common methodology mistakes acknowledged primarily in the form of geek-chic; philosophy majors are told that it’s law school or bust, scientists can only online dream of a life after medical school, and everyone else seems to end up doing economics. Activists of all inclinations are ridiculed and prompts for college, told to “get real” by online, their straight-laced peers, partly because of the deadbeat hippie stereotype (thanks, Dad), but also because of society’s increasing materialism: personal growth and Crime in Schools, engaged, informed discourse have no value if they aren’t financially viable. I understand those who choose COLLEGE.

Idealism is a bad career move, and it’s much easier to settle with a cubicle and online writing helper, a generous salary if you’ve never read Marx or thought about what happiness really means. The pressure to succeed financially and socially is crippling: the prevalence of depression (affecting up to 15%) eating disorders (20%), sleeping problems (20%), and alcohol abuse and dependence (31%) suggest that college students aren’t well-adjusted humans as much as well-rounded bags of nerves held together by prescription drugs and dissertation outline, pop culture slogans. College is presented as a last chance at fun before “real” life begins – these are supposed to be the online writing helper, best four years you’ll ever have, so you’d better not waste any of that precious time sober. You can read books until your eyes fall out, but when’s the Crime, next time you can sleep all day? Why keep up with politics when you’ve got a paper due in helper two hours that you haven’t even started? And who the hell goes to college to write papers, anyway? You deserve to coast for a few years after working so hard to get in. And we didn’t even have to pass tests to get into kindergarten!

The COLLEGE mentality is contagious: peer pressure, distance from the parents, and the change in lifestyle are all contributing factors. But it’s less about the schools themselves than about the popular institutions that take advantage of their students: Spring Break, Girls Gone Wild, Homecoming and Beer Pong have become the new College because unlike dissent, dispute and revolution, they put little at stake. When some risk arises – future employers on Facebook, hazing, alleged sexual violence under the influence of prompts for college students alcohol or God forbid, a protest – it is quickly rectified with online privacy settings, rules, court-cases, and more rules that COLLEGE is more than happy to comply with. College aspires to online writing, negative liberty, the freedom from external rules to act as one chooses; COLLEGE settles with positive liberty, or the freedom to achieve one’s goals, albeit under the section in research paper, constraints of an writing outside authority. Make what you want of it, but this generation wants status, stability, and an i-phone, not change and reckless abandon. Columbia does not offer the Crime, metaphorical basket weaving course and has a serious Core curriculum, but I’m still dismayed by helper, how little students care about, well, College. Essay Writing Donation. Wasn’t the point of getting stoned to unlock the doors of perception, to discover World Peace in an ink blot? If so, why are we sitting comatose in front of a pizza and Family Guy? It breaks my heart to see so many of my friends and classmates, once so passionate about helper, journalism or abstract mathematics, spend more time in an investment bank than lost in examples of methodology paper thought or conversation.

And the online writing helper, worst part is that I can’t blame them for it: it’s hard for an individual to writing on eye donation, develop a thirst for learning in a meritocracy that won’t reward it. COLLEGE, and on a macro level, the entire country, does little to encourage intellectualism outside the resume. Its participants can’t even sell out because they’ve been bought from the online helper, start: they are simply the younger versions of their older selves. What’s the in dissertations, matter with college? COLLEGE.

It is online COLLEGE that causes students to prompts students, be satisfied with the “gentleman’s” C+, and the same COLLEGE which encourages them to opt for an easy A over an educated B. Both are symptoms of the greater problem: COLLEGE is a merely a means to an end, and online writing, not an end to experience in and of what methodology itself – its value is instrumental, impersonal. And like countless other social phenomena turned marketing plans, the College that defined past generations is reduced to a slogan on helper a T-shirt: COLLEGE. No name. No place. No identity. Just the generic, boldface print; a rite of passage, an American institution.

The undergraduate unreality that puts real life on hold in favor of a world where nothing matters – yet. In July, The Magazine published What's the Matter With College, an essay by the historian Rick Perlstein, online and invited college students across the United States to respond. Some 600 undergraduates did -- many agreeing with Perlstein's assertion that college as America used to understand it is coming to dissertation outline, an end, many dismissing his argument as so much nostalgic pap, still others taking the online writing helper, occasion to critique higher education from an insider's perch. To continue the conversation, we're featuring the winning student essay and four runners-up, and posting another 450 of the entries in a searchable format. (The other entries were withdrawn by their authors or did not follow the contest's rules.)