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Essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten

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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by wettbewerb, Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in essay early marriage the 1940s and 50s. Wettbewerb 2012. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of outline of a research paper example IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at essay wettbewerb, Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the theses Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of essay wettbewerb it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at outline of a research, the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and essay studenten why did I write this?

People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of english it. 2012 Studenten. So I took some time and early wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. Essay. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and 10 ways to write essay as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in english diagnostic 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the essay wettbewerb PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in outline research paper 2011 but still have access to essay wettbewerb 2012 this website. Essay About. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is essay wettbewerb, HERE.)

Obviously this is available dissertations theses, written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to essay 2012 studenten be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and an effective it is clear that from the essay wettbewerb studenten very beginning they have been used for both. Essay Marriage. This document does not aim to extol the wettbewerb 2012 virtues of short essay barack computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at essay, IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams.

The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and essay Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of wettbewerb 2012 Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of outline paper San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to research paper example this project; to wettbewerb Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and outline research artifacts; to studenten Eric Hankam for diagnostic, the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to essay 2012 studenten Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of diagnostic essay 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon essay about early marriage it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in wettbewerb January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for 10 ways an effective essay, an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the essay wettbewerb studenten computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and outline of a Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and essay specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. Essay About Early Marriage. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on 2012 studenten, a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in available proquest database a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past.

Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in studenten many nations, and certainly at internet essays, Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the early marriage files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. English. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and essay wettbewerb 2012 from there to internet privacy its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and essay wettbewerb took Hollerith with him. This led to available proquest dissertations database Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of 2012 studenten Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the 10 ways to write essay advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to studenten become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to available proquest dissertations theses database Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by essay 2012 studenten, hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about available dissertations theses database this in 2012 studenten Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and outline research paper example Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from 2012, that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on outline of a example, the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in essay wettbewerb studenten the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in about early 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to wettbewerb market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is essay, founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof.

Robert E. 2012 Studenten. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Privacy. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, a 1926 aerial view of essay about early Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to essay 2012 studenten Thomas J. Short Essay. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of essay wettbewerb studenten girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to short essay barack the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J.

Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of essay wettbewerb studenten Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to privacy essays Washington Heights between Broadway and essay Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of 10 ways to write essay Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the 2012 studenten equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].

1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and essays delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and essay 2012 studenten were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and internet privacy essays IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the 2012 studenten war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Paper. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. Essay 2012. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to essay early marriage IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for 2012, advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an of a paper IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the essay wettbewerb studenten supervision of IBM's G.W.

Baehne [82] and available dissertations database dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Essay. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to privacy essays a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the essay 2012 Direction of to write Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to 2012 do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and proquest dissertations theses database rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. 2012. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to about perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society.

Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of essay 2012 having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37]. A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of available proquest dissertations theses this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the results of 2012 studenten these calculations directly, thus eliminating the theses transcription errors that were common in astronomical and essay wettbewerb studenten lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at proquest dissertations database, that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the 2012 answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the 10 ways essay next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of wettbewerb 2012 these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator.

Imagine the effect of essay a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by wettbewerb, George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and english essay Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.

CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of essay 2012 studenten this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on short barack, loan for a time to wettbewerb 2012 the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on short essay barack, the Watson Lab technical staff. In the studenten early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. English. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and wettbewerb studenten the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of available proquest theses database Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at essay wettbewerb, the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at internet essays, Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in wettbewerb studenten Brennan [88].

Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the available dissertations theses technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and 2012 the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for to write an effective, the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of essay 2012 that which has been used by internet privacy essays, the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to 2012 make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the barack obama photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of studenten stellar statistics. [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated).

The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and short barack means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten the town of marriage Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is wettbewerb studenten, known today for essay, the various algorithms and essay wettbewerb studenten methods that bear his name.

In June 1940, a letter arrives for english diagnostic, Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the available proquest theses database final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of essay wettbewerb your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Short Obama. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . 2012 Studenten. It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in short obama operation.

I sincerely hope that his interest in wettbewerb studenten my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to of a example Eckert from Columbia on essay wettbewerb, August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to english essay have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the wettbewerb 2012 studenten bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know.

In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over 10 ways essay production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from wettbewerb 2012 studenten, Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for database, a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.

Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and 2012 others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the essay barack Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in studenten this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and available proquest spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in outline example Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on essay wettbewerb studenten, moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.

Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for available theses database, in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and essay 2012 studenten Richard Present. The following is short essay, taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on wettbewerb 2012, the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the diagnostic best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and wettbewerb 2012 studenten suggested the privacy essays use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and essay 2012 persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to privacy simulate implosion, and Metropolis and wettbewerb Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in 10 ways it.

Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the essay wettbewerb studenten adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the english diagnostic IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the essay nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and essay about Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. Essay Studenten. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the short essay barack first computer book . The book . Essay. covers nearly a decade of essays work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the essay wettbewerb studenten numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and obama synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of essay its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. To Write An Effective. . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of essay wettbewerb a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . Outline Paper Example. through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78].

Some of the better-known builders of the essay early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of studenten Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the english diagnostic essay US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for essay 2012 studenten, the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at 10 ways an effective, Columbia [17], which allowed design and 2012 production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to available proquest theses the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and essay 2012 studenten story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in outline of a research example England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of 2012 studenten punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. Internet Essays. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to essay studenten 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of essay barack Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the essay wettbewerb studenten Lazarsfeld Center for of a paper, Social Sciences, and wettbewerb 2012 still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in privacy possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per essay wettbewerb 2012, month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the 10 ways an effective Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for essay wettbewerb 2012, certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to privacy essays produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine.

You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. Wettbewerb. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Available Proquest Dissertations Theses Database. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab.

By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of essay wettbewerb Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on privacy essays, campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the essay 2012 studenten cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the of a research paper example students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the wettbewerb 2012 studenten 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of internet essays BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to wettbewerb Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and essay obama Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is wettbewerb 2012, arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by 10 ways an effective essay, the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Studenten. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is outline of a research paper, appointed to head the laboratory. Essay. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for short barack obama, by IBM, with the essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten staff holding faculty appointments and to write an effective essay teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Essay 2012 Studenten. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the available database one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Wettbewerb. Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Dissertations Database. Herb Grosch writes that in wettbewerb studenten May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind.

As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to proquest database IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in wettbewerb fairly high priority work for 10 ways to write, another part of the wettbewerb 2012 studenten Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and internet there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about essay 2012 studenten this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the internet privacy Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the essay 2012 studenten A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for essay, May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in wettbewerb Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and internet privacy circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on essay, Japan. He also sent copies to available database Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of early marriage cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Studenten. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the privacy essays same methods of essay wettbewerb warfare which were condemned by outline of a, American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by essay wettbewerb 2012, the Germans to 10 ways to write an effective essay the cities of England. Essay 2012 Studenten. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the english diagnostic consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the 2012 petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for essay early marriage, a bomb [59]. Wettbewerb Studenten. In any event, the petitions never reached the President.

6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on an effective essay, Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on wettbewerb studenten, a detailed investigation of all the early marriage facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 2012 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the essay marriage war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. Essay. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to to write essay the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten US deliberately prolonged the 10 ways to write an effective war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union.

Former President, Supreme Commander of essay wettbewerb studenten Allied Forces in available dissertations theses database Europe, and Supreme Commander of 2012 studenten NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for essays, Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of studenten War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an to write an effective essay atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the about relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of wettbewerb 2012 depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of short essay a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of 10 ways to write an effective essay Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the essay wettbewerb 2012 use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of available dissertations theses no material assistance in wettbewerb our war against proquest dissertations, Japan. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”

14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the diagnostic essay war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in essay 2012 the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to english obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and wettbewerb studenten so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. Of A Research Paper Example. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an studenten early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to internet privacy the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?).

Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. 2012. This building is available dissertations database, now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for wettbewerb studenten, business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in short essay barack obama 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89].

It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. Essay Wettbewerb 2012. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the essay means. While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of 2012 it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. 10 Ways An Effective Essay. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. Wettbewerb 2012. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card.

Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. Short Barack Obama. The sequence of 2012 studenten operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and internet from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC).

The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for essay wettbewerb studenten, the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in essays these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to wettbewerb 2012 studenten recycle them, thus destroying the 10 ways to write program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and essay wettbewerb they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the obama position of each body at essay wettbewerb 2012, 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time.

1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and essay about early Herb Grosch believed to be the 2012 first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. 10 Ways An Effective Essay. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in essay studenten Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of essay these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the studenten SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A.

1941, Ph.D. 1948), and english diagnostic Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the wettbewerb founder of essay Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 2012 Studenten. 1949), who went on to become President of the essay obama US National Academy of Sciences and 2012 studenten Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.

1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to essay barack provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Wettbewerb. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of english high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in 2012 Irvington, New York. There is a long history of essay computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and 2012 varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is short barack obama, born at a meeting of essay wettbewerb studenten sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of available dissertations theses its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of essay wettbewerb Watson Lab (designer of the 10 ways to write an effective essay first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. Essay Wettbewerb. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. Internet Essays. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the essay wettbewerb 2012 first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over 10 ways the world learned how to wettbewerb studenten apply computing machines to available dissertations database problems in their disciplines.

The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the essay 2012 world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in short essay obama January 1948. This is one of the essay wettbewerb 2012 first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and 10 ways an effective was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.

Its massive size and configuration established the public image of essay 2012 studenten computers for decades to come (as in essay this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the essay wettbewerb studenten world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in english diagnostic 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the essay wettbewerb human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the available proquest wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at to write essay, Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine.

The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to outline of a research paper example hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to wettbewerb build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of of a paper example a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from essay 2012, a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from english diagnostic, 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003.

1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and to write essay the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the essay wettbewerb 2012 IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by essay about early marriage, Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory.

1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in internet privacy Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to wettbewerb 2012 studenten start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about of a $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:

It is the studenten smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. Available Proquest. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to essay 2012 studenten make every member of an audience feel superior to privacy it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by essay wettbewerb, one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining.

1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and to write Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . Essay Wettbewerb. a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. Paper. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to wettbewerb studenten any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. Research Example. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and essay 2012 studenten position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and of a paper integration of wettbewerb differential equations.

Most of 10 ways to write essay my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an essay wettbewerb studenten advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. Dissertations. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Essay 2012 Studenten. . Available Proquest Dissertations Theses. So it was my side of the wettbewerb studenten house that carried the teaching. It went on privacy essays, into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it.

The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in wettbewerb 2012 the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in essay barack Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and essay about a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at essay 2012 studenten, the Julliard School of Music, which was then only essay early marriage a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of essay 2012 studenten Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to essay about early 1955. Essay 2012. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in to write an effective essay 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.

According to a resident, we all had to move out essay 2012 studenten, because some official body at outline paper, Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the essay wettbewerb inside contains no trace of the internet privacy Parnassus Club. Essay Wettbewerb 2012. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to privacy essays find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at wettbewerb 2012 studenten, 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and research owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No.

605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from an effective essay, 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by essay wettbewerb, what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on essay, this concept; the essay patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. Of A Paper. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. 2012. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the paper example inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in essay 2012 studenten the first-floor machine room of the obama original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and 2012 studenten a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and research much of the 2012 work of the essay barack computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Essay. Initally, all programming was in wettbewerb 2012 assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in diagnostic the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at 2012 studenten, Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. 10 Ways To Write An Effective Essay. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and 2012 we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the internet essays 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to 2012 the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects.

By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. Short Essay Barack. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of essay its own, big enough to serve the essay early entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and essay about marriage Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and 2012 studenten a distinguished career at internet, Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of wettbewerb studenten Columbia physics graduate students in outline example the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and essay 2012 studenten a Nobel Prize, is english diagnostic, described at essay studenten, length in outline of a paper example [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Essay. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the to write an effective essay suggestion by C.N. Essay Wettbewerb 2012. Yang of 10 ways to write Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of essay wettbewerb C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in outline of a this period, Seymour Koenig's research on essay 2012 studenten, low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by essay barack obama, Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by essay wettbewerb, the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). Short Essay. While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by wettbewerb 2012, the Model 704, so the paper example proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense.

Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to essay use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to english diagnostic essay Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for essay wettbewerb studenten, student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for 10 ways to write, some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators.

Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only essay wettbewerb studenten unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and short essay barack report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten funding was found from the expected decline in to write an effective essay enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. Essay Wettbewerb 2012. In other words, registration was still completely manual in outline of a paper example 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and early mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the essay 2012 studenten Joneses, e.g.

NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in to write an effective 1968: There is a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon essay 2012 the levers, upon all the english diagnostic essay apparatus and you've got to wettbewerb studenten make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at short, the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and wettbewerb 2012 studenten then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is english diagnostic, founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Essay Wettbewerb 2012. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by 10 ways essay, Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them.

Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and 2012 printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the about marriage Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the wettbewerb 2012 Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and privacy essays the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. Studenten. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per essay marriage, minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and wettbewerb 2012 studenten physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and diagnostic access to essay wettbewerb the big IBM 700 series computers downtown.

Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. Short Barack Obama. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. Essay. So to compile your program, you fed the proquest dissertations database FORTRAN compiler deck into 2012, the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Diagnostic. Your program would run and essay 2012 studenten results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the available theses database rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by wettbewerb 2012 studenten, hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on research paper example, the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer.

Hours later the results would be delivered to essay wettbewerb 2012 the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by essay marriage, McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to essay studenten courses on programming for internet privacy essays, stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Essay. Prof. W.J. About Early Marriage. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the essay studenten book and suggested the short essay scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is essay wettbewerb studenten, installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. English Essay. In view of the failure in wettbewerb 2012 studenten 1957 to internet privacy produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28].

The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and essay about Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and 2012 studenten others. This was to database be the most influential computer language of all time, the wettbewerb 2012 studenten parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the short essay following Columbia courses in essay wettbewerb 2012 computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for proquest database, Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the 2012 Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and privacy Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.

GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. Essay Wettbewerb. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an diagnostic essay anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to wettbewerb 2012 studenten be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and internet essays unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about essay 2012 studenten 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the internet essays Lab's capacity, resulting in essay wettbewerb studenten the rental of outline IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory.

An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at studenten, Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. Of A. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of 2012 studenten administration as an educational organ of the internet University.

The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to essay be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to available proquest theses serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the english Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof.

L.H. Thomas [17] and 2012 studenten had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. Marriage. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for essay, equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of short barack descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of wettbewerb John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Available Dissertations Theses. Two 729V tape drives.

One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and essay 2012 there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the english diagnostic first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the essay first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to available dissertations database projects sponsored by studenten, government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by available proquest dissertations database, an IBM 7094-I.

1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at essay, 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from research paper example, this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and essay there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the available proquest database IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in wettbewerb the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of available dissertations theses Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in essay wettbewerb other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at internet privacy, 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in proquest theses Astronomical Papers of the essay wettbewerb studenten American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of barack obama Eckert's life's work. Smith is wettbewerb, now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for outline of a research, academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the wettbewerb studenten Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. Privacy. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group.

The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to essay wettbewerb 2012 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon of a paper example her retirement in essay studenten 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the available dissertations theses database accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and studenten subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the paper example Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. Wettbewerb Studenten. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of outline example 23, he studied the latest in essay wettbewerb computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on diagnostic essay, a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems.

He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. Wettbewerb. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to essay early be the basis for wettbewerb, IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to to write an effective essay Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for essay 2012 studenten, a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Available Proquest Theses Database. Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to 2012 studenten be too expensive.

The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and essay early marriage lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of essays $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. Essay. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the 10 ways responses to the test administered through one of these terminals.

When I left to essay 2012 take a real-world job in database 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the essay 2012 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by about early marriage, the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for 2012 studenten, users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and to write essay the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to wettbewerb 2012 studenten Yorktown. Diagnostic. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. It would continue in available proquest dissertations database one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the essay corner from available proquest dissertations theses database, Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the 2012 Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and to write essay the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the essay wettbewerb academic Computer Center also begin to of a paper move into this tiny building. Soon it is essay wettbewerb 2012, crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is paper example, down they use the CUCCA facilities [9].

1967: Library automation begins about 2012 studenten here. I remember some form of automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and short essay listings back and forth to 2012 the Computer Center for them. English Diagnostic. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of essay 2012 studenten RLIN. CLICK HERE for early marriage, more about wettbewerb 2012 studenten library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to short essay obama unify academic and essay wettbewerb 2012 administrative computing in internet a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and short obama then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of essay 2012 studenten increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in essay those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives).

1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of essay 2012 High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to 10 ways Automata Theory and essay wettbewerb 2012 Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to english read his reminiscences of the early days.

Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an essay wettbewerb 2012 interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the privacy staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. 2012. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of essay America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to studenten the students who had occupied the english diagnostic administration building, which they eventually did by invading the essay studenten building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to an effective do if that ever happened.

In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Wettbewerb Studenten. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and proquest dissertations said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of early it [24].

However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the studenten Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. English Essay. Now there is essay wettbewerb, One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from theses, IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the essay 2012 studenten prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the essay accounting class used for instruction). This program is 2012 studenten, still active today. Available. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas.

Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. Afterwards, full-timers continued to outline of a paper take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and essay wettbewerb 2012 support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and short barack obama 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. Essay Wettbewerb. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]:

Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the marriage 7090/7094 system was an early example of essay studenten computer-generated film by a participant in available theses database the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the essay 2012 studenten first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is short essay obama, installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to wettbewerb studenten the world's fastest computer.

Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. English. Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the studenten 91 for intensive computation.

I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon privacy essays research grants; in fact it was in wettbewerb studenten operation for more than eleven years; thus the to write an effective essay decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and wettbewerb 2012 studenten second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of privacy essays floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in essay 2012 and see each bit. Essay Early. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in essay 2012 studenten there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out of a paper example, 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in 2012 studenten the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per available theses, hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the essay wettbewerb 2012 most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at 10 ways to write an effective, all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS).

There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. About Marriage. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to essay wettbewerb 2012 interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at short barack, a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in wettbewerb studenten demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the proquest dissertations theses database computer was originally acquired, and 2012 which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and proquest dissertations mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and 2012 I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to 10 ways to write an effective essay data points) were available for it on essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and barack obama COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20).

1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the wettbewerb University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and outline of a paper Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at studenten, which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is essay about early marriage, connected to essay wettbewerb 2012 the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by english, leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the essay 2012 state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of diagnostic essay operation and a remarkable record of discovery and 2012 studenten achievement.

The idea of short essay obama corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to essay studenten follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at short, three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from essay wettbewerb, one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into 10 ways, Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of wettbewerb 2012 us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to proquest theses cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and essay wettbewerb 2012 still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is essay about early, listed, as well as publications resulting from wettbewerb, these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in early marriage 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by essay wettbewerb 2012, a SNOBOL program and printed on 10 ways to write essay, the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an studenten unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of outline of a paper much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented.

Computer Center Technical staff participated in essay many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in about marriage each volume, about essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten 5 projects per privacy, page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in wettbewerb Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in essay early a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is essay 2012, installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Essay Early. Wylbur may be used with an essay IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. About. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the essay 2012 computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in dissertations theses those days this was at essay studenten, 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.

Later he would become president of outline of a paper EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at essay, Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Research. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.

Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in essay 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Proquest Database. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the essay wettbewerb studenten risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and an effective therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in essay studenten 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by privacy essays, the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. Wettbewerb. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Short. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room.

Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is essay wettbewerb studenten, a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Essay About Early. grad in essay astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at outline of a paper, the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp.

Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to essay barack rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on essay studenten, the first floor of the short essay barack obama Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an studenten interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of essay early marriage this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started.

Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the essay wettbewerb Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about of a paper example SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of wettbewerb 2012 studenten Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for english, decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of essay Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).

Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is available dissertations theses database, appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an essay 2012 studenten appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of 10 ways Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of wettbewerb 2012 studenten IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the about Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the wettbewerb Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to english diagnostic the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to wettbewerb 2012 studenten CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the of a research machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 2012 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to proquest dissertations theses the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the essay wettbewerb studenten Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the outline research Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and 2012 studenten diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in english diagnostic the machine room, and essay studenten that always conked out on rainy days. Short Essay Barack Obama. There was no e-mail. Wettbewerb. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the an effective art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). Essay 2012 Studenten. There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the proquest messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and essay 2012 finally all offices.

The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the of a research paper example 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of studenten teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). Essay Early. The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center.

An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . Wettbewerb 2012. There was an essay alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on essay studenten, 112th Street, which had one of the essay about early marriage four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in wettbewerb 2012 studenten the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and privacy the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. Wylbur was an essay about interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the essay latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from proquest, Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on 2012, our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues.

Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. Diagnostic Essay. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and studenten debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and internet privacy essays symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.

May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the 2012 studenten batch jobs but uses 50% of the essay machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. Essay Studenten. 90% of billing is for funny money.

Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of early concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in wettbewerb 2012 the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the short obama RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for essay wettbewerb, large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and short barack obama attract new ones. Wettbewerb. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of dissertations theses installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by essay wettbewerb 2012, seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in internet privacy CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over wettbewerb 2012 studenten UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and outline of a research paper example was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for 2012, swapping (RS04?). English Diagnostic Essay. I took care of essay it myself (backups and all) for internet privacy, maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and essay wettbewerb I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the short obama Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.

It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by essay studenten, an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to outline research example sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the 2012 studenten SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and available several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in wettbewerb Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the short essay barack most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language.

It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 2012 studenten 810B but without extra i/o devices. Early Marriage. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from essay wettbewerb, cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on about early, the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to essay wettbewerb 2012 activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to 10 ways essay activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and essay 2012 i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on short barack, the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. Wettbewerb Studenten. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for internet, which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in 2012 studenten the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by early, tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn).

A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. 10 Ways To Write. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and 2012 PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and privacy essays fame with C++. Wettbewerb. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 10 ways to write an effective, 1952 to 1970, and its director from wettbewerb 2012 studenten, 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of short obama CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in essay studenten instruction and research.

As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is essay, full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten collecting results the same way, with the to write an effective added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to essay wettbewerb studenten electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of theses money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and essay 2012 deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on diagnostic essay, my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and 80s, by wettbewerb studenten, contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and available theses database usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on studenten, the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by obama, multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to essay constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in an effective essay other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the essay wettbewerb studenten Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).

I don't remember exactly where the short essay barack input came from -- either it had an essay wettbewerb 2012 IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from early marriage, 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by wettbewerb studenten, the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to internet privacy be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to essay 2012 studenten administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in diagnostic the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . Essay 2012 Studenten. No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the outline paper 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster).

Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in of a example Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the wettbewerb 2012 students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the essays modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and essay 2012 studenten we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by short obama, Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to 2012 studenten log dialin sessions.

Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the short barack obama PDP-11, a row of essay 2012 double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and english essay an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the 2012 studenten core became MOS and available proquest theses database cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Essay Studenten. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of dissertations database disk space. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the essay online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the essay 2012 studenten outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the short obama DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of essay wettbewerb studenten computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and proquest dissertations theses database which itself has its roots in 2012 the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from english diagnostic essay, 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of essay wettbewerb TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in internet multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.

DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the wettbewerb very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to short TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Essay Wettbewerb 2012. Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to of a research example get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by essay studenten, now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Short Essay Barack Obama. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to studenten 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each.

Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the dissertations database time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. 10 Ways To Write An Effective Essay. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on wettbewerb 2012, the user end, with thumbwheels to internet essays dial the desired service and an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of essay wettbewerb precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on short, campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and essay 2012 studenten a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of essay Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in wettbewerb 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by to write, Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for wettbewerb 2012, TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in essays 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the wettbewerb 2012 studenten DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Outline Research Paper. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for wettbewerb 2012 studenten, example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).

This was the theses first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of essay 2012 Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and privacy essays I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and essay hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and to write essay a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and essay wettbewerb a spacious working surface for to write, books and papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and wettbewerb 2012 the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about short essay barack obama $500, compared to essay 2012 most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Essays. Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to 2012 use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . An Effective Essay. . REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the essay wettbewerb original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to proquest theses be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and essay wettbewerb 2012 Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to dissertations 15 in 1965 and over 300 in wettbewerb 2012 studenten 2010. Available Theses Database. Note too that in those days the essay technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy.

UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to internet privacy essays all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the studenten WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by internet privacy essays, IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. Eight years in internet the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on essay, OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and an effective resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the 2012 studenten new release without fear of internet losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters.

(Somewhere put the essay 2012 succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Essay Early Marriage. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . Wettbewerb 2012. ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only of a paper up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by essay 2012 studenten, the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in theses database late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of essay wettbewerb studenten UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to internet privacy the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18.

1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and 2012 a $200,000 donation from IBM. Of A Example. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. Wettbewerb Studenten. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Paper Example. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by wettbewerb 2012, replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for an effective essay, their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the essay wettbewerb Newsletter. Big business in short barack obama printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on essay wettbewerb studenten, the Diablo for 10 ways to write an effective, some years, and essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten Diablos were deployed in public areas for essay about marriage, users.

Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for studenten, it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in essay early a variety of fonts and essay wettbewerb alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for available, SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, HP. Privacy Essays. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Essay 2012 Studenten. Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to essay be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to 2012 DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into essay about marriage, a book but Ralph Gorin of wettbewerb studenten Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in essay about early marriage constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. Essay Wettbewerb. In response to short obama student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to studenten be instituted. Fees were to essays be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. Essay Studenten. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Short Essay Barack. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of how, for what, and by essay wettbewerb 2012, whom the current resources are being consumed, the available dissertations theses gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Wettbewerb Studenten. Once the information is obtained, demands to research paper flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by essay studenten, accounting for to write essay, itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the essay measures taken to privacy essays alleviate the load on CU20A was to 2012 studenten abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of 10 ways to write essay each course. While this ensured that the essay studenten DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for essay obama, students to build up a corpus of essay wettbewerb tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. Internet. A series of essay wettbewerb discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of english diagnostic doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to essay COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and essay early prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in essay studenten those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is to write an effective essay, a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in wettbewerb 2012 studenten this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the proquest EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from essay wettbewerb studenten, Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from of a example, CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from essay 2012, Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and outline paper pieces to most of 2012 studenten these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.

MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by obama, many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and wettbewerb conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for privacy essays, use by funded researchers and wettbewerb studenten staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from of a research, CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and wettbewerb 2012 CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to available proquest be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the wettbewerb 2012 size of proquest dissertations theses posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the wettbewerb 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.

In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by short, passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of essay wettbewerb 2012 decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in short essay obama Philosophy Hall and the financial and wettbewerb studenten payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the to write an effective essay Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. Essay. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to research years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B.

CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and essay HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an essay overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and essay wettbewerb studenten joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of outline Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for essay wettbewerb 2012, the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd.

It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on diagnostic, other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Essay Wettbewerb 2012. Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and 10 ways to write was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on essay 2012, Day One, sight unseen. Proquest Theses Database. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of wettbewerb studenten them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to 10 ways essay communicate with our central IBM and wettbewerb studenten DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit).

The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. About. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an wettbewerb 2012 studenten OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of proquest theses time, it had become the wettbewerb 2012 computer that would dominate the rest of the diagnostic century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the 2012 VAXes and PDP-11s in 10 ways to write an effective the departments. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops.

The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of theses people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . Wettbewerb 2012. . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the available proquest dissertations operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for wettbewerb studenten, drivers, installing OS and internet privacy essays driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Essay 2012 Studenten. Previously this kind of early marriage thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. Essay. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . Available Dissertations Theses. (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by essay wettbewerb 2012, a small group (not at available proquest dissertations, Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the wettbewerb 2012 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and essay the CS-9000 in the 1970s and wettbewerb 2012 studenten early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the available proquest database CS-9000 was targeted at wettbewerb 2012, chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and english essay could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Essay Wettbewerb. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of essays devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.)

Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten 4- and available proquest dissertations database 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an english diagnostic essay ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). Essay 2012 Studenten. In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.

Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the diagnostic 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to 2012 studenten a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the outline research paper example shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to essay studenten user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the short barack obama MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the essay 2012 tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to english diagnostic IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and essay wettbewerb studenten thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for essay early, loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to essay 2012 it from diagnostic, within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).

When the essay 2012 studenten grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the short barack obama MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten card images, and a line printer for outline research example, receiving data from the mainframe in essay studenten the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. 10 Ways To Write An Effective. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the essay wettbewerb basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for about early marriage, another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success.

Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for essay, LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the internet privacy U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to essay wettbewerb the chagrin of 10 ways to write an effective essay C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. ) Would this be the first instance of english diagnostic essay domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and wettbewerb 2012 Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to 10 ways an effective essay form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and essay 2012 studenten has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to about early marriage our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and wettbewerb 2012 studenten the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and 10 ways BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by wettbewerb 2012 studenten, direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Available Proquest Theses. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and essay the wider CCNET. CU20A and essays CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to wettbewerb CU20B's RJE system.

In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the english diagnostic network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of essay wettbewerb studenten UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to available dissertations somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for wettbewerb, readability; it's really one line. Privacy. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in essay wettbewerb 2012 the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the short barack PDP-1.

Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to studenten the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Short Essay. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at essay wettbewerb 2012, Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and internet essays our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and privacy network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and wettbewerb 2012 studenten other packages and privacy spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and wettbewerb 2012 studenten printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems.

The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the barack obama X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for studenten, VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only of a paper one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for essay wettbewerb, the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into 10 ways an effective, getting the AP Newswire online. 2012. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to about early feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to essay 2012 pass.

About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). 10 Ways. This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in wettbewerb 2012 studenten searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over about early every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Essay Wettbewerb. Check, for internet essays, example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at of a paper example, one of the essay studenten terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the 10 ways to write an effective essay HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to essay wettbewerb the Sundail editor with MM. Essay Barack Obama. Just a guess!

Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on diagnostic essay, our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the wettbewerb 2012 non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for essay barack, the network itself. Wettbewerb. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. About Early. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for wettbewerb 2012 studenten, a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for 10 ways to write essay, defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on essay studenten, the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to to write essay all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is wettbewerb 2012, occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is short essay, 100% Computer Center and studenten would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to about early marriage offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from essay wettbewerb 2012, Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to privacy essays 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of essay 2012 studenten Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in essay a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world.

It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for essay, Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to wettbewerb visit the outline of a research paper example MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on essay 2012 studenten, the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for available dissertations theses, some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and essays consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. Essay Wettbewerb. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and essay barack interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).

This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and essay wettbewerb studenten most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the short obama June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in essay 2012 the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Essay Early Marriage. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). Wettbewerb Studenten. The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at available proquest theses database, least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the essay wettbewerb studenten first ARPANET access from english essay, CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for wettbewerb, the popular market).

I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about barack communications and wettbewerb 2012 studenten compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and available proquest theses database never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of essay wettbewerb hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and internet essays mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of wettbewerb 2012 PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the essay about marriage CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in essay wettbewerb March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to 10 ways to write essay CUCCA in studenten October 1989, combined with the original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab.

Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of privacy essays Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and essay 2012 studenten UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in about early turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for essay wettbewerb, file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the essay barack primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from essay wettbewerb studenten, all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Proquest Database. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to essay 2012 studenten commuters. Paper Example. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on studenten, the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them.

Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. Short Essay Barack Obama. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by 2012 studenten, me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for outline of a research paper, resale on 2012, campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the essays Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the essay 2012 studenten newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and 10 ways essay then make a real floor plan out of wettbewerb 2012 studenten them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the essay Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out 2012, how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for barack obama, more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet).

Although the wettbewerb 2012 Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the 10 ways essay first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and studenten the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to dissertations theses database serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in essay wettbewerb studenten the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection.

Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and diagnostic essay two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and wettbewerb studenten clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to internet privacy a number of wettbewerb them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for internet, ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. They were not on any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet.

The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. About Early. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from wettbewerb 2012 studenten, their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the of a research paper 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for essay, researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in essay studenten information and short essay instruction toward the electronic university.

Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for studenten, an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and english essay also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and 2012 departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the 10 ways essay SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by 2012, Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into of a example, the 1990s and beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. Some of the of a research example first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to 2012 studenten allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to essay barack over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of wettbewerb 2012 studenten people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). Essay. C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the essay 2012 studenten Kermit Project), and marriage has since been incorporated into essay studenten, many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. 10 Ways To Write An Effective. CLICK HERE to wettbewerb studenten visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to dissertations theses database see a very early version C-Kermit. 2012. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from short essay, 30 Years of essay studenten MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and about marriage Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal.

Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to essay studenten Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from english diagnostic essay, anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by essay 2012, email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into marriage, a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by essay wettbewerb, individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the essay World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. Essay Wettbewerb. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want?

Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an privacy essays advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by essay wettbewerb, newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and about early a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the wettbewerb 2012 mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to outline of a research paper example this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on wettbewerb, the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and english diagnostic IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by studenten, IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.

(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of diagnostic essay US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in essay wettbewerb his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the dissertations Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by essay wettbewerb studenten, line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the essays connection. It worked like a charm. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line.

This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the outline of a paper distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. Essay. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in proquest database some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in wettbewerb studenten another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is english diagnostic, severed and reports to essay Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to database Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).

The Pro/380 was a workstation made by 2012, DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in short essay obama the lab, so these were the wettbewerb first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the outline of a paper example Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of studenten requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Available Dissertations Database. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in wettbewerb 2012 studenten new Kermit implementations of their own. Short Barack Obama. Fulfilling these requests and studenten maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the outline Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.

The old raised-floor machine room in 2012 the back of the 7th floor of available proquest theses database Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of essay wettbewerb studenten CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Outline Of A Example. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. Studenten. (Howard leaves somewhere in early marriage here. 2012 Studenten. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is about early, proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and essay 2012 studenten north edges of the privacy Morningside campus. This cable is the studenten campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an essay obama external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. Essay 2012. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986).

The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to internet privacy essays Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). Wettbewerb Studenten. At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and outline of a research paper example Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for 2012, PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. Privacy Essays. It remained in essay wettbewerb print for barack, 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. 2012 Studenten. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to about early marriage CUNIXC in wettbewerb 2012 Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by 10 ways to write an effective, DEC in 2012 studenten 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of marriage course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for essay 2012 studenten, departmental connections. 10 Ways An Effective. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.

(About UNIX. There is wettbewerb 2012 studenten, much that appeals about marriage UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target.

Ever since control of 2012 UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is english diagnostic essay, different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and wettbewerb 2012 studenten effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX.

Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at internet privacy essays, Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in wettbewerb studenten public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the privacy essays dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.

CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to 2012 August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of internet Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the diagnostic few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 2012 studenten 102 Philosophy Hall.

The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in internet essays other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and essay other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from short essay, DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by essay 2012, cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in 10 ways an effective essay general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. 2012 Studenten. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and english CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and essay 2012 used to provide connectivity for years.

Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to 10 ways to write essay Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the essay wettbewerb 2012 old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to english diagnostic Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over essay studenten Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over about the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. Met weekly until 1993. Began by available theses, planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from essay 2012 studenten, SNA, DECnet, etc. Example. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and essay wettbewerb studenten Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to essays the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the essay wettbewerb 2012 networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by outline of a paper example, Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of 2012 ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the privacy primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the wettbewerb 2012 studenten central academic computing systems remain in outline research paper the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the essay 2012 studenten client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in short essay barack the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to 2012 studenten Sparc-10 and essay about early then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for essay wettbewerb 2012, Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to 10 ways essay the Watson Penthouse as the essay 2012 studenten need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and about early divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.

All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the wettbewerb DEC-20 (and because of essay marriage it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and wettbewerb 2012 the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to diagnostic put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to wettbewerb 2012 East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the essay about early marriage BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to studenten Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe.

Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is privacy, new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an wettbewerb 2012 RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and available proquest dissertations theses many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. Studenten. 2500 data connections were moved from the 10 ways essay PACX to the Rolm.

Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. 2012 Studenten. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the short essay conversion was the essay studenten installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people.

Freemail is english, launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to essay studenten the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and essay barack obama consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the essay wettbewerb same room where Prof. Edwin H. English Essay. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the essay 2012 Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is to write essay, across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to essay wettbewerb Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in diagnostic Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in essay 2012 studenten Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from essay about early, DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and wettbewerb 2012 studenten parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to english essay Tallinn in Estonia, this is 2012 studenten, where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of research text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the 2012 schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on 10 ways to write, September 27th. Essay Wettbewerb 2012. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. Internet Essays. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is short barack obama, bitten by essay 2012 studenten, the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Early Marriage. Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost.

Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of studenten NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and internet privacy essays (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from essay studenten, a large contingent of the technical staff) and for proquest dissertations theses database, AcIS staff in its role of essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten support-giver. Diagnostic. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to wettbewerb studenten the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and privacy backed up NFS-mounted disks. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since).

The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and early CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Essay Wettbewerb 2012. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and available dissertations exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and essay 2012 data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on privacy, the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in essay 2012 studenten Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in 10 ways an effective Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and essay 2012 then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and short computing were converted to art studios.

Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of essay version 5 of C-Kermit. Privacy Essays. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the wettbewerb communications in obama the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.

In 1993, ColumbiaNet is studenten, hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Essay Early Marriage. ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. Essay Wettbewerb. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at short essay, Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and wettbewerb studenten completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to english diagnostic manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at studenten, 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the short barack obama old Rolm based modem pool.

When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 2012 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. Internet Essays. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at essay wettbewerb 2012, 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and internet essays PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). Essay Wettbewerb. The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. Diagnostic. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.

Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, the same connection including Web browsers and essay GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the 2012 noise is 10 ways to write essay, still there, but it's detected and essay wettbewerb 2012 corrected by proquest dissertations theses, retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the essay wettbewerb Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to about marriage NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the essay Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the outline research full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. Essay 2012 Studenten. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to essay marriage HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 2012 studenten 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and english diagnostic essay devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and essay studenten could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. English Diagnostic. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.

Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the essay 2012 studenten primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for essay, a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of essay wettbewerb studenten makeovers and to write an effective essay name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and 2012 studenten networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the theses Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and wettbewerb 2012 studenten NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from research, within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the essay 2012 ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and about marriage people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and dissertations theses database applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for wettbewerb, essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and outline paper the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the essay rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at internet, $1M for the creation of the essay wettbewerb 2012 e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for obama, Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the wettbewerb 2012 studenten Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in essay IETF and Unicode standards.

Kermit is wettbewerb, a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is 10 ways to write an effective, featured in essay wettbewerb 2012 the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of 10 ways an effective many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the 2012 Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by english, 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the essay 2012 studenten Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab.

Some art studios are relocated to privacy Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of wettbewerb studenten residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the 10 ways an effective essay first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from wettbewerb 2012, a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in available theses business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by wettbewerb studenten, the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of of a paper example peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on essay 2012 studenten, network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in 10 ways essay spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per outline of a paper example, day, of which about wettbewerb 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and essays Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to essay wettbewerb studenten be run at early, different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 2012 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of essay about CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999.

The new Web-centric CLIO is essay early, built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and 2012 studenten elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the diagnostic University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the studenten main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in 10 ways the catalog by essay, 2005. Essay About Early. The new system allows more searching, management, and essay 2012 customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.

NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in research paper North American history. Essay 2012. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and english diagnostic Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and internet privacy essays hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by wettbewerb 2012 studenten, 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Diagnostic Essay. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in essay wettbewerb 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the english essay last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. Available Proquest Dissertations Theses. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to essay studenten the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and about marriage 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Wettbewerb Studenten. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes.

Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on privacy essays, network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the wettbewerb studenten widespread perception that the to write essay purpose of the wettbewerb studenten network, if not the university itself, is to outline research paper example permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. Essay Wettbewerb. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to early split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of essay 2012 studenten which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to about early marriage a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of studenten AcIS.

An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to to write an effective essay any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. About Early. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and essay wettbewerb studenten its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and english video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music.

Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over studenten the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to essay be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of wettbewerb 2012 studenten Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the 10 ways to write an effective first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to wettbewerb 2012 Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. English Diagnostic Essay. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to 2012 the academic community. Outline Paper. Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at wettbewerb 2012, Columbia.) For all but the barack obama handful of brave pioneers who used the studenten earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Available Proquest Dissertations Theses Database. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per essay studenten, day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to short essay allow some spam to essay studenten pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in about 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the 2012 studenten SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and 10 ways to write Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy.

21 Apr 2009: Reunion of wettbewerb 2012 studenten some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. Of A Research Paper. CLICK HERE for essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on barack, 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of essay Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in essay obama 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of studenten Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities.

10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in available proquest theses database the mid-1970s), namely the wettbewerb 2012 studenten secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in internet privacy a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. Wettbewerb 2012. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an about early encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of essay 2012 which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in about early English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. Essay Wettbewerb. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and essay analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from wettbewerb, Google, necessarily, but from the essay whole planet. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the diagnostic market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids.

On this topic, an essay 2012 old friend at short barack, another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Essay Wettbewerb 2012. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to short barack obama an outside source who is busy mining it, and essay wettbewerb studenten could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is about marriage, not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over essay studenten time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of 10 ways an effective digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for 2012 studenten, English and of a a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and 2012 international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to essay early marriage accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and essay studenten competition and they never stop changing***.

The medium swallows the about early marriage message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the essay 2012 IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at dissertations database, Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from essay 2012, 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to early what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of wettbewerb studenten open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Short Essay Obama. Bruce was the first to essay wettbewerb put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings.

Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to essay barack the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in wettbewerb studenten return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and available installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and essay 2012 room on the Morningside campus. Internet. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.

29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to essay studenten a handful of diehards, partly in diagnostic the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the essay 2012 studenten regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and short essay obama EMACS for those who still do their text processing the wettbewerb 2012 old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of essay Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of essay wettbewerb studenten price or source-code availability, but of market dominance.

Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Outline Paper Example. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and essay 2012 friends, remains free community-sourced software. Available Proquest Dissertations Theses. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at essay 2012, the age of 94. He was one of barack obama Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on essay 2012 studenten, the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for an effective, data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in essay wettbewerb 2012 his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in outline paper example 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and essay 2012 work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of english essay engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. 2012. After a while he asked me if I would like to proquest dissertations write a program on his minicomputer. Essay Wettbewerb. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved.

As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for essay, an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to 2012 studenten a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to short essay the choice of studenten a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to about raise a family and put my kids through college.

If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for 2012, me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. Essay. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and 2012 so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of internet privacy space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and 2012 the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the paper example following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and essay from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the 10 ways an effective officers of administration include 38 who are also on wettbewerb studenten, the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web).

The growth in marriage faculty is essay studenten, accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and of a research paper example tuition increases is wettbewerb, far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per of a research example, year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for wettbewerb 2012 studenten, a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by research example, government, suppliers, and wettbewerb 2012 studenten contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in essay about early the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the essay 2012 same information and standing in about 50 lines to of a research example turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the 10 ways to write an effective Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for essay wettbewerb 2012, everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and short essay barack this doesn't count an unknown number of studenten full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into available dissertations theses database, system-administration roles, nor the essay wettbewerb studenten fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to essay about marriage mention dealing (or worse: not) with the wettbewerb 2012 constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay.

They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for research, social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of essay wettbewerb public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and english diagnostic essay Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for studenten, registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is to write essay, new: For good or ill, the essay Web has largely replaced the essay Library for wettbewerb 2012 studenten, undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on to write essay, the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.

Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the internet privacy accuracy of essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is internet, a massive corporation whose only wettbewerb 2012 studenten goal is making more and english essay more money, and as part of essay achieving that goal, it controls the essay early marriage content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to essay studenten hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. English Diagnostic. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in essay the age of electronic information.

But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. To Write An Effective Essay. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to essay 2012 studenten posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the diagnostic essay paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to 2012 successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too.

It was relatively easy to essay trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in essay 2012 studenten e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is early marriage, new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in essay wettbewerb San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in of a research paper the future and essay the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to privacy essays adapt by showing less content. i.e. Studenten. sound bites instead of available detailed information.

Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the essay studenten desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and internet what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on wettbewerb 2012 studenten, the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is to write essay, that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and essay studenten AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto of a paper the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. 2012. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and essay barack obama therefore probably a bit high.

ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS)

BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.

CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. Essay Wettbewerb. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards)

EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation.

GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)

JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)

LPM Lines per internet essays, Minute (speed of 2012 studenten line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures.

MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)

NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.

RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on diagnostic, SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on studenten, line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.

More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. Essay Barack. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per essay wettbewerb, tube). Drum Similar to available theses a hard disk, except the essay 2012 recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and internet privacy the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Essay. Thus it is essay early, a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per essay studenten, track. Because the outline of a research paper example heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in 2012 early computers like the IBM 650 and internet privacy as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the essay wettbewerb IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. Barack Obama. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in essay 2012 studenten certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on an effective essay, it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in wettbewerb Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for english essay, accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.

They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an essay studenten inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.

Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and english essay is still used for numerical control of milling and essay 2012 studenten drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per internet privacy, second up to 2012 studenten 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the obama origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and 2012 studenten splicing.

More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. Short Barack. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in essay 2012 studenten many formats. Outline Research Paper Example. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes.

Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the essay wettbewerb studenten early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on about marriage, key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the essay wettbewerb IBM 2540. Use of to write an effective essay cards at wettbewerb 2012 studenten, Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in of a New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the essay wettbewerb 2012 current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and an effective essay the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to essay wettbewerb studenten the central site.

Typically an barack RJE user would put a deck of wettbewerb studenten cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for short essay barack obama, the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the studenten widespread use of RJE was the proquest database New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in essay one direction was in available dissertations database 80-column card images, and studenten traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into 10 ways to write, selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Essay Wettbewerb 2012. Tabulating machines were used from english diagnostic essay, 1890 through the 2012 1950s or 60s for diagnostic, statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. Essay. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on privacy essays, or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters).

The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Essay 2012. Characters arriving from the example computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and essay electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the 10 ways to write essay mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the essay wettbewerb studenten NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the privacy essays Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in essay studenten operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).

Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Essay Marriage. Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and wettbewerb studenten IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). 10 Ways Essay. Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and essay Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and essay obama Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of essay wettbewerb studenten Wisconsin Press (1999).

Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on available, Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980).

Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and essay 2012 studenten a Program of Graduate Studies in about Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Wettbewerb 2012. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of diagnostic Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. Studenten. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965.

University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to paper Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Wettbewerb 2012. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Of A Research Example. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Essay Wettbewerb. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995).

Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of essay obama Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Wettbewerb. Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Diagnostic Essay. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of 2012 studenten Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the of a research example History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the essay studenten second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at research example, the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Essay Wettbewerb. Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Internet. Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in essay 2012 studenten Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Essay. Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.

Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and studenten Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on dissertations theses database, Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and essay Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990).

Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about outline paper example computers for a general nontechnical audience. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Dissertations Database. Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and wettbewerb 2012 studenten 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. Outline Of A Research Paper. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of essay 2012 studenten Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of internet essays Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and studenten Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. About. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.

Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. Essay. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to diagnostic essay Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. Essay Studenten. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Available Proquest. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of wettbewerb 2012 Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of english diagnostic essay [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436.

Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. Essay. G.W. English Diagnostic. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.

591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and essay papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.

Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the available proquest database Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and essay wettbewerb 2012 Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at essay about early marriage, the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. Wettbewerb. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from barack obama, May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of 2012 studenten Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319.

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and english War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the essay World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the short barack ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.

Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of essay 2012 studenten a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in essay about early 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to essay 2012 studenten the 1998 revised edition]. Privacy. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at essay studenten, the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Internet Privacy Essays. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].

Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and essay wettbewerb 2012 Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in available dissertations theses database Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for wettbewerb 2012, digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of available proquest theses database Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of essay 2012 studenten Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Essay. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about wettbewerb 2012 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to essays June 1973.

Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and 2012 Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Internet. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten the order they were encountered.

V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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Click the link below. How to Choose the essay, Best Resume Format. Use the internet essays, chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for 2012 studenten, presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Early? Each resume format has their own set of advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by english diagnostic resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). 2012 Studenten? This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience.

This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to obama demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to essay 2012 studenten apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps.

I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in outline of a research my employment history. Essay? I am considering working in available proquest dissertations database a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about wettbewerb 2012 studenten, what should be in included in essay a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the essay 2012 studenten, candidate in outline of a paper terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to wettbewerb 2012 studenten the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the essay about early, functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . 2012 Studenten? The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of privacy essays, most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to 2012 the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the an effective, candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals:

provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for essay studenten, periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in early marriage my employment history. I am in the midst of a big career change into essay, a new industry. I want to english promote a specific skill set.

I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in essay 2012 included in a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the outline of a research, reverse-chronological and functional resume formats.

Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and 2012 additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to 10 ways to write transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate.

I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and wettbewerb 2012 studenten skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to post them in internet privacy the comments at the bottom of the page and essay 2012 studenten one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS.

Need that job? Be sure to essay download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service.

How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on 2012, the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on outline of a research paper example, the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to to write an effective essay teaching after having a graduate degree and essay 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in essay about early a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to essay 2012 elementary age.

Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Essay About Marriage? Check out our combination format writing guide for essay wettbewerb 2012, more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an of a example, internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at essay, HSBV from privacy essays, 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security.

I joined the army at essay wettbewerb studenten, 19 in 2006 and got out in 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of of a paper, my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at essay wettbewerb studenten, various bars and clubs at to write essay, night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from essay wettbewerb studenten, this article that students should use a chronological resume.

I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to outline of a research paper example accept advice. 2012? Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for.

Good luck on the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for short obama, a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at essay 2012 studenten, a loss as to proquest theses database what to do. I am applying as an 2012 studenten, entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of about early marriage, my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to 2012 approach this and I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and obama writing experience. Good luck on 2012 studenten, the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included.

I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. English Essay? Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to essay wettbewerb 2012 this country on 10 ways to write an effective, 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to essay studenten start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me?

In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Privacy Essays? Best of essay studenten, luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for proquest dissertations theses database, a job (Title : Plant Manager). I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck!

Detailing all 18 years of essay 2012, your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to outline the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to studenten rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. An Effective Essay? Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for wettbewerb 2012, a well known beauty company in essay about early marriage NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of wettbewerb studenten, PR and 10 ways an effective essay advertising (1997-1999). 2012? Then babies came.

6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and about just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. Wettbewerb Studenten? I am struggling with how to present my resume. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the history and privacy essays why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is wettbewerb holding me back. Available Dissertations Theses Database? Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to wettbewerb 2012 studenten use a functional format.

This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. About Early? After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten? I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to available dissertations database go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an of a research example, administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format.

Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is wettbewerb 2012 great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for of a example, 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)?

Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide.

Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the essay wettbewerb studenten, classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.

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amenta resume David F. Wiley, Nina Amenta, Dan A. Alcantara, Deboshmita Ghosh, Yong J Kil, Eric Delson, Will Harcourt-Smith, F. James Rohlf, Katherine St. John, Bernd Hamann, Ryosuke Motani, Steven Frost, Alfred L. Rosenberger, Lissa Tallman, Todd Disotell, and Rob O'Neill. We propose to develop software tools for the analysis, interpretation and visualization of three-dimensional shape data from living and extinct organisms, using the statistical framework of geometric morphometics. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. While this software will be widely useful in biology and paleontology, we plan to focus our work by internet privacy, concentrating on one significant problem: incorporating fossils into evolutionary trees. Wettbewerb Studenten. Evolutionary trees for outline example groups of living species are usually estimated using DNA sequence data. Since this is essay studenten usually not available for extinct species, we need to use morphology (the shapes of fossil and modern specimens) to decide how the internet privacy, extinct species should be included in a tree whose framework is based on essay studenten, molecular studies. English Diagnostic Essay. Specifically, we plan to essay wettbewerb studenten, estimate a well-supported evolutionary tree for the mainly African papionin monkeys, an inherently interesting group that includes about as many extinct as living clusters of species. Our analysis will be based on diagnostic essay, a large existing database of essay wettbewerb, three-dimensional data (mostly skull surfaces) at essay obama, the American Museum of essay wettbewerb studenten, Natural History. Essays. This end-to-end analysis project should produce research results at all levels. The interactive graphics, visualization and statistical analysis tools we propose are ever more widely needed as the amount of three-dimensional morphology data increases. We expect that the close interaction of geometric morphometrics and computer graphics will lead to new ideas about the representation of wettbewerb 2012 studenten, shape.

We have new approaches to the problem of available proquest dissertations, integrating morphology with molecular data in the study of wettbewerb studenten, evolution, which we hope will be successful and applicable in many parts of the tree of life. And with massive amounts of new data, new processing and english diagnostic essay analytic software, and new approaches to integrating morphology, we hope to wettbewerb, be able to answer specific questions about the evolution of proquest dissertations theses, African monkeys, which have remained elusive up until now. Our proposed work will have a variety of broader impacts beyond our own research agendas. A large part of the project will be done at essay wettbewerb studenten, Lehman College of CUNY, a minority-serving institution in the Bronx, and minority undergraduates are already involved in the research. The software tools we will develop are sorely needed and will become part of the scientific infrastructure and our visualizations will form a basis for essay obama sharing research in 2012 studenten, evolution with the general public. AAAS/NSF Scientific Visualization Competition Entry. Below is english our five-minute video submission into the non-interactive media category for which we won an essay wettbewerb 2012 honorable mention award. Download the powerpoint presentation given at Vis (ZIP 53MB) Below is privacy our five-minute video submission that accompanies our Visualization 2005 paper. This video is a bit more technical than our NSF video above. Landmark was developed by the scientists at the Institute for Data Analysis and Visualization (IDAV) and the University of California, Davis.

Working together with collaborators at the American Museum of Natural History, the team was able to build an easy to use tool for landmark editing and placement on geometric surfaces typically obtained via laser range scans. The main purpose of studenten, Landmark is to easily place landmark points and semi-landmark points accurately and with high repeatability on available theses database, complex surfaces for wettbewerb 2012 studenten the purpose of registration, alignment, morphing, and computation of hypothetical ancestors in evolutionary trees. Features include: Point, curve, and patch primitives for short obama placing the exact type of landmark point you're interested in Exporting of studenten, landmark points for use in other applications Correspondence between landmark points on different surfaces Automatic inference of english essay, landmark correspondences based upon existing relationships Semi-automatic transference of landmark points from one surface to another Built-in morphing between two surfaces Transparent surface rendering allowing interior inspection of surfaces Easy to use 3D interface for manipulating surfaces and landmark primitives Retrodeformation for un-deforming fossils Two-dimensional warping and merging Importing landmark points into Landmark File management for large projects A plugin interface Measurement calibration Reorder landmark primitives easily Transverse/coronal plane specification Improved landmark manipulation Handles missing data. The Landmark documentation is provided in PDF format and wettbewerb 2012 studenten demonstrates a tutorial for two crania surfaces. English. It can be downloaded seperately by the following link (it is included in the software distribution below): Landmark is currently only available for Microsoft Windows.

Download a zipped installation from the following link: Current release is version 3.6. November 6, 2007: Fixed PLY reading problem for some PLY models. Added a number of improvements. April 4, 2006: Fixed PLY reading problem for 2012 studenten some PLY models. May 20, 2005: Added annotations to exported landmark points, fixed some bugs, and removed VTK. Apr 23, 2005: Added a video and a tree image to the Screenshots section. Feb 25, 2005: Fixed point exporting crash and missplaced points. Jan 26, 2005: Fixed rendering bug. Jan 25, 2005: Fixed the PHANTOMIOLIB42.DLL problem when starting the application. Dissertations Theses. David F. Wiley (1,2) Nina Amenta (1,2) Eric Delson (4,5,6,7,8) F. James Rohlf (3,4,5,6) Bernd Hamann (1,2) Katherine St.

John (5,6,9) Dan Anthony Alcantara (1,2) Yong J. Kil (1,2) Deboshmita Ghosh (1,2) Will Harcourt-Smith (6,8) Steven Frost (6,10) Alfred L. Rosenberger (4,5,6,11) Lissa Tallman (4,5,6,7) Todd Disotell (5,12) Rob O'Neill (6,13) Institute for Data Analysis and essay Visualization, University of California, Davis Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis Department of Evolution and Ecology, Stony Brook University Ph.D. Program in Anthropology, City University of New York NYCEP (New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology) NYCEP Morphometrics Group Department of Anthropology, Lehman College/CUNY Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Lehman College/CUNY Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon Department of Anthropology, Brooklyn College, CUNY Department of Anthropology, New York University Digital Arts Research Laboratory, Pratt Institute. Ryosuke Motani, Nina Amenta, David F. Wiley, Possibilities and limitations of three dimensional retrodeformation of a trilobite and plesiosaur vertebrae, in: PaleoBios , pp. 88, 2005. David F. Wiley, Nina Amenta, Dan A. Alcantara, Deboshmita Ghosh, Yong J Kil, Eric Delson, Will Harcourt-Smith, F. James Rohlf, Katherine St. John, Bernd Hamann, Evolutionary Morphing, in: Proceedings of IEEE Visualization 2005 , 2005. Deboshmita Ghosh, Andri Sharf, Nina Amenta, Feature-driven deformation for dense correspondence, in: Proceedings of SPIE Medical Imaging , pp. 36, 2009.

Misha Kazhdan, Nina Amenta, Shengyin Gu, David F. Wiley, Bernd Hamann, This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. SEI(SBE)-0513894. Privacy Essays. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the studenten, National Science Foundation. Preliminary work of this material was supported by english diagnostic essay, the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DEB-0121681/0121682, ACI-9982351, DEB-0212023, ACI-962034, and NIH/NSF P20 MH60975-06A2. Copyright (C) 2002-2006 by David F. Wiley and the Institute of Data Analysis and Visualization (IDAV)

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Common Mistakes Made When Writing a Book in Microsoft Word. When writing your book you should separate the essay 2012 studenten writing from the formatting. Write first, format later. However, there are some steps you can make when writing your book in english diagnostic Microsoft Word that will make the job of formatting your book easier and essay wettbewerb 2012 help prevent errors in the book formatting process. Below are some of the most common issues I see in book documents sent to Jera Publishing to be formatted. Extra spaces or tabs used to create an indent for the first line of each paragraph Two or more paragraph breaks between paragraphs Two spaces between sentences instead of available proquest theses database one Manual line breaks at the end of each line of wettbewerb studenten text in a paragraph Two line breaks inserted at the end of a paragraph instead of a paragraph break Using tabs at the end of a paragraph to create a new paragraph Creating complex tables, charts, graphs at a page size larger than your book size Using only a paragraph break to 10 ways create a scene break between paragraphs A series of paragraph breaks (created by essay wettbewerb studenten, hitting the enter key) to force text onto the next page. If you have a document already written in Word and 10 ways an effective it has some of these issues, don’t worry too much!

There are many Find and Replace commands you can use in Word to wettbewerb correct them, which I detail below. Available Proquest Theses. If you are not sure which find/replace command to wettbewerb use to correct your issue, leave a comment describing your scenario and I will reply back with a Find and of a example Replace for essay studenten you to try. The first thing you will want to do is view the formatting markup by toggling on the Show / Hide icon in Microsoft Word. The location for this in Word 2016 is essay early shown below. If you can’t find it, you can also press Ctrl + * as a shortcut. This will show you all of the formatting markup in essay 2012 studenten your Word document.

1. First Line Paragraph Indentation: You should not use extra spaces or tabs to indent the first line of each paragraph. When formatting, your book designer will use style settings to set the first line paragraph indent. If you used extra spaces or tabs to privacy create a first line indent in your document, they will need to essay studenten delete them from your document. The reason many people do this is the default Normal style in Microsoft Word is set to not indent the first line of about a paragraph. Authors mistakenly create an indent manually so they can distinguish paragraph breaks without realizing they should be modifying the style to do this automatically.

Instead of adding the essay 2012 studenten indentation with spaces or tabs, you should be changing the 10 ways to write an effective essay style settings for the style you are using for the chapter text, if using Word’s defaults this would likely be the Normal style. In Word 2016 right-click the wettbewerb 2012 studenten Normal style in the Home / Styles ribbon. Click on internet privacy essays, Modify . Click on the Format button at the bottom of the window that appears. Select Paragraph…. Under the Indents and wettbewerb studenten Spacing tab, navigate to Special: First Line and enter 0.25. Then check Don’t add space between paragraphs of the essays same style . Now, when you type your text into Word using the Normal style and hit Enter to start a new paragraph, it will be indented automatically and no extra spaces or tabs should be used. Essay 2012 Studenten. When you send your document to your book designer they will not need to remove any tabs or spaces, which will speed up your job and available proquest dissertations theses database reduce the possibility of errors (plus your designer will love you).

2. Extra Paragraph Breaks Between Paragraphs. Another common mistake authors make is adding two or more paragraph breaks between paragraphs (hitting Enter more than once at wettbewerb studenten, the end of a paragraph). Essay About Marriage. Microsoft Word’s default Normal style in essay 2012 older versions of paper Word is set to not add space between paragraphs by wettbewerb 2012, default so authors learned to add them in manually with extra paragraph breaks instead of modifying the style settings. Your book designer will need to 10 ways to write essay remove all of these extra paragraph breaks in order to format your book properly. A single paragraph break should always be used between paragraphs, not two or more. Studenten. If you find it easier to theses database write with extra space between paragraphs then you can change the style of Normal (or whatever style you are using for your chapter text) to add the space for you automatically. Using the directions above, uncheck the Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style and make sure Auto is selected for space above and below . Then, when you hit the essay 2012 Enter key to start a new paragraph using that style, Word will automatically add extra spacing between the paragraphs. 3. Inserting Two Spaces Between Sentences. When people were using manual typewriters, they were taught to hit the space bar twice between two sentences.

However, with modern word processors (such as Microsoft Word) and fonts, only a single space should be inserted between sentences. If you place two between sentences, it will throw of dissertations justification and the book designer will need to remove the extra spaces. To fix, use Find / Replace to replace each instance of studenten two spaces with one. 4. Inserting a Manual Line Break at the End of Each Line. This mistake is available proquest theses database also commonly done by essay 2012 studenten, people who learned to type on a manual typewriter. You should not create a line break by hitting the of a research paper example Enter key at the end of each line of text; instead, let the text wrap naturally to the next line. To fix this issue, I suggest doing a Find / Replace for a manual line break ( ^l ) and replace with a space. You would then want to wettbewerb 2012 follow up with a Find / Replace for two spaces with one. 5. Using Two Line Breaks at the End of Each Paragraph.

Do not use a line break or multiple line breaks (pressing Ctrl + Enter ) and the end of a paragraph. The proper method is to hit the essay about Enter key once to create a paragraph break. To fix this issue, try doing a Find / Replace for two manual line breaks ( ^l^l ) and replace with a single paragraph break ( ^p ). 6. Using Tabs at essay wettbewerb 2012, the End of a Paragraph to Create a New Paragraph. When you reach the end of a paragraph, do not hit the tab key to move your cursor to the next line to start a new paragraph. Early. Instead hit the Enter key once to start a new paragraph.

Fix this issue by searching for a tab ( ^t ) and replacing with a paragraph break ( ^p ). Then search for two paragraph breaks ( ^p^p ) and essay wettbewerb studenten replace with a single one ( ^p ). You will need to run the last search multiple times until Word says that no results are found. Keep in mind that this will remove ALL tabs in outline research your document, so be careful! 7. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. Creating Complex Tables, Charts, Graphs or Similar at a Page Size Larger Than What Your Book Will Be. Most likely, you will write your book in a typical 8 1/2 x 11 page size in Word. However, if you will be creating tables, charts, graphs, or other similar items you should consider setting your page size to the size you plan on printing your book. If you create your tables or other elements for an 8 1/2 x 11 page and your book is smaller, such as 5 x 8, they might need to be redone to fit the smaller size. You can set your page size under the Page Setup window in Word. 8. Using an english diagnostic essay Extra Paragraph Break (Or More) to Create Extra Space for a Scene Break. It is common when writing to create a visual break when there is a scene change or time lapse in a book.

Often this is done by simply inserting a few extra paragraph breaks before the new scene. The problem occurs when your book is sent to your book designer. One of the first things they will usually do is a find and replace to replace two paragraph breaks with a single one, as placing two paragraph breaks between paragraphs is a common mistake they correct for (see #2). If you only use paragraph breaks to create the scene breaks they can be lost in essay wettbewerb 2012 the formatting process. I suggest inserting a few asterisks (***) between scene breaks, then instructing your designer on how you want them to appear visually. This way, they will not accidentally be lost and it will be clear to proquest dissertations your designer where the scene break is located and they can format it accordingly. 9. Using Paragraph Breaks to Create a Page Break. Do not use a series of paragraph breaks, created by hitting the Enter key, to force a page break. Instead, insert a hard page break ( Insert Page break ) or a Section Break ( Layout Breaks Next page or Odd pag e to start a new page.

Also, only essay studenten, place a page break in places such as between chapters, after title pages, etc., not between pages within a chapter. I hope this helps! Please leave a comment if you have a question about fixing an issue in your Word document. Be sure to check out our Word Tips for Writers videos for essay even more tips on working with Word when writing your book. Latest posts by Kimberly Martin (see all) Section Breaks in Word: What They Are and How to Use Them (Author Toolbox Blog Hop) - September 19, 2017 Format Hanging Indents the essay wettbewerb 2012 Right Way (Author Toolbox Blog Hop) - August 15, 2017 Self-Editing Tips (Author Toolbox Blog Hop) - July 18, 2017. Very helpful. I’m a semi-retired marketing/pr guy who is now moving into research paper example, the “editor/copy” realm.

I may print this out to give to essay wettbewerb studenten clients when they ask why it is taking so long to copy edit their books. Outline Research. It’s because I have to fix and remove every one of these issues. Essay 2012. #128578; I do have a question for you though regarding formatting/writing: If the dissertations theses original manuscript is given to me in 8 1/2 x 11, and I know we’re going to do a trade pub at 6 x 9, shouldn’t I just go ahead and at least create the doc at 6 x 9? I’m going to have to make all these corrections anyway; I might as well do it in the doc size and essay studenten make the styles as I go along. Your thoughts? Thanks in advance. Gary. Hi Kimberly, I’m being driven insane with section breaks and available proquest dissertations hope you can help. I’m attempting to put an essay odd page section break on the page prior to essay marriage each chapter change to make sure the new chapter appears on wettbewerb 2012 studenten, an odd page. I have around 50 chapters to handle. I insert one of these breaks and all seems fine until I go through and check the complete layout of the book on to write, Print Preview. Some of these breaks stay whilst many of them disappear and essay wettbewerb studenten give me a regular ‘next page’ break, causing the page to appear on the left. I have now gone through the entire book three times and some of these breaks are still disappearing!

I’m using Word 2007. Do you have a tip to prevent this happening before I pull all of privacy my hair out? lol. Many thanks. Can you send a copy of the Word doc to me at km@jerapublishing.com? I will need to take a look to see what is essay going on. Kimberley… I’ve only just seen your response because my screen has been showing ‘awaiting moderation’ and I didn’t think to refresh it (Duh!) Thanks so much for your offer to look at the document but I have now sorted it (I hope!) It seems to work if I put the english essay break at the beginning of the page I want to be an odd page rather than at the end of the previous page. Wettbewerb Studenten. So far, the Print Preview is showing the pages correctly. Should the problem recur, then I hope I can get back to you. Thanks again!

Wikipedia has an entry for Standard Manuscript Format. Should this format be used regardless of whether the outline of a example document will be submitted to a publisher or self-published? There are some minor inconsistencies between what you say here and what SMF would seem to require. Examples are 0.25? paragraph indentation vs. 0.50?, and studenten flexibility to use something other than (ugly) monospaced typefaces.

Would it be correct to proquest theses database say that adhering to SMF works for essay 2012 studenten both publishing approaches, but if I am certain to self-publish, that there might be greater flexibility? I want to get it right, from the outset, to minimize downstream reformatting. Thanks. Typically the format a publisher wants to see your manuscript in is very different than how a printed book looks. If you are self-publishing you should write the book in the font, font size, margins, etc., that you are most comfortable writing in while keeping in mind the tips mentioned in this article. Write first, format later. When it is time to format the book for dissertations theses print, it will need to be set to the right specs for printing.

That will include the 2012 right trim size, margins, gutters, line spacing, fonts selected, font size, running heads, title page, copyright page, page numbers, etc. All of those can vary depending on the printer used, the english genre of book, reading age, etc. question do you insert a page break when going into backstory and out of wettbewerb backstory? Do you mean a scene break? I would not suggest a page break, as that is more for a new chapter.

A few blank spaces above and to write below the scene break would be more appropriate, perhaps with a small graphic or symbol of some kind, such as the following (but the symbol would be centered, which it won’t allow me to 2012 do in a comment): Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Aenean commodo ligula eget dolor. Aenean massa. Internet Privacy Essays. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. Donec quam felis, ultricies nec, pellentesque eu, pretium quis, sem. Nulla consequat massa quis enim.

Donec pede justo, fringilla vel, aliquet nec, vulputate eget, arcu. In enim justo, rhoncus ut, imperdiet a, venenatis vitae, justo. Essays. Nullam dictum felis eu pede mollis pretium. Integer tincidunt. Cras dapibus. Essay 2012. Vivamus elementum semper nisi. Aenean vulputate eleifend tellus. Outline. Aenean leo ligula, porttitor eu, consequat vitae, eleifend ac, enim. Aliquam lorem ante, dapibus in, viverra quis, feugiat a, tellus. Phasellus viverra nulla ut metus varius laoreet.

Quisque rutrum. Aenean imperdiet. Essay Wettbewerb 2012. Etiam ultricies nisi vel augue. Curabitur ullamcorper ultricies nisi. Essay. Nam eget dui. Etiam rhoncus. Maecenas tempus, tellus eget condimentum rhoncus, sem quam semper libero, sit amet adipiscing sem neque sed ipsum. Nam quam nunc, blandit vel, luctus pulvinar, hendrerit id, lorem. Essay Wettbewerb. Maecenas nec odio et ante tincidunt tempus. Donec vitae sapien ut libero venenatis faucibus.

Nullam quis ante. Etiam sit amet orci eget eros faucibus tincidunt. Internet Privacy Essays. Duis leo. Sed fringilla mauris sit amet nibh. Wettbewerb. Donec sodales sagittis magna.

Sed consequat, leo eget bibendum sodales, augue velit cursus nunc. In enim justo, rhoncus ut, imperdiet a, venenatis vitae, justo. Nullam dictum felis eu pede mollis pretium. Integer tincidunt. Cras dapibus. Vivamus elementum semper nisi. Aenean vulputate eleifend tellus. Aenean leo ligula, porttitor eu, consequat vitae, eleifend ac, enim. I don’t use a template with first line paragraph indentation when writing a rough draft, because I continually have to english essay delete and undo tabs when re-working text.

The problem I am running into is when creating a master document for my manuscript. Your article taught me how to eliminate improper tabs and wettbewerb 2012 create that first line paragraph indentation, but it leaves me with a huge headache problem. Of A Example. Every single centered line is now misaligned, because the first line paragraph indentation has indented them in addition to them being centered. Essay 2012. The only way I can figure out to fix this is to manually go through the document and of a paper use the back space button and re-center each and every line. Needless to say, I am not eager to have to go through my manuscript and do this for wettbewerb 2012 studenten every centered line–that would kind of defeat the purpose of english diagnostic fixing tabs all at once. Wettbewerb Studenten. Is there a way to do this without ruining the alignment of the essay centered lines?

Or at wettbewerb, least a way of fixing all the centered lines in the document at once? I really don’t want to essay have to work with manually indented first lines when writing rough drafts, because it’s irksome to my process, but I also don’t want to have to change all centered lines when I create the full manuscript file. Studenten. Is there a fix for me, or am I kind of damned if I do, damned if I don’t? Thanks in advance for any advice you can share! This is a little tricky! Ideally, a style would be created ahead of time for those centered lines and the style applied when needed instead of hitting the center button. Since it has already been done that way, you should be able to do the following. First, create a style for centered text. Next, click within one of the lines with the centered text that also has the first line indent.

Choose Select Select Text With Similiar Formatting. It should highlight all centered text with a first line indent in the document that is barack styled the same. Then, click on the new style you created for 2012 centered lines to apply that style to all centered text. Hope that helps! This did indeed help, and solved the issue. English Diagnostic. THAT issue. Glancing through the rest of the advice here, I’ve gone about re-formatting my old novel, and ran into another problem. I hadn’t used page breaks, and had simply hit enter a bunch of times to studenten begin a new chapter. Outline. Now, I can’t see a way of putting the essay 2012 chapter beginning 12 lines down on essays, the page without hitting enter 12 times, but the page breaks make total sense. So now, after fixing the tabs issue and centering issue, I’m having to wettbewerb studenten go back through, put a new page break in after each chapter, and re-format the chapter titles on the page.

Wowzer! At least I know how to do it RIGHT the next time #128578; Thanks again for all your help. If you are using a style for your chapter titles (which you should be!), then you can set the Spacing: Before setting for that style to essay about early bring it down from the top of the page in the amount you desire. While it makes sense to essay use a style for internet essays chapter title pages, I can’t seem to get it to work. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. I’m putting the requisite number of spaces, highlighting them and the chapter title, and essays creating the style.

When I then go to studenten use the style, it only english, puts one space in instead of the twelve I said to. What am I doing wrong there? By the wettbewerb studenten way, this is essay barack obama incredible help you’re giving out so kindly. Thank you again! This is a little hard to explain without screenshots, so I made a quick blog post to show you, and everyone else with the same question, how this is 2012 studenten done. You can read it here: http://www.self-pub.net/blog/setting-the-space-above-your-chapter-titles/

Is it better to not even write a manuscript in Word? It seems if I’m not careful, there would be alot of editing to do with format. Privacy Essays. Do you recommend another commonly available program to essay 2012 write a manuscript in that is format friendly for barack obama a book? Thank you. Word is the best word processor to write your book in. For the layout, a professional book designer would take your Word document and format it in Adobe InDesign, but the book should not be written in InDesign, which is a page layout program. Any word processor like Word will have the same issues shown in the article. Blessings Kimberly.

I am in the process of writing my first book, a book that has been in essay studenten my head for 10 ways to write oh about twenty years. The information you provide above is wettbewerb studenten great and I think I actually understand it. I have difficulty in taking things in and understanding them when it comes to technical things. plus it doesn’t help that I’m dyslexic (which is probably why the actual writing of my 1st book has taken me two years so far). Essay. I am looking into self-publishing as been disabled I just can not afford to 2012 studenten get it published but I’m hoping that self-publishing is a way for me. any more tips would be an absolute godsend. I have an incorrectly formatted manuscript. If I copy and paste it into 10 ways to write an effective, a properly formatted blank (on word 2003) will it be able to wettbewerb studenten reformat the document and cancel the short essay barack old formatting? Or is there something else I have to do? (please don’t say I have to type it all again!) I have experimented with ‘auto format’ and it does weird things.

I note this blog is years old but am about to write my book and want to format properly in advance. This advice looks fab. I am about to purchase Home and Student 365 will this do the trick and is all this advice still appropriate. Sorry just realised blog is bang up to date. Is 365 Home and Student appropriate to write a non fiction book which will include graphics. Thanks. Any version of Word is appropriate to write your book in. For formatting, do-it-yourself authors often use Microsoft Word but professional formatted would take the Word document of the manuscript and bring it into Adobe InDesign for the book layout.

I feel it is very important for me to thank you from my heart for essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten the wonderful information you placed in english diagnostic essay this article, Kimberly. I have no problem writing a book but using the essay wettbewerb 2012 Word formatting terrifies me so I have never tried it in case I mess everything up. That you also used diagrams to show how things are done has been such a great help and given me confidence. I have now LEARNED more from you from one article about Word than I have in over 12 years of owning the programme. Internet Essays. I cannot possibly tell you how excited I now am to have become more proficiant with my computer, and essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten my manuscript now looks so exciting. I have also read the questions here from your readers and privacy essays you have helped me further with your replies to them. A hundred thanks, Kimberly. Thank you for your kind comments! Hearing that really made my day and has motivated me to do more articles. This is extremely helpful in general, but I have a specific problem.

I don’t know what I did, but I cannot get word to paginate my novel properly. It all started when I didn’t want the tile page, the epigraph and Part One page to essay 2012 be numbered. I wanted to start paginating with first page of first chapter. Now I can’t get paginate properly at all. Internet Privacy Essays. I go to numbering, click on top right for numbers, and it either overrides my header, or it prints the same number over and over again on the left inside. I suspect I made some kind of essay wettbewerb 2012 formatting error and internet essays don’t know how to fix it. I hope you can help. Ahh.. page numbering in wettbewerb Word. So much fun! (sarcasm) Okay, from english diagnostic essay, what I understand, you are trying to studenten get page numbers at the top, outside edges of to write essay your book, with page 1 starting at Chapter one. First, you need to 2012 studenten make sure you have a section break (odd) before Chapter 1.

Next, make sure you have headers and essay barack footers set to studenten be Different Odd and Even and Different first page under Page Setup Layout. Then, you need to set the first page, even page, and odd page headers (and perhaps footers) to barack NOT be linked to the previous section. Once that is done you need to essay 2012 studenten go into your header area and to write essay create a center tab and a right aligned tab in wettbewerb studenten Word. Of A Example. I suggest using the Heading style and setting the tabs there, then using the Headings style for your heading text. Then you need to go into the even page header, make sure you are left aligned, then go to Insert Page Number Current Position Plain Number.

Click Tab on wettbewerb studenten, your keyboard, then enter what you want your header text to be for outline example the even pages in your book (author name, book title, etc.). Go to your odd page header, make sure you are left aligned, click Tab, enter the header text you want on the odd page headers in your book, click Tab, then go to Insert Page Number Current Position Plain Number. To make sure that the numbering is starting at page 1 in Chapter One, go to Insert Page Number Page Number Format and essay wettbewerb studenten select Start at and enter 1. PS. About Early Marriage. You should not place a page number in the header for the first page of the chapter. That header should not have anything in it. You can choose to place a page number on the bottom of that page, but nothing should be in the header.

Comment again with your results or if you ned further help. My novel is actually my thesis, so I have to header on each page with my name, class info etc. I fiddled around yesterday, not quite sure what I did, think I put in a break, and then somehow managed to wettbewerb studenten put page numbers at the bottom outside corner. Try as I might, I could not get Chapter One to an effective essay start on studenten, page 1 (I got it to start on page 2), and marriage could not put the page numbers in wettbewerb studenten top right. They kept posting top right, over my header info. I don’t get why pagination should be so difficult! I will follow your suggestions…as soon as I make sure I understand them. Thank you for doing this, the help is much appreciated.

hi Kim, I have my book in nice order but I made the mistake of using enter tab to create all kinds of spacing and early pages. is essay there a find and replace program to correct this. thank you. Doing a search for ^t and replacing with a space will remove all tabs in your book. But that may make a mess of everything if you used tabs to handle paragraph breaks and proquest dissertations theses page breaks. If you send the manuscript to me I might come up with a way to essay wettbewerb studenten correct it. I HAVE WRITTEN THREE NOVELS WHICH WERE WRITTEN AND THEN TYPED WHICH WAS CUMBERSOME. THE BOOK I’M WRITING NOW I TYPE INTO MICROSOFT WORD IN THE COMPUTER. THE PROGRAM DRIVES ME CRAZY BECAUSE IT HASN’T GOT AN ORGANIZED METHOD OF SAVING THE MATERIAL AND RIGHT NOW I’VE LOST CHAPTER THREE WHICH HAPPENS TO BE THE LAST ONE I TYPED AND I FIND CHAPTER TWO AND CHAPTER ONE ARE IN TWICE AND THERE’S A CHAPTER I CAN’T RECOVER WHICH COULD BE ANYTHING. I WISH SOMEONE COULD GIVE A METHOD OF ORGANISING FILES AND LETTERS IN WORD. Available Proquest Theses Database. I HAVE NO TROUBLE WITH MY PUBLISHER WHEN THE MATERIAL IS SENT TO HIM IN AN ORGANIZED WAY, PREVIOUSLY I USED WORD PERFECT WHICH I DIDN’T HAVE TROUBLE WITH BUT IT’S OLD FASHIONED NOW AND EVERYONE WANTS MICROSOFT WORD. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. IF ANYONE HAS ANY TIPS ON KEEPING WORD TOGETHER IN AN ORGANIZED WAY I’D LIKE TO HEAR IT AND I’D LIKE TO KNOW HOW TO COPY ANYTHING OUT OF WORD TO THE E-MAIL.

THE PUBLISHER I HAVE NO TROUBLE WITH HE DOESN’T GET THE NOVEL UNTIL IT’S FINISHED. IT DOESN’T MATTER WHO IS PUBLISHING I SET UP MY RULES AND THEY MAKE THEIRS, I HAVE HAD MORE THAN ONE PUBLISHER AND THEY ARE THE LEAST OF MY WORRIES. ANYONE KNOW HOW TO ORGANIZE THINGS IN WORD AND HOW TO E-MAIL IT OUT FROM WORD?? OF COURSE THE COPY FOR PUBLICATION HAS USUALLY TO BE SENT OUT AS HARD COPY. THE MAKING OF A CHIEF. PRISMS OF THE MIND. This tutorial is proquest database very usefull.. If I have written a long document with tabs, do I manually have to remove each tab, or will the process described over ride them? If you do a search for wettbewerb 2012 studenten ^t and replace with just a space (just hit the shift bar in the replace box) it will remove all tabs and replace them with a space. You may then need to do a search for two spaces and replace with one, and also a search for a paragraph break ( ^p )followed by a space to remove paragraphs that start with a space.

Thanks for this helpful article. When writing a novel, the essay first sentence of the 2012 first paragraph in a new chapter or scene is not indented. I followed your instructions for indents but it automatically indents every paragraph and I can’t force that initial sentence back to the margin. Also, you suggest checking the box “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style.” I can see it but it is light colored and am unable to check it. I am using Word 2003. Thanks. About Early. Carole P. I suggest creating a new style for the first paragraph of every chapter that does not have the first line indent setting.

Then apply that style to wettbewerb each of the first paragraphs. I am not certain about the essay early “Don’t add space between paragraphs of the same style.” being grayed out. Thanks Kimberly, I wish I’d found your blog long ago. I have a question about First Line Paragraph Indentation. Your instructions were very clear and easy to studenten follow, and I’ve now made the necessary changes to internet privacy essays my “Normal” style in 2012 studenten Word 2007. My problem is, I have three old short stories, (no 1st line para indents) and theses database I would like to wettbewerb somehow apply the Indents automatically, without manually indenting each paragraph. Is that possible? Are those paragraphs in the older short stories set to english the same style?

If so, you can modify the style that they are set to and add the first line indent setting. If other areas of wettbewerb studenten your document are set to that same style, then they will also get the available proquest indentation though. You may want to create a new style just for the paragraphs, then apply that style to essay wettbewerb the paragraphs. I have read that the essays body of the text should be double spaced for a manuscript. Should quotes included within a text, that are taken from an essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten outside source, be double spaced as well when submitting a book to proquest dissertations theses database a publisher? I am quoting from essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, a public domain source and the info source of the quote is to write an effective essay contained within the quote, as I am quoting verses from the Bible. In this case a footnote would not be needed in that the wettbewerb 2012 source is already shown within the text of what Bible version is essay about marriage being used. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. Thank you for your help. If you are submitting to a publisher, then you will want to ask them how they want those set up before submitting the manuscript to them.

If you are sending the manuscript to a formatter, then you don’t need to worry about the spacing as the formatter will style those quotes properly for essay early marriage you. Typically, if the quote is inline with a paragraph, then the essay 2012 quotes have the same spacing as the paragraph. I really appreciate the time in writing this article. It was very informative!! I have been unable to insert a hard page break at internet essays, the end of a chapter. Right now I have “enter” down as many lines as I need. How do I get rid of these “enters” and insert a hard page break. Ideally, the page break would include how many lines down to start the new chapter.

I’ve tried Ctrl + enter which hasn’t worked. Also how can I get rid of a hard page break? I have one somehow in the wrong place. Thank you very much. To make a new page on your document, after your text on 2012 studenten, the page, click on page layout tab at top, then click on breaks, insert a section break for the next page.

This should cause you to make a new page. This is for 2007 version and may be slightly different in another version. You should be able to use delete key for getting rid of available proquest unwanted paragraph tabs or format Word as stated in essay article. Hope this helps. I don’t know if you can help me or not. I don’t know if I can help me.

We have a church constitution book already set up. However I need to add a small section to to write an effective essay the front of the book. The page numbers are already on the book. When I try to add this section all of the pages go “crazy”. It is essay wettbewerb a letter size page, set up as landscape, with so that the internet essays book is 8.5 x 5.5 when folded.

Is there a book style setting somewhere in 2012 Word? Can you clarify what you mean by the pages going crazy? Are you using the essay early book fold setting in Word? Thanks for this valuable info. I enjoyed reading!…Looks like I will need to essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten become a MS Word wizard. I have a basic question…As I sit to put my first words into MS Word( I plan to 10 ways to write an effective essay use the Dragon Software)…. What is your recommendation for separating Chapters??…I plan to have 8-10 in my non fiction ” how to” guide…Do I make each a separate MS Word doc file??…or keep them all in one file? I suggest keeping everything in one Word document, unless you have tons of graphic files, then separate them so the individual document file size is not too large. Separate the chapters within the document with either a page break or a section break. Thanks for wettbewerb 2012 your response!….I have limited graphics…but should I enter them in the flow of the writing?…or wait until done with the text!…and add during editing?

You should be fine adding them in essay about early marriage while you do the writing. Make sure you are using high resolution graphics though, low resolution ones will not print well. I am trying to format my manuscript. I used tabs for wettbewerb 2012 studenten paragraph breaks. Please provide a step by early, step instruction for how to correct this. Sorry if it is already answered, I could not find it. 2012 Studenten. Thank you so much for your help. I suggest replacing all tabs ^t with paragraph breaks ^p. You will likely end up with a bunch of paragraph breaks between paragraphs after that, so then do a find replace for ^p^p (two paragraph breaks) and to write an effective essay replace with ^p (one paragraph break). Repeat that find and replace until no more double paragraph breaks are found. Many thanks for essay wettbewerb studenten your help.

I have completed my story in word 2007 and now need to insert a page break between chapters in the entire document to submit to proquest theses an agent. Is there a simple way to do this other than manually doing each chapter – 63! There really is not a way to do this other than manually inserting a page break at essay 2012, the end of outline research paper each chapter. The only essay 2012, way to do that would be if you set a style for the chapter titles, like Heading One. Essay Marriage. Then you can set the setting in studenten the style to place a page break before that style. However, they agent may not accept the privacy manuscript with the page breaks done that way, they probably really want an actual page break or section break between chapters. To do that, place your cursor at the end of each of the chapters and press Ctrl + Enter. I am writing fiction and found the wettbewerb above advise helpful. My problem is to have exactly 25 lines per page and english approx 250 words per essay page. How can I achieve this using Times New Roman font of 12.

I tried using the paragraph Tab, Indents and Spacing and Set Line Spacing at essay about marriage, Exactly 24 pts. But sometimes the number of lines goes over essay wettbewerb, 25. It is very difficult to get the proquest number of lines to be exactly the essay 2012 same on each page using Word. It is 10 ways to write an effective essay just not meant for page layout, just word processing. This is one reason professional book designers use InDesign instead of Word.

Regardless, one reason the lines may be coming out uneven is due to 2012 Widow and Orphan control in Word. That makes it so there is never a single line of research a paragraph either at essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten, the end, or the short essay top, of essay studenten a page in Word. So if that would happen, Word pushes lines from one page to the next. You do WANT that turned on, having widows or orphans is a worse offense than not having the same number of lines on a page. The only way to correct would be to adjust some of the paragraphs on a page to either end a line earlier, or extend out another line.

This is tedious work! Most authors/designers do not bother doing this. Even in InDesign this happens and manually needs to be corrected (but is easier to do so). Of A Paper Example. If you pick up a book off the shelf, you will see that many do not have even lines on all pages either. My advice it to not worry about the number of lines being the same on each page, that will just drive you crazy. Thank you for the great advice. I only wanted to know about paragraphs in a new chapter. Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. I’d changed all mine to to write an effective essay be flush left then when I re-opened the document I got concerned I’d made a mistake. However, I did learn some valuable ways of correcting older documents. Thanks again.

It is common practice to essay wettbewerb studenten remove the first line indent of the first paragraph of chapters. No mistake made! Hello, uh, I’d just like to ask about something. Do I need official Microsoft Office Word if I want to publish a book? Just to make sure and avoid some serious problems. There are many text processors out there that are competitors with MS Word, some of which are open to to write essay almost anyone to 2012 studenten use for free. Basically, as long as you use a standard doctype, such as .doc, .docx, .odt, .odf, .rtf, then they should have little to no issue opening and publishing your book. Good luck on your book. Thank you so much for this article.

I am in the process of writing a book and with it being my 1st one, I’m completely clueless. The only things I know and remember are from high school. 10 Ways Essay. Your experience and knowledge is definitely appreciated. I am trying to format my fiction book in MS Word 2013 using left alignment. For no reason apparent to me, there will be a sequence of lines of type at random locations on essay, a random page which DO NOT align left but align where the paragraph indent is located.

Thank you very much for any help in resolving this if possible. Bob, I would need to see the document in order to figure out what is happening there. Feel free to essay send it to me at km@jerapublishing to sort it out. I am publishing a book and essay wettbewerb 2012 have created my manuscript using Word 2003 (it’s been an ongoing project for years). I have ‘End Notes’ at the end of my book. The Publisher requires that the very last page of the book be BLANK. However, Word will not allow me to add a new Section Break after the 10 ways an effective essay end of the End Notes section (which would otherwise allow me to studenten remove the page number and english essay the footer that appears on that final page that is suppose to remain blank).

Ah! A tricky (and good) question, but I know the wettbewerb studenten answer. First, change your Note Options to Endnotes: End of Section . Do this by right clicking on and endnote an choosing Note Options . This will make all endnotes appear at the end of each section instead of at the end of the diagnostic essay book. Next, Go to 2012 studenten each of your sections (or highlight to select all of them) and go into Page Setup options. Under PLayout/em check the box that says Suppress Endnotes . This tells Word to not show the endnotes in available theses this section, but to put them in the next section. Do that for all sections except for one at wettbewerb 2012 studenten, the end that you can create for the endnotes. You can now add a new section and blank page at the end of the short barack obama book after the endnote section. Hello, love the article. 2012. Maybe I could add a few more. Spaces before punctuation, left aligned text with manual hyphenation, tables inside text boxes, images inside text boxes, double commas or apostrophes instead of double quotes.

Open parenthesis and double quotes not closed anywhere, manually added footnotes, randomly added page breaks, each with different page layout settings. Manually added pagination that gets messed up several times through the book. I get really irritated when I find books messed up like that, but then I take a look at the person, and I see they’ve poured their soul into internet privacy essays, that thing and no matter how difficult I still try to get it right in a way they like it and also looks good. (clients get really, really strange about wettbewerb studenten, some things) PS English is not my first language, or second, which does really strange things to my grammar and essay early vocabulary. PPS My personal horror, very low quality pictures either low res or “enhanced”. Just a Huge thank you; this was, in a few simple paragraphs, exactly what I was looking for. I wanted to let you know this, And that I was Able to Understand it, lol. I’m using Windows 7. My recently completed manuscript for a novel contains two spaces between sentences. I’ve tried multiple find/replace searches and have had no luck trying to go to one space. Please advise me.

Thank you. One thing you can do is go to essay 2012 studenten File Options Proofing “When correcting spelling and grammar in Word” and do two things: + Select Grammar and Style in the Writing Style dropdown. + Click Settings… and under the short essay barack obama require section will be a question how many spaces you’d like after each sentence; you can select, 1, 2, or “don’t check”. Select 1. Then Recheck Document to essay studenten run the spelling and grammar check. I want to know about the main heading as well as sub heading treatment while writing a book in ms word. What is exactly paragraph brake. Setting Heading levels in your document would be very helpful to your formatter. The first level heading should be set to the style of Heading 1, the next level, Heading 2, and so on. Some set the Chapter titles to Heading 1, then Heading 2 for the first level of 10 ways a subheading. 2012. These styles are default styles in Word.

You can modify the way they look by essay, right clicking on the Style in the Word Style ribbon and choosing Modify. A paragraph break is where the paragraph in your manuscript ends, and studenten the next one begins. These are done in Word by hitting the Enter key. The formatting mark for them looks like: ¶. I am in proquest database the process of editing a novel of over 600 pages.

I have been reading advice on studenten, not having too many italics in a book being used in the first person, as character thought processes, when the main body of the book is written in of a the third person. These italics usually follow the dialogue, but are mainly not included within the dialogues inverted commas. Essay Wettbewerb 2012 Studenten. These italics are either at the beginning or at the end of a dialogue stream. Diagnostic. Do you have any advice as to reducing the italics, but not to the disadvantage of the wettbewerb 2012 dialogue prose. I feel I have got into the habit of using too much italics in the thought processes of my characters. Are these insertions normal in a novel or do they make it harder to read? Thank you so much! I would like to know how to set dialogue within a paragraph in a novel. Some of internet my dialogue is in speech form and some in italic thought form, when the person is thinking to themself. Essay. If you have dialogue within a long discriptive paragraph, do you place the dialogue on a new line as an indented paragraph in essay its own right?

If you have italic thought dialogue in a long discriptive paragraph, do you also place that on a new line as an indented paragraph in its own right? At the moment I have long paragraphs, which seem a little hard to read because of speech and wettbewerb thought dialogue buried in a long paragraph? I know when diologue is spoken between two people, it is set down as dialogue each in its own line. But sometimes it does not work out like that… Somebody suggested to buy an already published novel by available proquest, a successful author and essay studenten learn from internet essays, that…every author seems to have their own preferences though. What do you suggest. John. Hi Kimberly. I know this is a self publish site, but I have a question about the scene break. And you are by far the most helpful site I have seen.

I plan to send my manuscript to an agent, but I wanted to know if in the scene break should I still add the essay wettbewerb 2012 *** to indicate a change or allow them to inform me if it is diagnostic needed? It is studenten so mind boggling. Some say don’t add, and some say do add them. Barack Obama. I’m a little lost, I appreciate any feedback. Thank you for help. If you are sending it to an agent, you should ask them what they prefer.

Each agent may be different in how they want the wettbewerb 2012 manuscripts formatted for privacy essays submission. If you can not get an answer from them, I would suggest leaving in essay wettbewerb 2012 the *** to indicate a scene break. That is how we always requests document sent to of a paper us for formatting. Thanks for info. Have formatted my doc with para indent. With this in mind is there anyway to have the essay wettbewerb studenten first line of each chapter without this indent which I believe is the normal case. The best practice would be to create a new style for the first paragraph that has the first line indent setting set to None (or 0) and essay then apply this style to each of the first chapter paragraphs. Hi Kim. I too am from the old school and double space between words.

It’s a habit I find difficult to break. I have Word starter on my puter. My problem is when I cut and paste a chapter of my novel into 2012 studenten, Microsoft One Drive which is a cloud service or into an e-mail when an agent asks for internet privacy the first chapteer the wettbewerb 2012 formatting gets all screwed up, ie: the chapter numbers and 10 ways to write names are not longer centered on essay wettbewerb 2012, the page. Available Proquest Dissertations. I’ve even seen where the type face/size changes. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. This is quite annoying since I then have to go in and fix the formatting. An Effective Essay. Any suggestions? Thanks. When pasting from one Word document into another, you should be given some paste options. One of wettbewerb 2012 them is “Keep Original Formatting.” The others will wipe out the english diagnostic formatting that was applied to the text you are pasting. See: https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Control-the-formatting-when-you-paste-text-20156A41-520E-48A6-8680-FB9CE15BF3D6#bm1.

Well if anything of essay 2012 studenten what you posted here would actually work, would be be awesome. I have been at it for hours on english, the first page now. Trying to start my book, using word 2007. Followed the instructions to start, with the indenting and no space between same paragraphs. Essay 2012 Studenten. Does nothing but mess up everything on privacy essays, the page when applied. Been all over the net, and cant find anything anywhere that actually helps someone start typing a book, without all this setting up nonsense etc. I had better luck using wordpad to type out shorter stories, or poems. Frustrated doesnt even cut how mad I actually am. Unfortunately, if you want to essay studenten have a properly formatted book, you need to do some initial setup and learn how to use styles and section breaks, etc.

You may find is research paper easier to start with a template. Essay 2012. See: http://www.bookdesignwizard.com. Hello Kimberly Martin, I stumbled upon essay your site and found it quite interesting. I am a scientist and am about to start writing a book. It is essay a daunting task for me, as I have written many internal progess reports over the past two decades, but anything beyond that dates way back to graduate school (no, I’m not going to date myself!). I want to write it the right way from the get-go, and was wondering if you could point me towards a resource that goes over all the important physical and organizational aspects of writing nonfiction in Word. I’m not even sure how to short barack obama get started. Is it best to subdivide the document into separate chapters, stored as separate files, to wettbewerb 2012 studenten be merged later, or keep it all in one document?

To answer your question about storing chapters in seperate files, if that works best for you, you can do that. However, before you send your files off to a formatter, it would be best to have everything together in available proquest database one file so they know what order to put them all in. Thanks Kimberley, although the mss has been edited and checked carefully for that sort of thing by a professional editor. Indeed the POD paperback version is fine. I wondered if there is an easy way to fix it with the ebook?

Hi Kimberley Martin, thanks very much for wettbewerb studenten a great post. Point 8 happened to me. The gaps to signify scene changes had been closed up in the formatting process. So I did what you said with the asterisks and my publisher has now done it. Of A Research Example. However, the paragraph indentations are now all awry. Some are much fruther in than others. Wettbewerb Studenten. They are very erratic. Any suggestions why this might have happened? You may have extra spaces in front of some paragraphs or tabs, but not others. If a style is used to indent the first line of a paragraph, and some of the english paragraphs also have spaces or tabs in front of wettbewerb 2012 them, some will end up indented more than the available dissertations database others as the style indentation PLUS the spaces or tabs will be used. Thank you!

I was really frustrated with 365’s layout and couldn’t find the paragraph options. You helped me to get my fiction manuscript in essay 2012 perfect shape for submission to agents. I’m so relieved! Some very helpful comments. In general I follow them. Essays. The idea that I will find hardest though is the lack of two spaces between sentences. This, as maybe you can see from my message, has been engrained in me. Wettbewerb Studenten. In fact if I look at essay barack obama, a book that has only one space between sentences I find it very off-putting. This will take some getting used to!

What is the wettbewerb space between the chapter number and the first paragraph of the proquest dissertations theses database chapter typically? There is not a typical amount of spacing. You do not want the text to start more than about 2012, 1/4 or 1/2 of the way down the page however. If your book is available proquest database a smaller size, say 5 x 8 versus 6 x 9, start the essay wettbewerb studenten text up a little higher on the page or it may look a little odd. I have found your article and replies to comments enlightening and most useful in the preparation of legal documents. Short. Thank you. I have been using the format painter in conjunction with Find and Replace to make corrections. Essay Wettbewerb. Is that a good or bad idea? You’ve now made me want to write a book. #128578; Reply from a previous comment. I was planning on submitting the manuscript for short obama consideration to an agent when finished.

However, I do not wish to have my manuscript denied due to improper formatting, and I lack the understanding to submit my manuscript to Amazon when finished. This is beginning to concern me due to 2012 studenten the fact I have found a way to indent on Google Docs, but when I attempt to indent a paragraph with one of the options, to me it appears unprofessional, sloppy, and perhaps causes a strain to read. I found a second app, Polaris Office 5, has the same paragraph indentation options, but with a variety of ways to customize the 10 ways an effective documents. Maybe I am stressing things too much and should focus on completing the manuscript. I can’t help but stress this though, as I wish to know what to do ahead of time instead of scrambling around in a mad hurry to polish it off perfectly before submission. Do you think it is better leaving the essay wettbewerb 2012 paragraphs unindented with an explaination in privacy the query letter, or to essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten indent and essay submit what I believe, appears “funky”? If you are submitting to 2012 an agent they most likely have their own specific requirements, and you will want to follow them before submitting so your manuscript is available proquest theses database not rejected automatically. You need to do some research to see how the agent wants manuscripts formatted for submission. You may want to wettbewerb 2012 get a copy of essay about early marriage Microsoft Word as they will probably want the manuscript submitted as a Word document.

I am currently in the midst of a predicament with a YA manuscript I am working on. I am using google docs app for android and was previously under the impression that I needed to manually indent each paragraph with the essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten space key and break paragraphs with the enter key. I know this is more for users of essay about marriage Microsoft word, but I was hoping you could point me in the right direction. Any help is welcome. My current device is a Samsung Galaxy S5. It is studenten literally all I have to work with.

You can email me directly at obama, yelton72@gmail.com for the quickest way for a response. I am not familiar with the essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten Google Docs app for Android. Are you only writing the book this way or do you intend to use this for the final formatting of your manuscript as well? If you will be sending it to someone else to short barack obama format, or using a different program to format after you are done writing the studenten book, then don’t worry about that for of a research paper now and just correct any issues in formatting. My apologies. I just noticed the ‘Reply’ option here. Spacing is as much up the 2012 studenten the artistry of the author as the words themselves. Same goes for ‘incorrect’ grammar used intentionally.

I wrote 300 pages and internet privacy essays used the tab button on essay wettbewerb 2012, my keyboard… Now when I try to publish it, it’s looking for outline research paper the rule in first line tab. I highlighted everything, went to tab and cleared out all of the tabs; however, that only removes it cosmetically. My manual pushing of the tab button is 2012 studenten still there, so when I go to upload my book, the tab is taken into consideration (twice, now that I set the rule via First Line Tab). I tried copy and an effective essay paste with no formatting, but I can’t get rid of the tabs. How can I delete each tab stroke I hit?? Please help. 300 pages stinks.

If I understand it correctly, you did not actually remove the tab, but reduced the tab indent to zero. Essay Wettbewerb Studenten. To remove the tabs using Find/Replace you would enter ^t into Find and leave the Replace empty. That would remove all of the tabs in the document. Keep in research example mind that that will remove all tabs in the document, not just the essay wettbewerb studenten ones you used ot indent the essay barack first line of essay wettbewerb paragraphs. What is the english up karat to look for paragraphs indented with Tab key? I think I tried Shift/T and wettbewerb it did not work. I have about 300 pages to do. To look for tabs search for ^t. To look for paragraphs that begin with a tab, I suggest searching for ^p^t which will search for a paragraph break followed by a tab.

Hope that helps! the up caret, in case you did not figure it out, is SHIFT 6. So, I guess it’s called a manual line break in my case–the writer pressed enter twice for new paragraphs, to create a space between each paragraph. I’m not sure what to enter for Find/Replace to fix that (to get rid of the extra, unnecessary space between the of a paper example paragraphs). Thanks. Your article has been bookmarked. #128578; You should be able to do a search for two paragraph breaks and 2012 replace with one. In Find, enter ^p^p and in Replace enter ^p. Thanks for sharing this great information.

I had the same problem as the previous comment and, using your advice, removed the extra spacing. Now is there a way to apply styles after doing this so that each new paragraph is automatically indented as per the selected style? Jeremiah, first, do you have all chapter text paragraphs set to the same style? That would be the first step. If they are, then you can set the First Line Indent setting in the paragraph style to internet privacy automatically indent the essay wettbewerb 2012 studenten paragraph’s first lines.

Find the essay early style name under Styles that the essay studenten chapter text is set to, then click on Modify. Click on the Format… button at essay about early marriage, the bottom then choose Paragraph. Under Special select First line and set the amount of indentation you want under By. Essay. Setting it to .25? is usually the best choice. Obama. If you have a large book size (8.5 x 11 for example) then a larger first line indent can be used.

If the chapter text is essay wettbewerb 2012 set to different styles, it is a lot harder. Outline Research Example. You can select all of the paragraphs and 2012 studenten then manually set the first line indent setting, but setting all of the internet essays chapter text to a style would be a better option. What’s the rule when you change point of 2012 view between paragraphs? You know, when you see multiple spaces between two paragraphs within the same chapter? Do you manually enter those spaces? That is to write an effective essay called a scene break. It is also used when there is a change in scenery (location) or a jump in time. There are a few methods you can use. One method is to use a blank space as you mentioned, another is to have a symbol of essay wettbewerb some sort centered in barack the line between the two paragraphs, such as: After dinner, the two parted ways and headed home. Two weeks later, Gregor woke from troubled dreams and he found himself transformed in his bed into a horrible vermin.

If you are sending your book to wettbewerb 2012 a designer they may request (we do) that you place three asterisks (***) between the scene breaks. This helps them easily find the essay marriage scene breaks and apply the proper styling, which may be just a blank space or a symbol depending on your preference. If you send your manuscript to a designer with scene breaks that are not marked in some way other than an extra paragraph break, they could easily get overlooked and wettbewerb 2012 studenten accidentally dropped from the final format. However, if you are using the blank space method and 10 ways to write an effective essay designing the book yourself, you should not simply hit enter twice or more to insert that blank space. You should instead use Word’s “Space After” style setting and apply that style to the paragraph before a scene break. Essay 2012 Studenten. That will place extra space following that paragraph without having an extra paragraph mark floating around just waiting to cause issues. Personally, I prefer a symbol of some sort to indicate a scene break. It causes less issues when formatting your book and makes it clear to your reader that there is a change in POV, scene, or time. Short Essay Obama. If using a blank space and the scene break falls at the bottom or top of a page, there is no longer a clear indicator of the scene break as it will not be very noticeable where a symbol will be. I’m calling bs in this entire thing. Not all of us have Microsoft word.Not all of us are writing a book to be serious, maybe we’re doing it for the hell of it.

And maybe we don’t have published so we have to press tab and enter and essay wettbewerb studenten those line breaks are also called periods which are pretty necessary. If you are not using Microsoft Word then this article does not apply to essay marriage you as it is an article about wettbewerb 2012 studenten, mistakes made when using Microsoft Word. You do not have to use tab to indent the first line of your paragraphs, the article explains a better method using styles that works regardless if you are publishing or not. Available Proquest Dissertations. Line breaks are not periods, which are necessary. Line breaks are when you press Shift + Enter to break to a new paragraph (wrong and unnecessary) instead of just Enter (correct and necessary). Line breaks do not create a true paragraph break which can cause issues. I seem to have used the wrong box to convey my utmost surprise and thanks. I am doubtless one of many who have used indentation manually for paragraphs,, breaks and essay wettbewerb studenten change of scene. Hundreds of proquest them. In order to correct these mistakes , do I have to essay wettbewerb 2012 undo all that effort before I follow your.

guide? I noticed the 05 Normal – I did in fact indent 5 spaces each time. What. a waste of effort. With many thanks, BB Shane.

You can use Word’s Find and Replace to search for two spaces and replace with one, and repeat until it returns a 0 found message. Then do a find and 10 ways to write an effective replace for a paragraph break followed by a space and wettbewerb replace with just a paragraph break. That will remove the last space in proquest theses database front of all of the paragraphs. I recommend saving a backup copy of essay studenten your document before you do this as it may have unintentional results. Do not fret too much over using spaces to indent your paragraphs if sending it off to barack obama a formatter.

Most formatters should be very use to getting documents like this and be able to clean them up quickly. Most of the documents we receive from clients are done that way and wettbewerb we fix them as part of our normal formatting process. Get Your FREE Game Plan to Self-Publishing! Thinking about self-publishing? Then our free Game Plan to Self-Publishing guide is for you.

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