MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company of the same sector
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book report kuhn Guide to MBA: analysis of the same sector Thomas Kuhn#146;s The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Note: I have tried to a level let Kuhn speak for himself whenever possible. The make is easier to distinguish the MBA: Ratio of the, quotes from the paraphrases, I have written the quotes in boldface. All references are to the 1970 edition of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . 1. A Paradigm is . Kuhn baptizes his famous notion of a scientific paradigm as originating from the great works of science, like Copernicus#146;s De Revolutionibus or Newton#146;s Principia. These great works became paradigms because they were sufficiently unprecedented to attract an enduring group of adherents away from competing modes of scientific activity , and warrior essay, sufficiently open-ended to leave all sorts of problems for the redefined group of MBA: of any practitioners to resolve. (p.10) The activity spurred by such great books goes by the name of who is your role model why essay normal science.
There are . only three normal foci for factual scientific investigation. (p.25.) 1. Determination of significant fact: Attempts to MBA: analysis of any two company sector increase the accuracy and scope with which facts like the specific gravities and compressibilities of material, electrical conductivities and contact potentials occupy a significant fraction of the literature of experimental and observational science. This kind of activity is largely independent of the reigning paradigm - the Newtonian measurement of specific gravities, for example, was unchanged by the advent of Einstein's theory of mechanics. 2. Matches of fact with theory: (p.26) A second usual but smaller class of factual determinations is directed to those facts that, though often without much intrinsic interest, can be compared directly with predictions from the paradigm theory . In support of the claim that these cases are rarer, Kuhn mentions that (p.26) No more than three such areas are even yet accessible to Einstein's general theory of relativity . 3. The articulation of theory , which is . empirical work undertaken to articulate the paradigm theory . This is broken up into three sub-categories. (i) experiments aimed at articulation are directed to the determination of physical constants. (ii) experiments aimed at quantitative laws: E.g. Boyle's Law relating gas pressure to volume. (iii) experiments to choose among alternative ways of applying the paradigm to new areas of warrior ethos essay interest. MBA: Ratio Analysis Of Any Of The Same Sector! (p.29) This is one of the many places in which Kuhn might do well to define outline make a distinction between theory and models. Let us stipulate that models are the sets of Ratio of the sector equations derived from theory plus auxiliary assumptions such that estimates of all adjustable parameters may be obtained from biology a level, extant data (Kuhn uses the term #145;model#146; in MBA: Ratio analysis two company, a different sense). Thus, the set of Newton#146;s equations of motion is not a model because it is impossible to make a precise quantitative comparison with data without (approximate) solutions of those equations. Biology A Level! When Kuhn talks about the articulation of theory as a part of normal science, he is really referring to MBA: analysis of any same the development of models.
While normal science is a highly determined kind of activity, Kuhn is quick to deny that he is 1920 essay slipping back to naive inductivism: (p.42) In a footnote, Kuhn acknowledges the work of M. Polanyi, Personal Knowledge , Chicago, 1958, in which scientists#146; success is said to depend on tacit knowledge acquired through practice, which cannot be articulated explicitly. The point, expanded in the postscript, is analysis of any of the same sector that scientists gain tacit knowledge of a theory through working through textbook or laboratory examples (called exemplars ). In summary, Kuhn#146;s argument is define an essay something like this: 1. All novelties of Ratio of the sector fact (discoveries) or theory lead to the end of normal science. 2. Normal science does not aim at its own demise. Therefore, normal science does not aim novelties of biology fact or theory and, when successful, finds none. MBA: Two Company Sector! In sum, Kuhn seeks to explain the difficulty of discovery as an instance of the general psychological fact that our expectations cloud our perception of the world.
For example, Ptolemy#146;s system of astronomy certainly faced discrepancies, but it was only when those discrepancies built up to your role model crisis point that the MBA: Ratio analysis two company same sector, conditions were ripe for why business change (p.68): Given a particular discrepancy, astronomers were invariably able to MBA: Ratio of any of the eliminate it by making some particular adjustment in degradation values, Ptolemy#146;s system of compounded circles. But. astronomy#146;s complexity was increasing far more rapidly than its accuracy and that a discrepancy corrected in one place was likely to show up in another. Notice that Kuhn mentions complexity as requisite condition for paradigm change in this example. It is a necessary part of what defines a crisis in normal science. For, a sufficient number of compounded circles would provide perfect fit with the data at any one time. That Ptolemaic model would provide no discrepancies with existing data . But the crisis is revealed by the way it changes over time, for as Kuhn puts it, the Ratio analysis same, astronomy#146;s complexity was increasing far more rapidly than its accuracy and that a discrepancy corrected in one place was likely to show up in another. On the other hand, Kuhn presents the Copernican revolution as an example which the crisis in the reigning Ptolemaic paradigm was almost the 1920 essay, only reason for the change (pp.75-6): Copernicus#146; more elaborate proposal was neither simpler nor more accurate than Ptolemy#146;s system. Available observational tests, as we shall see more clearly below, provided no basis of a choice between them . For example, Copernicus saw as counterinstances what most of Ptolemy#146;s other successors had seen as puzzles in the match between observation and theory. (p.79) As Copernicus complained (quoted from Kuhn (1957), p.138), in his day astronomers were so inconsistent in Ratio analysis of any, these [astronomical] investigations . that they cannot even explain or observe the constant length of the seasonal year . With them , Copernicus continues, it is as though an artist were to gather the hands, feet, head and other members for warrior his images from diverse models, each part excellently drawn, but not related to a single body, and since they in no way match each other, the result would be monster rather than man. Again, we may note that Copernicus is not complaining about discrepancies per MBA: Ratio analysis two company same, se, but about the fact that discrepancies in who is role, Ptolemy#146;s system are only removed ad hoc adjustments to the model.
From within a paradigm, from the MBA: Ratio of any same sector, viewpoint of normal science, anomalies are not seen as testing the theory . Yet Kuhn concedes (p.80) that Normal science does and must continually strive to bring theory and fact into closer agreement, and that activity can easily be seen as testing or as a search for confirmation or falsification. But science students accept theories on the authority of teacher and text, not because of evidence. (p.80) Hence the standards of critical rationality ascribed by define, Popper are not present. Analysis Two Company! There is a need to clarify what Kuhn is wlc saying here. While uncritically taking the background theory for Ratio analysis of the same sector granted, normal science does subject the models derived from the essay wlc, theory to severe critical scrutiny. None of Kuhn#146;s examples undermine that idea that models are falsified (although there are independent reasons for Ratio analysis two company thinking that such a view is biology too simple). So normal science strives to bring theory and fact into closer agreement by calling its models into question without ever criticizing the Ratio of any two company sector, background theory itself. Kuhn does make use of a distinction between approaches to problems (models?) and the paradigm later in the book. Thus, while scientists will (p.144) try out and essay, reject a number of alternative approaches, rejecting those that fail to yield the desired result, he is not testing the paradigm when he does so. The same point that is now often used in MBA: Ratio two company sector, criticism of Popper#146;s falsificationism: Theories are never tested in isolation.
And when they are tested, as in the Leverrier-Adams discovery of Neptune, it is the auxiliary assumptions (the assumption that Uranus was the outermost planet) that was criticized, and not Newton#146;s laws of degradation values essay motion. 6. MBA: Analysis Of The Sector! New Paradigms Place New Relations Amongst the Data: When normal puzzle solving fails to resolve anomalies, crisis looms, and the nature of warrior scientific activity gradually changes. (p.91) The proliferation of competing articulations, the willingness to try anything, the expression of explicit discontent, the recourse to philosophy and to debate over fundamentals, all these are symptoms of a transition from normal to extraordinary research. When the transition is complete, the profession will have changed its view of the field, its methods, and its goals. One perceptive historian, viewing a classic case of a science#146;s reorientation by MBA: of any two company same, paradigm change, recently described it as picking up the ethos essay, other end of the stick , a process that involves handling the same bundle of data as before, but placing them in a new system of relations with one another by giving them a different framework. [Herbert Butterfield, The Origins of Modern Science , 1300-1800 (London, 1949), pp.1-7] Others who have noted this aspect of scientific advance have emphasized its similarity to a change in visual gestalt: the Ratio analysis two company, marks on paper that were first seen as a bird are now seen as an antelope, or vice versa. (p.85) Butterfield#146;s description of theory change is an define an essay outline, important clarification of Kuhn#146;s poetic reference seeing a duck and MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company of the same sector, then seeing a rabbit. Values! For there is a danger that we might take Kuhn#146;s duck-rabbit analogy too seriously, and view theory change as literally involving a change in perception , and therefore a change in the data themselves, rather than just a change in the relations amongst the data. Another noteworthy feature of the above quote is the idea that the goals of science change when the paradigm changes. Presumably, this is because the goal of science is problem-solving, and this changes as the MBA: Ratio analysis of any sector, problems change. Yet one might also define problem-solving in a paradigm independent way (e.g., as the goal of finding predictively accurate models), in which case the goal would not change. But Kuhn does not appear to subscribe to such a view of science. . the reception of a new paradigm often necessitates a redefinition of the corresponding science. Some old problems may be relegated to another science or declared entirely unscientific. A Level Synoptic Essay! [e.g. alchemy] Others that were previously non-existent or trivial may, with a new paradigm, become the very archetypes of significant scientific achievement. [e.g., tidology, the study of the MBA: analysis of any sector, tides] The normal-scientific tradition that emerges from synoptic, a scientific revolution is not only incompatible but often actually incommensurable with that which has gone before. (p.103) As far as the main conclusion is concerned, Kuhn#146;s argument is convincing. There is no doubt that the MBA: analysis of any of the same, world view that emerges from a scientific revolution may be incommensurable in the weak sense described above - that new terms are not straightforwardly translatable, and the new paradigm leads to at least some incompatible predictions.
However, there is a concomitant claim that should not go unchallenged. Are there really no objective standards on the acceptance of primitive entities, as Kuhn insinuates? Surely, it is reasonable to demand that postulated entities can at degradation of moral values essay, least be measured. Isn#146;t it conceivable that Molire#146;s disdain for the term #145;dormitive potency#146; arose from the fact that the label adds nothing but a new way of saying soporific? The man who first saw the exterior of the box from above later sees its interior from MBA: analysis of any of the, below. Transformations like these, though usually more gradual and almost always irreversible are common concomitants of synoptic essay scientific training.
Looking at a contour map, the MBA: of any two company, student sees lines on paper, the cartographer a picture of a terrain. Looking at a bubble-chamber photograph, the student sees confused and broken lines, the physicist a record of familiar subnuclear events. (p.111) In one psychological experiment, volunteers fitted with inverting lenses report that everything appears up side down at first, but they grow accustomed to the inversion. They learn to accurately predict where their hand should move in order to intercept an 1920 essay, object, say, and report the experience of seeing everything the right side up. (And when the lenses are first removed, everything appears to be up side down again!) According to of any of the same sector Kuhn, (p.112) literally as well as metaphorically, the man accustomed to inverting lenses has undergone a revolutionary transformation of vision. Yet Kuhn is quick to ethos acknowledge that these known psychological facts about vision do not tell the affect, if any, of scientific training on vision. (p.113) And prima facie , it is somewhat implausible to naively extend the idea to, say, the convert to a new paradigm. For example, Looking at the moon, the convert to Copernicanism does not say, #145;I used to see a planet, but now I see a satellite.#146; That locution would imply a sense in which the Ptolemaic system had once been correct. Instead, a convert to the new astronomy says, #145;I once saw the Ratio of any two company same, moon to be (or saw the moon as) a planet, but I was mistaken#146;. (p.115) At the same time, there are clear analogies to the psychological phenomenon of seeing what one expects to see as in the case of seeing a black three of hearts as a three of spades. For instance: Sir William Herschel#146;s discovery of Uranus provides a first example and one that closely parallels the anomalous card experiment. On a least seventeen different occasions between 1690 and 1781, a number of astronomers, including several of Europe#146;s most eminent observers, had seen a star in synoptic essay, positions that we now suppose must have been occupied at MBA: analysis of the same, the time by biology essay, Uranus. Herschel, when he first observed the same object twelve years later, did so with a much improved telescope of MBA: Ratio analysis two company of the same sector own manufacture.
As a result, he was able to notice an biology, apparent disk-size that was at least unusual for stars. Something was awry, and he therefore postponed identification pending further scrutiny. That scrutiny disclosed Uranus#146; motion among the stars, and Herschel therefore announced that he had seen a new comet! Only several months later, after fruitless attempts to fit the analysis of any same sector, observed motion to a cometary orbit, did Lexell suggest that the orbit was probably planetary. (p.115) The question is whether there is evidence for the more radical conclusion that new paradigms can change the way we see the world, as opposed to changing the way we interpret what we see. Warrior Wlc! Or maybe we should say that new paradigms actually change the world in Ratio analysis two company of the same sector, which scientists work?! Using traditional instruments, some as simple as a piece of thread, late sixteenth-century astronomers repeatedly discovered that comets wandered at will through the space previously reserved for the immutable planets and essay, stars. The very ease and rapidly with which astronomers saw new things when looking at old objects with old instruments may make us wish to MBA: Ratio two company of the same say that, after Copernicus, astronomers lived in degradation of moral values essay, a different world. In any case, their research responded as though that were the MBA: analysis two company of the same, case. (pp.116-7) Cautiously, Kuhn pushes the thesis a little further: At the very least, as a result of discovering oxygen, Lavoisier saw nature differently. And in the absence of some recourse to that hypothetical fixed nature that he saw differently, the principle of essay economy will urge us to say that after discovering oxygen Lavoisier worked in a different world. (p.118) So far Kuhn has provided no detailed argumentation to support his analysis. MBA: Analysis Of Any Same! Those details are really quite interesting in their own right, irrespective of whether they actually succeed in supporting the stronger conclusion.
By way of elaboration, Kuhn contrasts the Aristotelian and Galilean view of a simple pendulum: To the Aristotelians, who believed that a heavy body is moved by its own nature from a higher position to a state of natural rest at a lower one, the swinging body was simply falling with difficulty. Constrained by the chain, it could achieve rest at its low point only after tortuous motion and a considerable time. Galileo, on the other hand, looking at the swinging body, saw a pendulum, a body that almost succeeded in repeating the same motion over and over again ad infinitum. And having seen that much, Galileo observed other properties of the pendulum as well and constructed many of the most significant and why business, original parts of this new dynamics around them. From the properties of the MBA: Ratio analysis of the same, pendulum, for example, Galileo derived his only full and sound arguments for 1920 essay the independence of MBA: Ratio analysis of the sector weight and rate of fall, as well as for the relationship between vertical height and terminal velocity of motions down inclined planes. [Galileo Galilei, Dialogues concerning Two New Sciences, trans. H. Crew and A. de Salvio (Evanston, Ill., 1946), pp.80-81, 162-66.] All of these natural phenomena he saw differently from the essay, way they had been seen before. (pp.118-9) But the MBA: Ratio two company same sector, conclusion drawn from this example is that until that scholastic paradigm was invented, there were no pendulums, but only swinging stones, for the scientists to see. Pendulums were brought into existence by something very like a paradigm-induced gestalt switch . (p.120) This is a radical conclusion. What occurs during a scientific revolution is not fully reducible to a reinterpretation of individual and stable data.
In the first place, the data are not unequivocally stable. A pendulum is not a falling stone, nor is oxygen dephlogisticated air. Consequently, the data that scientists collect from these diverse objects are, as we shall shortly see, themselves different. More important, the process by which either the individual or the community makes the transition from constrained fall to the pendulum or from dephlogisticated air to oxygen is not one that resembles interpretation. How could it do so in the absence of biology synoptic essay fixed data for the scientist to Ratio analysis of any two company same sector interpret? Rather than being an interpreter, the scientist who embraces a new paradigm is like the a level, man wearing inverting lenses. (pp.121-22) Scientists then often speak of the MBA: analysis same, scales falling from the eyes or the lightning flash that inundates a previously obscure puzzle, enabling its components to be seen in a new way that for essay the first time permits its solution. On other occasions the relevant illumination comes in sleep.
Nor ordinary sense of the term #145;interpretation#146; fits these flashes of intuition through which a new paradigm is born. Though such intuitions depend upon the experience, both anomalous and congruent, gained with the old paradigm, they are not logically or piecemeal linked to particular items of that experience as an interpretation would be. MBA: Ratio Of Any Of The! Instead, they gather up large portions of that experience and transform them to the rather different bundle of experience that will thereafter be linked piecemeal to essay the new paradigm but not to the old. (pp.122-23) The last sentence in MBA: Ratio two company same, the quotation is another reference to Butterfield#146;s description of theory change (§7, above). There is why business essay a sense in MBA:, which this description strengthens the case against interpretation, since to why essay exploit new relations is not to reinterpret old relations. However, it offers no support for MBA: analysis same a stronger incommensurability thesis. Synoptic Essay! For the relations amongst data can change without the data themselves changing. Other philosophers of science, like Popper, have denied the existence of any verification procedures at all. Theories are never justified (because of problems with induction), but they may be disproven. MBA: Of Any Two Company Of The Sector! Popper#146;s philosophy is outline that of falsificationism: Theories should be severely criticized in an attempt to falsify them. Survivors of such critical scrutiny are rationally acceptable, and are said to MBA: Ratio two company sector be corroborated. . the role thus attributed to falsification is define an essay much like the one this essay assigns to anomalous experiences, i.e. to experiences that, by evoking crisis, prepare the MBA: of any of the, way for a new theory. Nevertheless, anomalous experiences may not be identified with falsifying ones.
Indeed, I doubt that the latter exist. An Essay Outline! As has repeatedly been emphasized before, no theory ever solves all the puzzles with which it is confronted at an given time; nor are the solution already achieved often perfect. MBA: Ratio Of Any Sector! On the contrary, it is just the incompleteness and imperfection of the existing data-theory fit that, at any time, define many of the puzzles that characterize normal science. If any and every failure to 1920 essay fit were ground for analysis same theory rejection, all theories ought to be rejected at 1920 essay, all times. On the other hand, if only severe failure to fit justifies theory rejection, then the MBA: of any sector, Popperians will require some criterion of improbability or of degree of falsification. In developing one they will almost certainly encounter the same network of difficulties that has haunted the advocates of the various probabilistic verification theories. (pp.146-47) In the first place, the proponents of competing paradigms will often disagree about the list of problems that any candidate for paradigm must resolve. Degradation Values! . Lavoisier#146;s chemical theory inhibited chemists from asking why the metals were so much alike, a question that phlogistic chemistry had both asked and answered.
The transition to Lavoisier#146;s paradigm had, like the MBA: analysis two company of the sector, transition to Newton#146;s meant a loss not only of a permissible question but of an achieved solution. Ethos Essay! (p.148) The second fundamental aspect of incommensurability might be called meaning variance, and is often simply equated with incommensurability: Communication across the revolutionary divide is inevitably partial. Consider, for another example, the men who called Copernicus mad because he proclaimed that the earth moved. They were not either just wrong or quite wrong. Part of what they meant by #145;earth#146; was fixed position. Their earth, at least, could not be moved. (p.149) The third and most fundamental aspect of the incommensurability of MBA: Ratio of the sector competing paradigms might be referred to as world changes: In a sense that I am unable to explicate further, the proponents of competing paradigms practice their trades in why business essay, different worlds. One contains constrained bodies that fall slowly, the other pendulums that repeat their motions again and again. . in of any of the, some areas they see different things, and they see them in 1920 essay, different relations one to the other. (p.150) I will not repeat what has already been said about the merit of these theses. The first is the claim to have solved crisis-provoking problems: Probably the single most prevalent claim advanced by the proponents of a new paradigm is that they can solve the problems that have led the old one to analysis sector a crisis. Who Is Model! . MBA: Ratio Analysis Two Company Of The Same Sector! Copernicus thus claimed that he had solved the long-vexing problem of the length of the calendar year, Newton that he had reconciled terrestrial and celestial mechanics, Lavoisier that he had solved the problems of gas-identity and of weight relations, and Einstein that he had make electrodynamics compatible with a revised science of motion. (pp.153-54) The second road to conversion follows a claim to novel predictions: . particularly persuasive arguments can be developed if the new paradigm permits the prediction of phenomena that had been entirely unsuspected while the old one prevailed.
Copernicus#146; theory, for warrior essay wlc example, suggested that planets should be like the earth, that Venus should show phases, and that the universe must be vastly larger than had previously been supposed. As a result, when sixty years after his death the Ratio of any two company of the same sector, telescope suddenly displaced mountains on the moon, the phases of values essay Venus, and an immense number of previously unsuspected stars, those observations brought the new theory a great many converts, particularly among non-astronomers. In the case of the wave theory, one main source of Ratio of the same professional conversions was even more dramatic. French resistance collapsed suddenly and relatively completely when Fresnel was able to demonstrate the existence of a white spot at the center of the shadow of a circular disk. That was an effect that not even he had anticipated but that Poisson, initially one of his opponents, had shown to be a necessary if absurd consequence of warrior ethos essay wlc Fresnel#146;s theory. (pp.154-55) The third and final category of claim that may cause conversion is the claim to simplicity: Fortunately, there is also another sort of analysis two company sector consideration that can lead scientists to reject an old paradigm in 1920 essay, favor of a new. These are the arguments, rarely made entirely explicit, that appeal to the individual#146;s sense of the appropriate or the aesthetic-the new theory is said to #145;neater,#146; #145;more suitable,#146; or #145;simpler#146; than the analysis two company sector, old. Probably such arguments are less effective in the sciences than in mathematics. . 1920 Essay! Nevertheless, the importance of aesthetic considerations can sometimes be decisive. . To see the reason for the importance of these more subjective and of any two company of the sector, aesthetic considerations, remember what a paradigm debate is about. 1920 Essay! When a new candidate for paradigm is first proposed, it has seldom solved more than a few of the problems that confront it, and most of those solutions are still far from perfect. Until Kepler, the Copernican theory scarcely improved upon Ratio two company of the the predictions of planetary position made by Ptolemy. . In short, if a new candidate for paradigm had to be judged from the start by hard-headed people who examined only relative problem-solving ability, the sciences would experience very few major revolutions. (pp.155-57) These three considerations are parallel those put forward by William Whewell circa 1840, and predate that time.
Whewell referred to the three tests of biology essay hypotheses as being (1) the prediction of phenomena of the same kind as those which the hypothesis was invented to explain, (2) the MBA: of the, prediction of facts of a different and novel kind (the consilience of inductions), and (3) the tendency to simplicity and unity. . crisis alone is essay not enough. There must also be a basis, though it need be neither rational nor ultimately correct, for MBA: Ratio of any of the sector faith in the particular candidate chosen. Something must make at least a few scientists feel that the new proposal is on the right track, and sometimes it is ethos only personal and analysis of any of the same, inarticulate aesthetic considerations that can do that. When first introduced, neither Copernicus#146; astronomical theory nor De Broglie#146;s theory of biology a level synoptic essay matter had many other significant grounds of appeal. . This is not to suggest that new paradigms triumph ultimately through some mystical aesthetic. On the contrary, very few men desert a tradition for these reasons alone. Of Any Two Company Of The! Often those who do turn out to have been misled. But if a paradigm is ever to 1920 essay triumph it must gain some first supporters, men who will develop it to the point where hardheaded arguments can be produced and multiplied. Analysis Of Any Two Company Same! (p.158) As currently used in philosophy of an essay science . #145;theory#146; connotes a structure far more limited in MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company of the sector, nature and scope than the one required here.
Until the term can be freed from its current implications, it will avoid confusion to adopt another. For present purposes I suggest #145;disciplinary matrix#146;: #145;disciplinary#146; because it refers to the common possession of the practitioners of a particular discipline; #145;matrix#146; because it is composed of ordered elements of various sorts, each requiring further specification. (p.182) He then proceeds to define four components of a disciplinary matrix: symbolic generalizations, metaphysical presumptions, values, and exemplars. Symbolic generalizations. Of Moral! (p. 182) One important sort of MBA: two company of the sector component I shall label #145;symbolic generalizations#146; like f = m a , or I = V / R , or elements combine in constant proportion by weight, or action equals reaction. This corresponds most closely with what have been traditionally referred to define an essay outline as #145;theories#146; or #145;laws#146;. Metaphysical presumptions. (p.184) Rewriting the book now I would describe such commitments as beliefs in particular models, and I would expand the category models to MBA: analysis two company of the sector include also the relatively heuristic variety: the electric circuit may be regarded as a steady-state hydrodynamic system; the molecules of outline a gas behave like tiny elastic billiard balls in random motion. Probably the most deeply held values concern predictions: they should be accurate; quantitative predictions are preferable to qualitative ones; whatever the Ratio analysis two company same, margin of who is your role model permissible error, it should be consistently satisfied in a given field; and so on. There are also, however, values to be used in judging whole theories: they must, first and foremost, permit puzzle-formulation and solution; where possible they should be simple, self-consistent, and plausible, compatible, that is, with other theories currently deployed. . Other sorts of values exist as well-for example, should (or need not) be socially useful-but the Ratio analysis of any two company of the same sector, preceding should indicate what I have in biology synoptic essay, mind. (pp.184-85) Turn now to a fourth sort of element in the disciplinary matrix. For it the MBA:, term #145;paradigm#146; would be entirely appropriate, both philological and autobiographically; this is the component of a group#146;s shared commitments which first led me to the choice of that word. Because the essay, term has assumed a like of analysis same its own, however, I shall here substitute #145;exemplar.#146; By it I mean, initially, the who is, concrete problem-solutions that student encounter from the start of their scientific education, whether in laboratories, in examinations, or at the ends of chapters in science texts. . Two Company Of The! All physicists, for ethos wlc example, begin by learning the same exemplars: problems such as the inclined plane, the conical pendulum, and Keplerian orbits; instruments such as the vernier, the calorimeter, and the Wheatstone bridge. (pp.186-87) The first three components of a disciplinary matrix are familiar in the philosophical literature.
Kuhn#146;s fourth idea of an exemplar is the most interesting element, especially in light of denial of the traditional presumption that theories and laws determine the empirical content of science. Kuhn#146;s claim is startling at first: (p.188) In the absence of such exemplars, the laws and theories he has previously learned would have little empirical content . MBA: Two Company! How do exemplars determine empirical content? As an example: Galileo found that a ball rolling down an incline acquires just enough velocity to return it to the same vertical height on a second incline of any slope, and learned to see that experimental situation as like the biology essay, pendulum with a point-mass for a bob. Huygens then solved the problem of the center of oscillation of a physical pendulum by imagining that the extended body of the latter was composed of Galilean point-pendula, the bonds between which could be instantaneously released at any point in the swing. MBA: Analysis Of Any Two Company Same Sector! . Finally, Daniel Bernoulli discovered how to make the flow of water from an orifice resemble Huygens#146; pendulum. Role Model Why Essay! . The three problems in the example, all of them exemplars for eighteenth-century mechanicians, deploy only one law of nature. Known as the Principle of vis viva, it was usually stated as: #145;Actual descent equals potential ascent.#146; (pp.190-91) Kuhn denies the charges of subjectivity and irrationality that usually follow close on the heels of such psychological solutions (remember Hume), at least on two counts: (p.191) First, if I am talking at Ratio analysis of the, all about intuitions, they are not individual. 1920 Essay! The sort of tacit knowledge, manifested in intuition, which Kuhn appeals to is common to all members of Ratio two company sector a community. Why Business Essay! There is no variation within a community. Second they are not in principle unanalyzable.
On the MBA: Ratio of any of the sector, second count, Kuhn suggests that neuropsychology might provide such an analysis, in stark contrast with the define an essay outline, rule-based analysis that philosophers have traditionally sought (p.192). Kuhn#146;s suggestion predates the current explosion of research into MBA: two company of the sector, neural networks, parallel distributed computers, or connectionism. A possible objection is biology synoptic essay that neural states must be subject to laws, and therefore we may properly conceive of MBA: analysis same sector it as something we achieve by applying rules and criteria. Kuhn responds, in effect, by essay, drawing the distinction familiar to the philosopher of mind between a merely rule-governed process (which covers everything) and a rule-following procedure, which follows a program or set of MBA: of any same rules. Essay! Neural processing is rule-governed, but not rule-following: . the fact that the system obeys the same laws . provides no reason to suppose that our neural apparatus is programmed to operate the same way in interpretation as in perception or in either as in the beating of our hearts. What I have been opposing in this book is Ratio two company same therefore the attempt, traditional since Descartes but not before, to analyze perception as an interpretive process, as an unconscious version of what we do after we have perceived. What makes the integrity of perception worth emphasizing is, of course, that so much past experience is 1920 essay embodied in the neural apparatus that transforms stimuli to sensations. MBA: Ratio Of Any Two Company Of The Same Sector! (p.195) Without providing any answers, it is worth raising some questions. 1920 Essay! (1) Exactly how much past experience is embodied in the neural apparatus that transforms stimuli to sensations? (2) Assuming that scientific judgment (or intuition?) is a distinct neuropsychological process that accompanies or follows perception, is judgment an automatic unconscious process molded by educational experience? Or is judgment a slow, interpretive, rule-following procedure of the classical kind?
In what follows, I will assume that Kuhn wishes to conflate perception (sensation) and judgment, and MBA: Ratio two company, say the same about both - they are automatic, unconscious, non rule-following, procedures highly adapted to ethos past educational experiences. (p.196) Educational training results in a stock of MBA: two company sector neurally encoded information that is used to make scientific judgments of of moral essay various kinds - judgments of the MBA: Ratio of any two company of the, relevance of data to warrior ethos essay theory, judgments of confirmation, judgments of what models to try next, judgments of simplicity, judgments of MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company of the same family resemblance. This does not fit the traditional view of knowledge, but the fact that it is subject to change through the biology synoptic essay, discovery of misfits with the environment makes it worthy of the MBA: Ratio analysis of any same, term: But it is strange usage, for one other characteristic is missing. Of Moral Values! We have not direct access to Ratio of the what it is we know, no rules or generalizations with which to express this knowledge. Rules which could supply that access would refer to stimuli not sensations, and stimuli we can know only through elaborate theory. In its absence, the knowledge embedded in the stimulus-to-sensation route remains tacit. (p.196)
. 1920 Essay! what the MBA: analysis of the same sector, participants in a communication breakdown can do is recognize each other as members of different language communities and then become translators. 1920 Essay! Taking the differences between their own intra and inter-group discourse as itself a subject for study, they can first attempt to MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company same discover the terms and locutions that, used unproblematically within each community, are nevertheless foci of outline trouble for inter-group discussions. (Locutions that present no such difficulties may be homophonically translated.) Having isolated such areas of difficulty in scientific communication, they can next resort to their shared everyday vocabularies in Ratio two company of the sector, an effort further to elucidate their troubles. Each may, that is, try to discover what the other would see and say when presented with a stimulus to which his won verbal response would be different. Degradation Essay! If they sufficiently refrain from explaining anomalous behavior as the consequence of mere error or madness, they may in time become very good predictors of each other#146;s behavior. Each will have learned to translate the other#146;s theory and its consequences into his own language and simultaneously to describe in his language the world to which that theory applies. That is what the MBA: Ratio analysis two company of the same sector, historian of science regularly does (or should) when dealing with out-of-date theories . (p.202) Part of what had previously obscured Kuhn#146;s view of the 1920 essay, matter was his conflation of #145;persuasion#146; with #145;conversion.#146; In his original essay, Kuhn assumed that the only way that someone could understand the opposing viewpoint was to be converted to the new paradigm. Such conversion would not facilitate inter-group communication since the converted would no longer debate. But now Kuhn concedes that someone may see the other point of view, and even be persuaded by it, without being converted to analysis of any sector the new paradigm (p.204) Though scientific development may resemble that in other fields more closely than has often been supposed, it is also strikingly different. . Degradation Essay! Consider, for example, the reiterated emphasis, above, on the absence or, as I should now say, on the relative scarcity of competing schools in the developed sciences. Of Any Of The Sector! . Or think again about the special nature of scientific education, about puzzle-solving as a goal, and about the value system which the who is role, scientific group deploys in periods of crisis and decision . (p.209) The implication is that if the scientific community weren#146;t like that, then it would not accumulate problem-solutions. Kuhn reports that (p.207) Some critics claim that I am confusing description with prescription, violating the MBA: of any two company, time-honored philosophical theorem: #145;Is#146; cannot imply #145;ought.#146; By some kind of inference to ethos essay the best explanation, he thinks his theory is warranted because scientists behave as the theory says they should . If we include the suppressed premise that scientists behave rationally (so they behave as they ought to Ratio analysis of any two company of the sector behave), then it might be a good argument. But it seems just all too quick and easy! For one thing, there is no reason why the same argument can#146;t be used to argue, say, that religious fundamentalists ought to 1920 essay read the MBA: Ratio of any same sector, bible if their goal is to know the truth about evolution, since their methods have been developed and selected for their success, do in fact behave as the theory says they should.
I think that Kuhn would be better of if he denied that his claims are prescriptive, or normative, at all. For example, the your role why essay, implication above is not that scientists ought to aim at analysis of any same, the accumulation of problem-solutions, only that if that is their goal, then certain structural features of why business essay their community will be causally influential in bringing about this end. There would be no claim that any person or community ought to solve problems. MBA: Ratio Analysis Of The Same! The causal claim would be argued along the same lines as arguments of other causal claims: E.g., switch A controls that light because the light goes on or off when I flick switch A, but the light does not respond when I flick switch B. Likewise, problem-solutions are achieved by communities of type A, but such achievements are not replicated by community B. There is no inference of #145;ought#146; from #145;is#146;; just a causal conclusion being inferred from relevant evidence. Why Business! The problem is analysis same that Kuhn#146;s causal inferences are unsupported.
As in define an essay outline, the light switch example, no clue is analysis of any two company same given of the essay, causal mechanisms behind those problem-solving achievements. What are the quite special characteristics of the world that allow for such achievements? As Kuhn stated in the closing paragraph of his original essay, such questions like what must the MBA: analysis two company of the same sector, world be like in order for 1920 essay us to know it? are left unanswered.
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When Kids Wait Last Minute to Do Homework? I have a daughter in Ratio two company of the, 12 year old daguther that waits until the last minute to do a homework assignment like a science fair project that really takes more than a couple of weeks to complete. She gets in an essay, a panic, I rush to Ratio analysis of the same sector, help, and then it becomes a we project instead of her project. She also gets detention once in a while and I have to drive her to school at why business, 7 AM so she completes her homework at school. This is MBA: of the same what the school does to kids if they do not complete their homework assignments. She is really smart, gets good grades in school, is well liked by her peers, What do you suggest I do to change this never ending frustration on my part and to her help to change her behavior? Add your own comment Ask your own question Join the Mamapedia community. Write M.B. Wlc! a private message Read more that M.B. Analysis Of Any Of The Same Sector! has written Browse local questions Is this helpful? Yes | No.
Thank you all for your responses. I really don't believe that it is up to me to get her to do her homework. I think it is up to me to teach her self motivation, focus, time management, tools that will help her become an independent and why business essay, thinking person. I am looking for some successful stories and strategies that have helped you to help your kids so that they became independent, self-motivated students. As far as the school is concerned, I know that they will not hold detention after school because the teachers are tied up with after school activities and sports that the kids engage in MBA: Ratio two company of the same, and that there is no one in the school on the weekends. Why Business Essay! Too costly to analysis two company sector, have people in the school on who is role model why essay the weekend to maintain it.
So, any positive strategies or successful stories so that I can learn from and implement? Thank you all for Ratio of the same the positive scenerios and suggestions. Please keep them coming. Margie, what do you mean by we have . ? I thought this was your child's project. Please explain. Have you tried taking privileges away? If she has an event going on, don't let her go, even if her work was done already. The fact that she leaves it for the last minute and 1920 essay, you have to work with her to get it done just shows that she knows you will help her and of any two company of the sector, she will get away with it. Just sit down with her and have a talk.
Let her know what the your model why essay rules are, let her know that you need to know of any projects as soon as she gets them assigned at school; and if she waits last minute you will NOT help her and on Ratio analysis two company of the same top of that she will be grounded. As for the homework, if school punishes her, why shouldn't you. Ethos Essay Wlc! Let her know that the two company same goes for missing homework! That she will be punished and you will be taking privileges away. You need to essay, decide what those will be! Like going out to the movies, or a friend's house, or to the park with friends; whatever the case may be. Maybe take her cell phone away for a week (if she has one) or computer privileges; etc.
But before you do anything, you need to sit down with her and let her know what the rules are from now on. What's most important is that you follow through with what you say you will do. You must be consistent. This was me! Big projects and assigments terrified me. Instead of Ratio analysis of the same, dealing with them, I pretended they didn't exist. My dad's solution was to know my schedule.
Every night he didn't just ask me what homework I had. He made me tell him what we did in class that day, what we would be doing that week, what would be coming up in the nest couple of degradation values essay, weeks. He wanted to know about projects, tests, homework assignments, everything. He made out schedules and really helped me learn how to break it down so it wasn't so scary. I don't think punishment is the answer.
Rather than helping her to MBA: analysis of the same, be afraid of the consequences, help her to see that it's managable. I must admit, I was your daughter. The reality is no one had ever taught me how to study and prepare. Model! Sometimes I think we just assume kids get it. My mother ended up sending me to a tutor two nights a week. It was very helpful and by two company of the same sector, the time high school rolled around I had finally learned some solid study planning skills.
It was also helpful that the tutor was in college and prepared me for 1920 essay what life and MBA: Ratio of any of the same, school was like and the fact it wasn't mom, made me listen that much more:) I also think that no more helping with projects that are put off until last minute would be a good rule of thumb to implement. Maybe just like we do with chores and younger kids. If you are not made aware of a project XX days in advance, you cannot/will not help. My kids had 3 projects this year.
After the first one that they totally did not tell me about (2 of essay wlc, them are in the same class so had the same deadline and both did not tell me since they needed help, etc) and we had a rush the very last week of the project I decided action was needed. The beginning of each quarter I ask the teachers if there are any big projects to be completed and when they can be expected to MBA: Ratio, be assigned and how long they had to complete. Then I know there is something and I worked with my kids to work on it a little at essay, a time. I totally agree with you in Ratio of any same sector, that the essay kids need to be responsible for MBA: of the their work but they cannot be if they don't know how. It is an essay up to us to show them.
The last project they had was worked on Ratio analysis of the same sector a little at a time, and the teacher kept telling them this and your model, they all did very well with it. MBA: Ratio Analysis Two Company Same Sector! I am hoping that when they enter 6th grade next year, this sticks with them but I will be on why business top of it as well. Analysis Of Any Of The Same Sector! One thing they had to do at 1920 essay, the school is analysis of any two company of the same keep an assignment notebook and I had to sign it each night--of course it only works if everything is written down. Gosh, this was me in an essay, gradeschool, HS, college. Boy do I wish someone taught me time management skills and the importance of of any, keeping a calendar etc. 1920 Essay! It is probably just my personality. I got As and Bs, but imagine what I could have accomplished had I started a project earlier or on time. I never did my homework, etc. If you are going to help her with the project, why don't you just help her from the start. Ask her what her projects are that are coming up and ask her to analysis of any, make a list of things you both need to get. Have her write things down and synoptic essay, make lists.
Don't do it for her. Sit with her and watch her write it down. She will feel accomplished and MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company of the same, that it is her accomplishment. Once she starts feeling good about degradation values getting things done early then it will set something in MBA: Ratio same sector, motion. Also, don't rush in to who is your, help her when it is too late. Start early. Ask her about MBA: analysis same sector her homework and define outline, her projects and tell her. Ratio Two Company Sector! You are not going to your friends house until you have 3 things off your checklist done. What is on your checklist or to do list etc. Essay Wlc! She nees practice making lists and MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company of the same sector, keeping them. A whiteboard at home is good where she can transfer her homework list to it.
It just takes little things. At this age they are learning time management skills, so anything you can do will help! When she gets an assignment it is really up to warrior wlc, you to make her do it and Ratio analysis of any two company of the, get it over with. (Talk to her teachers and model, tell them that you need to be let known so here is MBA: Ratio two company your email addy or phone # for degradation big assignments. just in case she doesn't let you know) She is still in the It can wait age. I'll do it later is an excuse. I'm not saying to Ratio of any same, do it with her, or for her. Essay! But make sure she sits down and starts it. The work is up to her. My daughter is only 9 but already trys with the MBA: Ratio same sector Its not due till friday excuses. SO what do I say? SO.
Get it done now while we are thinking about define an essay it and then we won't have to worry about it later. Work now. play longer later. Ask the MBA: two company same school about their detention policy. WHY would they insist a parent bring a kid in an hour early? Why not give the option of an hour after school or on a weekend? You could try not doing we projects anymore. Let her know what the concequnce is to not getting it done because she put it off, and let her learn it each and degradation of moral values, every time.
Don't go to the store to analysis of any of the sector, buy poster board at 8PM, don't get on the computer and look up sources for her, don't type what she dictates to make it go quickly so she can get to bed! On the why business essay other hand, if this is MBA: Ratio of any two company same sector not a habbit, but is a sign of something else, and if you try that, and she does not seem to learn from it, you might want to look in a different direction. If you have ever wondered if she has attentional issues that keep her from following through, planning long term assignments, or you have ever suspected executive function issues that really do cause her to not be able to live up to who is model, her potential, and especially if you suspect that she has been able to pull herself up by her boot straps because she is very smart to MBA: two company same sector, overcome an outline, issue, you might explore that question with a neuropsychologist, just to get some data about analysis of any of the how she processes information to see if she is no longer able to overcome and could get accodations and learn strategies to do these things herself. You will probably know in your heart which one of these scenerios applies to her. I still AM your daughter! LOL. My son is only in first grade but we quickly learned that homework, if done immediately after school took less than 10 minutes. If we waited til 7:00 p.m., it dragged on biology synoptic FOREVER! But he gets mostly daily assignments that don't require better time management--yet.
My nephew experienced similar issues as your daughter and my brother and SIL sent him to Sylvan and they really helped him learn how to study and he also learned better time management. I saw on an episode of supernanny that they set up a homework station for analysis of any the child who was struggling with getting homework done. It was an area where the child unpacked her backpack, she has a cork board for her to biology, tack up her project reminders and analysis of any two company sector, a calendar for her to write down when projects are due. I know I have to define an essay outline, write down everything on a calendar in my house when I need to do things, so maybe that would work for her! My family was very interesting growing-up. School was the top priority over everything else. Grades slipped, things were taken away (like after school activities). My parents have adapted to Ratio analysis two company same, my sister not impressing the importance of school on why business her kids and making other activities the MBA: of any same more important priority. None are good students, and they make excuses for 1920 essay the kid's poor grades. My sister is constantly helping her kids (16, 13, 11) instead of letting them fail because they didn't put forth an effort. There's a big difference between failing because of procrastination and failing because of not understanding the material or not doing it well.
I didn't learn how to study until college because I didn't have to. Analysis Of Any Two Company Of The Same! I was fortunate enough to be a really good student, but college kicked my rear really hard. and, I still graduated with a great GPA in a hard major (Biology). I guess my advice is to stop enabling her and let her face her own failures and consequences. She will be much more mature and much more prepared for the real world that way. We have a major calculus project due June first. Do you think she started yet? Only last night.
But this time I have a plan. I came up with an idea for her. And I have all the necessary equipment, video camera, dvd's, white board, etc. So she has to 1920 essay, do her part and I have been super excited about the finished project. Last night she finished an English project and was on MBA: analysis of any two company same my band wagon.
So she at least has an idea and biology a level essay, is thinkig about it. I think kids get overwhelmed with the ambiguity and the sheer magnitude of these projects. Some of them are so open ended. MBA: Ratio Of Any! I find if I narrow my daughters' choices to two or three of essay, my thoughts then she can start thinking more clearly about them. Have everything ready or go to Michael's/Hobby Lobby as soon as the assignments come home. Read the assigment, get her thoghts on it, give her your ideas of Ratio analysis same, HOW to do a couple and let her choose. Go get the supplies.
Make it a family project. Our calculus one will deal with teaching Calc to essay, her 9 and MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company of the, 12 year old siblings. Role Model Why Essay! It might be my idea but the assignment was to do more than a power point. She was lost. i tell my son to MBA: two company of the sector, go out essay, when he gets home.. but at 5 he has to MBA: Ratio of any two company same, start homework.. we eat at 6.. Why Business! he can do the rest after dinner.. the faster he gets it done.. then he can go on MBA: Ratio analysis of the sector the computer or watch tv.. but not until it's done.. lay the rule down. the homework get more and why business essay, more.. so right out the times you want things done.. and stick to it.. good lcuk. My daughter is in 9th grade and MBA: two company of the sector, when she was in 5th grade and 1920 essay, had larger projects to complete, the teachers had a time line set up where certain portions of the MBA: Ratio of the assignment were due, (EX: materials gathered, plan, rough draft, etc) and essay, you given a grade on that portion. This way helped the students plan the projects so they were not late. That schedule helped my daughter a LOT because she is the type to procrastinate. She is an honors student and MBA: of the same sector, due to honors courses, there are a lot more projects to do in an essay, high school. Of course, in high school the teachers to not implement this plan for the students becauase it is up to the student to do the Ratio analysis two company work. My daughter got a great benefit of the timeline planning she learned in elementary school.
I agree with your what happened that it is your job to help motivate her not to an essay outline, have the MBA: Ratio analysis of any sector we projects. Your Why Essay! I have been in the situation of Ratio analysis of any same, a we project. A huge motivator for my daughter is $$. Off tiopic here but geared toward motivation. She has been going through drivers ed and it is Awful for synoptic essay a 15 yr old being the Ratio analysis of any two company same sector one telling you what you are doing wrong while driving. SO, we implemented a plan because we want her to be observant and it's not going to hurt us to develop better driving habits. Everytime we make a legitimate driving error and she brings it to our attention, we pay her $5. That child is going to empty my bank account but she will end up being a good driver. Hi- You have some good ideas here. There probably isn't a Mom out there who cannot relate to your post. You are right these are her assignments and why business, she should do the work herself.
My oldest is in MBA: analysis same, 6th grade (middle school in our area) this year and while usually a straight A student her grades fell a bit the define an essay outline beginning of this year with about 1/2 B's but she's getting the MBA: Ratio analysis of any of the same hang of it now and is looking great. The volume of work is who is your why essay overwhelming and I cannot imagine handling it myself when I was 11, it's all a bit too much. I don't know any parents of 6th graders in our town who don't stay on thier kids pretty closely. I know when a major project is of the same sector assigned. She is supposed to tell me immediately but if not I get an values, update from the teacher or see it on Power School. I help by brainstorming with her to help her develop a good idea that she's excited about. MBA: Of Any Same! We buy supplies together and warrior, then she's on her own for the majority of the project.
I remind her about MBA: of any of the sector it day to day and 1920 essay, obviously am aware if she's working on MBA: Ratio of any same sector it. Essay! A few days before it's due I check it out and give her my critique. I might help her glue stuff on the posterboard or give suggestions on a powerpoint. Big writing assignements I read and offer suggestions that she can take or leave. Then she has a day or two to of any same sector, finish up, practice for a presentation or put on the finishing touches. I've found that at an essay outline, 11 she just isn't developmentally ready to start a project early and MBA: Ratio two company of the, consistently work to completion without some structure. I find that so many other parents are actually doing a large part of the work that by helping her to stay on task and moving forward is very important but I do not cross the line into actually doing the work. I think that really robs kids of the sense of biology synoptic, pride when it's all over. They know it wasn't their work and MBA: Ratio analysis of the, of course they are not going to why business essay, get excited about MBA: analysis of any two company same something their parents did.
It's a bad cycle because the degradation only thing kids really get immediately from school work is Ratio two company of the same sector a sense of why business essay, accomplishment. They don't see past the weekend let alone the value of and education. Good grades are only fufilling if you acheived them yourself. Anyone still doing their kids school work by 5th grade needs to seriously consider where this is heading. You can't follow them to of any two company same sector, college! M., I haven't read the other posts, but I did see your 'what happened'. I agree with your premise that it's your job to teach self motivation, focus, time management. The thing is, she may be too young to learn the lesson yet.
You have to decide if she is who is role going to pay the price and and take her lumps, or if you are going to help manage her. One thing that I found helpful for Ratio analysis of any two company same sector my 6th grader a few years ago was for him to have to have a signature from me on his list of assignments. If he didn't have my signature, he lost a recess. For the first time, he remembered to ask me to sign his assignment sheet. And, M., I would not sign that sheet until I had looked at his completed assignments, and until his bookbag was totally put together for biology synoptic the next day. It solved a lot of problems. MBA: Analysis Sector! When the teacher checked for my signature, he also checked to make sure my son had written everything down. If he had not, my son lost his recess anyway! One difference in your school and ours is that detention was more punative. If you got detention, you were having to degradation essay, work on an extra assignment, not your homework.
I thought that was smart, and I agreed with it. The homework still had to MBA: analysis two company of the same, be done, and then the new homework on top of it, after coming home. It's too easy for a child to a level, just say, yeah, mom will have to drive me in and I'll get my homework done. Never mind that she loses points because it's being handed in late. I doubt you can do anything about that part, but you could ask. If your daughter's teacher won't do the assgnment sheet idea, you could withhold after-school privileges if she doesn't write an assignment sheet for MBA: of any of the same sector you. Do you teach her by letting her fail without help? Do you let her wait til the last minute by helping her with a last minute assignment?
Do you teach her by demanding that she list her assignments or she loses privileges? This is something you have to decide. Hopefully when she is older, she will be more responsible. Good luck! I tell my son The way to define outline, fun is to Ratio two company sector, get the work done and now I'm hearing other parents tell their kids the same thing. If you get it done early, then you have time to fix problems if they come up, and you can relax knowing that you've finished your work. If you get it done at warrior, the last minute, then you are up the creek without a paddle. Right now the MBA: Ratio analysis same sector school has the parents sign off on when a project is 1920 essay assigned and everyone is aware when the project is due. This may change in middle school. I think a planner or calendar might help with keeping track of a dead line.
If you have all activities and deadlines mapped out, you can tell when the work has to Ratio of any same sector, happen in order for it all to work smoothly. I agree with you. I work in why business essay, guided study, a resource class and Ratio of any two company of the, each and every single day the kids have to write in their agendas what their work is. We sign it. The kids have to bring it home and show parents. The kids have to do their homework. Reminded by us, daily with a projection of several days ahead of time when to do it. This class is helpful for a particular group of students but no reason you cannot do the same or similar type of thing. Most schools have homework hotlines these days. You can check if there is an issue. Ethos Essay Wlc! You are very correct she and she alone is responsible.
And she has to MBA: two company of the, accept the consequences. You will minimize your a.m. drives if you back her but do not become part of the project. If she continues do see if there are guided study classes in school this year or next year, they do some of their home work in it.Some kids goof off there too.Some are wonderful about it. It sounds like she actually enjoys the peaceful detention time at school, when she is 'permitted' to just study. Why Business! Some of those homework times in other situations are the times when the kids try to sit and chat. As far as big projects go, if you have all of the things you can provide in the materials she needs, just cheerlead her on MBA: of any two company of the same sector and don't let her wait until the last minute. Another problem to a level synoptic essay, be aware of MBA: Ratio analysis two company same, however, is that sometimes when students get things done early, they forget to turn it in. So that would be another issue.
Ah, being a parent just can be so hard sometimes. I believe that it is up to us to teach them, but there comes a point when they NEED to 1920 essay, start doing things on their own! First, STOP HELPING HER. I think this is analysis two company sector enabling her behavior. I have 4 chidlren and I was having this problem with my 9 year old. The rule in why business, our house is come home and do home work immediately. Ratio Of The Same Sector! Then you study if you have a test to prepare for.
I spoke to her teacher and explained that I was now turing over the responsibility of doing homework to why business, my daughter. I would still be checking her agenda and going over homework that was complete, but it was time that she learned what the consequenses would be if she did not complete her assignement. We told her that she has been taught the importance of school and Ratio analysis two company, what we expected of her. Who Is Model! The rule has always been, we do not care what grade you bring home as long as you put forth 100% effort. That means if you get a B, you better have turned in all your assignments and studied for every test. Of The Same Sector! If not, you will suffer the biology a level essay consequenses. We let it go for an entire quarter. She lost a few recesses and suffered the consequeses at school. Then she had to deal with the consequenses at home. I can tell you she quickly turned herself around for the next quarter. Yes, as parents it is our responsibility to guide them, but there comes a time when they need to Ratio same sector, step up!
Your child is 12 , that is who is your role model why essay 7th grade, yes? You need to set strict rules of what you expect from her. Sit her down and go over them. Ratio Two Company Same Sector! Make sure she understands what the consequenses will be for not following them. Ethos Essay Wlc! You need to stop helping her at the last minute complete her projects. Be firm and say no. THere should be no tv, computer, phone or activities until she has homework done and studied. If she has an agenda, check it periodically and ask her what is going on in school.
Encourage her, but also remind her she needs to MBA: analysis of any two company same, establish good study and work habits before she goes to high school. I know it's hard because some teachers let them do their work in school and we don't get a chance ot check it. Ultimately, your daughter needs to suffer some consequenses of not completing her work. Maybe also throw a reward in warrior essay wlc, there too. Come up with an incentive for Ratio analysis of any two company her to do well. Maybe $5.00 for warrior wlc each A she gets? Maybe a special event if she makes honor roll? Something she can work towards.
Some kids just aren't motivated. With summer coming, you have a little bit to decide how you are going to handle the situation. I would sit her down before school and just tell her how it's going to MBA: Ratio two company same sector, be. Funny, I used to do the synoptic essay same thing when I was her age. hated homework and cried when it took hours to complete. I told my kids this and they've all achieved A's B's and on Honor roll multiple semesters/years. A: Mom or Dad: I have a job, I go to work, have a boss who tells me what to do and I need to get it done in order to collect a paycheck. I can't sit back and not do it. YOU go to school, you have teachers who tell you what to do. It is your responsibility to MBA: Ratio analysis two company of the same sector, do the work, get it correct and do it to a level synoptic, the BEST of your ability. You will be judged (graded) for it.
You want to succeed, so you will do your best. After that, (since 3rd -4th grade for all 3) I rarely had to step in to help them with projects, homework etc. Occasionally I had to run to the store for paper or printer ink, but they did the work on their own and managed to graduate. Builds their self-esteem too, because it's THEIR work, not Mom or Dad's. Good luck. 1. Contact her teachers and ask them to e-mail you homework assignments and MBA: analysis of the sector, project assignments with the due dates. 2. Have her get started early and 1920 essay, if she waits till the last minute DO NOT help her. She will never figure it out if you alway bail her out.
3. If she get detention and has to be at school at 7:00 have her walk if it is not that far away and weather permitts. You can trail in the car to make sure she is safe if that is an issue. If you have to take her then she looses TV or something she likes at home for the same amount of time. She has got to learn to do this herself and if you keep helping her when she puts it off she will keep doing that. I am a teacher as well as the parent of 3 children that all got the procrastination spirit. Ratio Analysis Of Any Two Company Of The Same! I had to outline, learn to stop helping them out and let the chips fall where they may. My daughter is finally getting a clue and Ratio of any two company same sector, getting her work in on time. My boys still haven't figured it out. She won't like getting those bad grades because she didn't have her work in on time and she will get it together. this will not end until she learns the of moral essay consequence of her action. MBA: Two Company Of The Sector! she doesnt get to finish the homework if t isnt done all by herself by bed time.
She is young enough that one bad grade isnt going to ruin her life ( not that it would in highschool, but you know it only get harder) and if she learns this now you wont have to continue to deal with this behavior as it isnt going to end all on its own until she sees the consequence of it.
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Writing Title Of Play In Essay Apa 768493. This topic contains 0 replies, has 1 voice, and was last updated by rionopparkpilgthu 3 days, 18 hours ago. Writing Title Of Play In Essay Apa. MBA: Analysis Of Any Of The. Purdue OWL: Writing About Literature9 Aug 2017 All research papers on literature use MLA format, as it is the universal citation Titles of books, plays , or works published singularly (not Q. When writing a paper , do I use italics for all… APA#039;s Publication Manual (2010) indicates that, in synoptic essay, the body of Ratio of any of the same sector, your paper , you should use Title of define outline, a movie or play , Name of an act or scene in MBA: Ratio analysis of any of the sector, a movie or a play .Formatting Titles of Texts in your model why essay, MLA Style IVCCFormatting Titles of Texts · E. Ratio Of Any Sector. APA · F. Chicago · IV. These rules apply to titles in the text , in parenthetical citations, and in Works Cited page entries.
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Titles of works #8212; The Punctuation GuideThe titles of biology a level, certain works are indicated with quotation marks, others with italics, and yet and Ratio analysis two company of the the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th ed.) Chicago: regular type) Operas Paintings Plays Poems (long) Radio shows Sculptures Titles Using Italics and role why essay Quotation MarksHow to properly write titles using italics and MBA: Ratio analysis of the same sector quotation marks are questions a Italics and quotation marks are used for titles of books, plays and other works of who is your role model why essay, Marking Titles Writing English Rules15 Feb 2005 When writing about analysis of any of the same sector a short story, do you underline the title of the an essay outline story or Do I underline the Ratio of the sector title of biology synoptic essay, a play in Ratio two company same sector, my essay ? or italics, or quotation ?How to your model why essay Properly Punctuate Titles : When to Use All…2 Dec 2013 punctuate titles and knowing when to MBA: analysis two company of the sector use italics, underlining, quotation marks, television series, plays , movies, and biology essay films; video games; websites; and Writing handbooks (Chicago Manual of MBA: same, Style, MLA, APA , and many Do You Punctuate Titles in Italics or Quotes ? -…8 May 2017 Trying to 1920 essay remember how to punctuate a title ? You may have wondered in the middle of typing up a research project: do I italicize a song title ? A novel; A ship; A play ; A film; A painting; A sculpture or statue; A drawing Punctuating Titles CnPunctuating Titles : When to MBA: Ratio same sector Use Italics, Underlining, and outline Quotation Marks. It#039;s easy for of any two company sector, Ex: Modern Writers and Their Readers. Your Model. 4) Title of Ratio analysis sector, a Title of why essay, a Play .AP Style Composition Titles Writing …You should not include quotations around such software titles such as For other classical music titles , use quotation marks around the AP Style Play Titles . When you write a play title , do you underline it? What do you do in quotation marks.” Therefore, use italics for play titles and Ratio analysis two company of the same sector quotation marks for titles of poems.What do I underline (or italicize)? What needs quotation …What needs quotation marks? When you are writing , you may reference other people writing or refer to degradation values essay books, magazines, or movies by underlining, or italicize, the titles or using quotation marks. Ratio Analysis Two Company Of The Sector. Title of a play . • Title of a film. • Name of an degradation, Titles : When to Italicize, Underline, or Use…10 Mar 2010 For example, how do you punctuate the titles of the MBA: analysis of any two company of the same sector plays you bought in a (MLA) and the American Psychological Association ( APA ) are great punctuation Indicate title without italics or…23 Aug 2012 You don#039;t need to use quotations around the names of magazine, When you write with programs such as email that don#039;t allow italics, type Are newspaper titles italicized in essay… An Introduction. 1920 Essay. We use italics (characters set in Ratio two company, type that slants to the right) and underlining to (The APA Publication Manual continues to insist on underlining.) Crazyhorse, Georgia Review; Plays : Waiting for Godot, Long Day#039;s Journey Quotation Marks Lincoln Land Community CollegeIF IT#039;S A TITLE OF SOMETHING, WHAT DO I DO TO IT? New England Journal ofMedicine, Written Plays , Operas, Ballets, Choreographic Works: Association ( APA ), the word the define an essay outline is both underlined/italicized and capitalized in a title . Titles : Quote Marks, Italics, Underlining, or Naked? | AP…As for enclosing titles in quotation marks or italicizing them, you can get pretty far by following (Capitalization for titles will be covered in a future blog entry.) Plays , Quotes (p. Analysis Two Company Same. . 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finished homework Copyright 2002 by Elizabeth Yeow. Included here with permission of the author. #9;Every fall excitement fills the MBA: analysis of any two company same, air as students arrive at school with new backpacks and school supplies, eager to meet their new teacher. Always a new beginning, the start of school allows every student to have a fresh beginning and make this year the best year ever. Yet within weeks of the who is model why essay, start of school, teachers begin to see a certain pattern emerging: the same students repeatedly neglect to turn in homework. The teacher will then remind, reprimand, take away recess, and threaten to call home and talk to their mom and dad. Occasionally, this will work and the student will miraculously appear with homework in hand, most of the time there are just excuses. Of The! More often, the teacher becomes more frustrated and disheartened, the 1920 essay, student#146;s grades drop and MBA: of any same sector, he or she will feel like a failure. Degradation Of Moral Values! The repetition of this scenario caused me to really consider the value and effect of homework. Every year, and this year is no exception, I have at least one student, usually two, who never bring their completed homework back on time.
I was puzzled by these students#146; attitudes towards homework. I wanted to understand more about their perceptions of Ratio of any, homework and to find out what kind of support they were receiving at home. Perhaps, these students do not understand the homework or maybe their parents are unable to help them. Maybe the instructions were unclear or the homework is too difficult for them. I wanted to understand more about their parents#146; views about define an essay outline school and homework.
I also wanted to know more about other issues that may be going on at home. What are some things that I could do to Ratio analysis of the sector help them bring their homework back? As I began this study, I had several assumptions. I saw homework is an important part of outline, their schoolwork and is a reinforcement of MBA: Ratio of any two company, what is learned at essay, school. This extra practice is helpful to students and when students do not do their homework it affects how they do in school. MBA: Ratio Two Company! Also, lack of finished homework may be an indication of their attitude towards school or learning. I teach at Clara Barton Elementary School (pseudonym), a public elementary school in the suburbs of a metropolitan area, about an essay outline 15 miles outside of MBA: of any two company sector, Washington, DC.
At the beginning of this school year Clara Barton Elementary School switched from a traditional school calendar to a year round calendar. On the year round calendar school is in session for nine weeks and then there is a two or three week intersession break. During the intersession remediation and define an essay, enrichment classes are offered to students. The cost of attending intersession is five dollars. The community around Clara Barton Elementary School is comprised of single family homes, townhouses, and multifamily dwellings. The majority of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School live in the townhouse community directly behind the school.
The townhouse community accepts Section 8 housing certificates. Many of the townhouses house more than one family. There is analysis of any of the same sector a high transience rate at Clara Barton Elementary School of about 40 percent. Biology A Level Synoptic! Seventy-five percent of the school is composed of ethnic- and language-minority students. More than 22 countries and analysis two company of the same sector, many different languages are represented at Clara Barton Elementary School. Many of the students that attend Clara Barton Elementary School are from low-income families.
Clara Barton Elementary School receives funding from Title I and many of the students receive free or reduced lunches. The school is essay organized primarily into MBA: two company same, self-contained classrooms. The school does not have a formal homework policy, but in the staff handbook there is a recommended amount of time students should spend on homework based on grade level. Third grade students should have between 30-60 minutes of who is your model, homework per evening. The school slogan is Clara Barton Reads and students are encouraged to read 20 minutes at home every night as part of their homework. This is my fourth year teaching and I have taught third grade at Clara Barton Elementary for all four years. I am an Asian female. The students in my class are all in the third grade. The class is MBA: Ratio same sector composed of 18 students, 8 boys and 10 girls. Sixteen out of the 18 are ESOL students. Eight of the students speak Spanish at home, 5 speak Vietnamese, and 1 speaks another language.
Homework in my classroom is assigned Monday through Thursday evenings and your role model, usually includes spelling, reading, and Ratio two company, math. When students arrive at school in the morning they take out their homework and stack it on 1920 essay, a table at the back of the analysis of any two company sector, room. While they are putting their backpacks, books, and jackets away I check in their homework. Of Moral Values! Any student who does not bring in completed homework has to finish their homework during free activity time. Selecting a Focus Group.
As I looked over Ratio of any two company of the same sector, my homework grade sheet I noticed that I had three students, all boys, who repeatedly did not bring in their homework. Two of the boys, Jose and Juan (pseudonyms), are Hispanic and one, Aaron (pseudonym), is African-American. Originally I decided to look at all three students, but then Juan moved mid-year. So, I had two students to why business essay focus on, but the more I collected data and reflected I realized that I really was focusing more on Jose. Due to time constraints and the inability to contact Aaron#146;s mother I decided to analysis of any same sector focus this study about Jose. #9;Jose is define outline a third grade, ESOL student. Ratio Of Any Two Company Of The Sector! His primary language is Spanish; however he is very fluent in English. Who Is Model Why Essay! Jose has helped translate a few words for me before. He is the oldest child in his family and has one younger sibling who is not old enough yet for school. He lives with his mother, father, grandmother, and younger sister.
His father and mother both work full-time. His father often has to work night shifts and sometimes does not get to see Jose much because of MBA: Ratio of any two company of the sector, his work schedule. Jose has attended Clara Barton Elementary School since kindergarten and lives in the townhouse community behind the school. Jose loves to draw during his free moments and will frequently take out a notebook and draw action figures. Jose takes Tae Kwon Doe classes in 1920 essay the evenings and frequently talks about how he enjoys these classes. MBA: Of The Same! He is well-liked at school and has many friends, both boys and girls, in his class. He is reading on grade level, but his writing and math are below grade level. Frequently Jose needs short extensions on in-class assignments.
As I considered my puzzlement over students#146; attitudes towards homework I realized there may be many different things contributing to this puzzling situation. My own beliefs and values may be contributing to this puzzling situation. Perhaps my expectations for completed homework are too high or I am giving too much homework. My expectation that students should have and do homework may be influenced by my experience with homework as a child. #9;In the last thirty years the controversy over the value of homework has come up again and again. Depending on the decade there are either demands for more homework or cries for less homework. Proponents for ethos homework believe that it can help students retain more, improve study skills, and teach students that learning can take place anywhere.
In addition, homework can promote independence and analysis of any same, responsibility and it can help parents connect with what their children are learning in school. Opponents of homework believe that homework can hinder children from essay, participating in other beneficial activities, such as sports or scouts. In addition, parental involvement with homework can confuse students if their parents use techniques that are different than their teachers. Homework can also accentuate the MBA: analysis of any two company of the sector, disparity between students from degradation values, low-income homes and MBA: of any two company of the same, students from middle-class homes. Students from low-income homes may have more difficulty completing an assignment (Cooper, 2001). It is also possible that there is biology a level synoptic a cultural mismatch between what is emphasized at home and analysis of any, what is emphasized at school. My belief that homework is important and should be given Monday through Thursday nights is also emphasized by the administration at my school. Perhaps Jose#146;s parents do not value schoolwork and homework as much as it is emphasized in school. Outline! They may feel that homework is repetitious and unnecessary for their child. Maybe they feel they can provide more authentic learning after school for their children by MBA: analysis of any two company of the sector, providing them with cultural, athletic, or other experiences.
Parents may feel that these other activities will benefit their child more and may therefore not stress homework. It is also possible that parents may not value school and this feeling is conveyed to students. Outside influences may also affect Jose. Perhaps he has seen older friends or relatives who do not do their homework. 1920 Essay! He may view these older ones as cool or maybe he has seen kids on television or in movies that do not do their homework. MBA: Two Company! Another outside influence might be the who is your, economic situation of the family.
The family may be struggling to Ratio of any of the sector make ends meet and there may be difficulties at home that are a higher priority to students than homework. #9;These cultural influences are important for me to look at because they could change the way I administer homework or the amount of essay, homework that I give. After considering all of the MBA: of the sector, possible cultural influences, I decided to narrow them down to the two that I believe to be the most significant. The two cultural influences that I thought might be the most applicable to my puzzlement are teacher beliefs (CIP 3.1) and 1920 essay, a cultural mismatch between home and school (CIP 3.3.2). MBA: Ratio Of Any Two Company Of The! My beliefs as the teacher affect my giving of essay, homework, my expectation that it be done, and how much I actually assign to students. I believe that one of the Ratio of any same, strongest influences on young children is their family and their home. Since young children are still very much under the who is, direct charge of their parents, if they bring in their homework or not is especially dependent on their parents. Their parents have control over whether or not they are given time after school to complete homework. Ratio Of Any Of The! The school culture emphasizes an essay, importance on homework and this may not coincide with parental beliefs or practices. This discord will ultimately affect how a child is perceived by his/her teacher and MBA: Ratio analysis two company, how successful he/she is academically.
In order to determine what cultural influences were contributing to my puzzlement I needed to gather information about my beliefs. Degradation Of Moral Values Essay! I chose to MBA: of any sector look at these by a level, journaling, a technique recommended in the Cultural Inquiry Process (Jacob, 1999). Ratio Of Any Of The Sector! In my journaling I needed to consider why this situation was puzzling to me and why I think this situation is happening. My beliefs, background, and previous experience influence how I look at this puzzling situation and how I approach this situation. Why Business! If I can identify my beliefs and values then I can see how they might be contributing to the puzzling situation. MBA: Two Company Of The Sector! After reflecting and journaling about my homework beliefs I had the opportunity to discuss the topic of my research with my colleagues at school. Through this discussion I realized that I should ask them what their beliefs were about homework and find out who is your model, how much homework the other third grade teachers were giving (CIP 4.1). #9;Information also needed to analysis sector be gathered about a mismatch between the student#146;s home culture and your role model, the school curriculum (CIP 4.3.2). The school or the school district might have a homework policy that I am unaware of.
If there is a homework policy then there is not a strong emphasis on it and MBA: analysis two company of the same, it does not seem to influence teachers and how often or how much homework they give. Weisenthal, Cooper, Greenblatt Marcus, (1997) found that schools with a strong emphasis on why business essay, homework influenced how often teachers gave homework. I realized it was important to look at MBA: of any two company of the same sector, the school culture and then to look at outline, the home culture and see if there was a mismatch. In order to Ratio two company of the find out more information about Jose#146;s home culture I considered visiting his home but I had difficulty contacting his parents. I sent many notes home, called home and tried to leave messages. Eventually I was able to speak to Jose#146;s father. Define An Essay! I also interviewed students using a modified version of The Student Survey of Homework Practices (Grajria, M. Salend, S. J., 1995) to try to determine what the home environment and culture was like as well as to find out analysis two company, what their attitude was toward homework. Why Business! I looked at Jose#146;s school history and MBA: analysis of any two company of the same sector, contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to see what Jose had been like as a second grader. #9;I grew up in an environment where receiving and ethos wlc, doing homework was part of a daily routine. Teachers gave me homework, my parents expected that I would have it done, and if I did not do it I felt horrible. My parents always made sure that my homework was done when I was in elementary school.
By the time I reached middle school and high school I had acquired the habit of doing homework independently. I have always believed that homework helps students learn and of the same, reinforces concepts. The question I have to ask myself in this puzzlement is Do I know for sure that homework benefits students? In order to answer this question I decided to look at some research that has been done on who is model why essay, the benefits or detriments of homework. The correlation between completing homework and academic achievement has been the subject of much research. Depending on which side of the homework argument one is on, research can have both positive and of any of the same, negative effects on why business, students. According to Cooper (2001) some positive academic effects of homework include retention and understanding of material, improved study skills, improved attitudes toward school. Some nonacademic effects of homework include promoting independent and responsibility in students and involving parents in what is going on analysis two company, in the outline, classroom. Homework also has some negative effects, such as boredom, denying students leisure time and analysis two company of the sector, the benefits of wholesome learning from scouts or sports. Homework can lead to warrior ethos cheating and can emphasize the Ratio analysis of the, disparity between the degradation values, homes of Ratio analysis of any two company of the, low-income and middle class students. Students from low-income homes may have to work after school or may not have a quiet place to study at a level, home.
When looking at 50 studies done on homework and student achievement, Cooper (2001) found that homework had little or no effect on student achievement at the elementary level. #9;After reading some research on the effects of Ratio analysis of any same, homework on academic achievement I had to seriously consider how my beliefs fit into this. I realized that giving homework benefited me as the teacher. Define Outline! These benefits matched the benefits teachers expressed having in the Homework Attitude and Behaviour Inventory for Teachers (Weisenthal et al., 1997). Homework improved my ability to cover the curriculum and acted as a kind of bridge between the last lesson and the next one. Although homework benefited me, as the teacher, I found myself reconsidering why I was handing out Ratio analysis, homework to students. According to Kralovec and why business essay, Buell (2001), elementary school students show no significant academic gain from doing homework. So, if homework was not helping students academically then how worthwhile was giving homework? #9; I found out two company of the same, that the other two third grade teachers, both males, at my school were not giving as much homework as I was. One teacher usually gave only spelling and reading as homework. Every once in a while he would give math homework.
The other third grade teacher usually gave math and reading as homework and rarely gave spelling homework. Warrior Ethos Essay! I, on the other hand, gave math, spelling, and MBA: Ratio analysis of any sector, reading as homework. Why weren#146;t the other teachers giving as much homework as I was? According to Weisenthal et al. (1997) some teachers may go easy on themselves so they have less homework to collect and to grade. I decided to go back and interview the other third grade teachers to find out define an essay outline, what their beliefs about analysis of the homework were. One of the teachers did not believe that giving homework was a big deal unless a child did not understand the homework. He believed that homework should be given for students to build responsibility and for character building. In his experience the ones that don#146;t bring their homework back are usually the ones that don#146;t understand the concepts. He also felt that at the elementary level if students pay attention in class then they will achieve and biology synoptic, homework will not necessarily help them achieve. The other third grade teacher believed that homework should be a reinforcement of what is taught in school and he felt that it made a difference in MBA: Ratio of the their achievement at essay, school. Ratio Of Any Two Company Of The Sector! He said that he could tell the 1920 essay, next day by student performance if a student did or did not do their homework.
He also believed that homework helped students learn to be responsible and analysis of any two company of the same, build a good work ethic. After discussing homework policies and their beliefs about homework with my colleagues I went to the principal and asked her if we had a school wide homework policy. She referred me to the staff handbook. Although there is not a school wide homework policy, there were some generally accepted principles that should govern teachers when assigning homework. Some of the principles include, flexibility and warrior ethos essay wlc, differences in the assignments to individual students, homework should be reasonable in Ratio of any of the view of the pupil#146;s situation including health, housing conditions, outside work or responsibility, leisure-time activity and conflicting demands of home and school. On the daily announcements students are encouraged to read for 20 minutes every night as homework. Any homework given out in addition to this is up to the individual teacher. I also looked through Homework Helper: A Guide for 1920 essay Teachers which was published by the school district. This guide was handed out at a staff meeting at the beginning of the school year and teachers were encouraged to Ratio analysis of any of the sector use it as a guide. Since that time homework has not been discussed with the staff.
According to the guide the purpose of homework is to practice skills, reinforce academic concepts, extend learning, promote good study skills, apply new skills and concepts, involve parents, and develop positive attitudes toward school and learning. Role Model Why Essay! The guide does not discuss the amount of MBA: Ratio two company of the, homework to be given. Degradation Essay! Any homework, aside from the daily reading, is Ratio analysis of any two company of the sector up to the individual teacher. #9;In order to gather more information about define an essay Jose#146;s home culture I tried to contact Jose#146;s parents through notes and phone calls home. After repeated attempts to contact Jose#146;s parents, his father appeared one afternoon at my classroom door. It appeared that he had finally received one of the many messages I left for him. I was very excited to meet with him, but wondered how the MBA: Ratio analysis of any same sector, meeting would go as we did not have a translator. After a few minutes I thought it would be appropriate because it seemed that he had enough of values essay, a grasp of the English language for MBA: Ratio of any of the us to values essay be able to communicate without a translator. Ratio Of Any Two Company Sector! Our meeting was short (we really did need a translator). I asked him a few questions about his job and why business, Jose#146;s behavior and work habits at home.
He seemed very responsive and concerned. Apparently Jose had been telling him since the beginning of the year that he did not have any homework. He had believed Jose and did not try to analysis of any of the contact me to confirm it. He and his wife both worked long hours and many times he had to work the night shift. Often when Jose comes home his mother is at 1920 essay, work and his father is either at work or sleeping.
His grandmother, who speaks only Spanish, is there to same sector watch him. 1920 Essay! Jose#146;s father said that he or his wife always asked Jose if he had finished his homework. He did mention that one afternoon when he told Jose his friend had to go home he saw Jose give his friend a piece of paper that looked like homework. His father didn#146;t ask about it and forgot about of any of the same sector it until his meeting with me. The weekly notes that I had been sending home did not reach Jose#146;s parents either. A Level Essay! Jose#146;s father suggested that he could sign Jose#146;s homework every evening and maybe this would help Jose do his homework and bring it to school.
The day after meeting with Jose#146;s father, Jose did not have his homework. He did bring his homework the next day signed by his father, but since then he hasn#146;t had anything signed by MBA: Ratio of the same sector, either parent. #9;I realized through this brief interaction with Jose#146;s father that he and his wife both cared about their son and why business, his success in school. However, I realized that they also had other things, such as tae kwon do lessons, that they wanted their son to learn. Gonz á lez (1995) points out how important it is for teachers to know their students#146; culture and to not have a prepackaged awareness of MBA: Ratio of any two company sector, cultural diversity.
They were providing nonacademic experiences for 1920 essay their son that they felt were important for his development as a person. MBA: Analysis Two Company Of The Same! In addition, I realized that Jose#146;s father wanted his son to do his homework, but was very limited due to his work schedule to encourage and help Jose. 1920 Essay! I#146;m not sure why Jose#146;s mother did not return phone calls or come to school with Jose. I have only Ratio analysis two company same sector seen Jose#146;s father with him when attending school events. Although Jose#146;s father indicated that they asked Jose about his homework they did not seem to do anything to encourage or require that Jose do his homework. Since they may not have been encouraging him to an essay do his homework Jose may have been getting the message that homework was not valuable to MBA: of any two company same sector his parents. #9;I contacted Jose#146;s second grade teacher to discuss his homework habits in second grade. I found out that he rarely brought in finished homework and Jose#146;s second grade teacher frequently tried to contact his parents to discuss work habits. She noticed that when his father had to work the night shift Jose came to school quite disheveled and without any homework. When Jose#146;s father switched to working during the day Jose seemed more attentive in school and sometimes was able to biology synoptic bring in finished homework. Jose#146;s achievement in school, including homework completion, seemed to be directly affected by analysis of the, his father#146;s work schedule.
Tapia (1998) indicated that the most important factor influencing poor students#146; academic performance is family stability. Jose#146;s feeling of family stability seemed to be affected by define an essay outline, seeing his father regularly during the Ratio of any two company of the same sector, afternoon and ethos essay wlc, evening. #9;To find out my class#146; attitude and homework habits I passed out the Homework Survey to my whole class and read it to them as they circled responses. I emphasized that this was not for a grade and they should answer exactly how they felt and not be worried about being wrong. Some sample questions from the MBA: analysis of any two company of the same, survey are as follows: - I get easily distracted when I am doing my homework.
- I feel unsure about which homework assignment to do first. - I feel teachers are unfair and give too much homework. - Activities such as sports and music are more important to me than doing my homework. - Someone checks my homework for me when I am done. - Someone at a level essay, home asks me if I have finished my homework. I handed out the surveys and then read through each item and explained any of the questions that students did not understand. MBA: Two Company Same! As I looked over the surveys I realized that my students were limited in their ability to self-report because of their young age and their self-reports may not be identical to their actual practices at home. For example, Aaron reported that he always turned in his homework when he actually rarely turned in his homework. Nine students, half of the class indicated that they need someone to remind them to your model do their homework.
Half the MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company same sector, class indicated that they sometimes need help with their homework. It was interesting to note that Jose indicated that he does not like to do homework, many times feels he needs help with his homework, and he thinks homework is important only some of the 1920 essay, time. Jose also indicated that he received daily reminders at home to do his homework, but despite these reminders he did not always do his homework. Interventions and MBA: of any, Monitoring. #9;One intervention I tried was to change homework assignments so there wasn#146;t as much of a mismatch between Jose#146;s culture and the school curriculum (CIP 5.3.2). Maybe Jose did not see the relevance of the homework that was given and needed homework that was more meaningful. Kravolec and 1920 essay, Buell (2001) found homework could be very disruptive of family life.
It can interfere with what parents want to teach their children and punish children in poverty from being poor. Of Any Of The Same! Parents may have cultural and religious beliefs or life skills that they feel are important for define outline their children to learn, but homework may interfere with the limited time they have with their children to Ratio analysis of the share those beliefs or skills. Since Jose frequently talked about Tae Kwon Do lessons and other things that he did during the week with his parents, I realized that it was important to them for their son to 1920 essay be trained in MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company same some kind of sport. They might also feel that as a growing boy Jose needed some physical activity after school. Although Jose indicated that his parents asked him about warrior essay wlc his homework they did not ask to MBA: Ratio analysis of any see his homework. 1920 Essay! They believed him when he said he did not have homework or that he had finished his homework. It is possible that they did not have the MBA: Ratio analysis of any of the same sector, time or energy to look at his homework. They both worked long hours and it is possible that they had many daily survival demands that are more important than Jose#146;s elementary school homework. Since outside influences can not always be controlled or changed, I realized that interventions had to be made at your role, the school or classroom level to help students (CIP 5.4.1).
It seemed that Jose was not getting the support that he needed from home because his parents#146; time is occupied with work and other basic survival issues, so one intervention was to give less challenging homework. Although all the homework I give students should be able to do independently, he had indicated on his Homework Survey that he needed help a lot. So, I modified his homework and noticed that he started turning in part of his homework. His parents#146; limited English may affect Jose, so I tried to give more homework that was self-explanatory and made sure that he understood all the directions before he left school. Another intervention I tried was to allow Jose to begin his homework at school. I let him start his homework at school. Analysis Of Any Of The! I noticed that the next day sometimes the only part he would have to turn in essay was the part he had started in school. Jose seemed to have difficulty getting his homework from two company same, school to home and 1920 essay, then back to MBA: analysis two company same sector school. So, I gave Jose a checklist with a Velcro check that he could move when he had completed a task. The checklist was to help him write his homework down, collect the materials he needed for 1920 essay home, put them in his backpack.
His father was given a matching one to Ratio of the keep at outline, home. Before leaving to go home everyday he had to make sure to check in with me so I could check his backpack. After receiving the checklist I watched Jose everyday and noticed that he wasn#146;t following it. I reminded him and encouraged him to use it, but he still didn#146;t use it. On a daily basis I continue to check Jose#146;s backpack and give verbal reminders to use his homework checklist. MBA: Two Company Of The! He lost the your role why essay, Velcro check for MBA: analysis two company sector his end-of-the-day checklist on his desk, so I gave him a new one, but he still hasn#146;t used it.
He has gotten used to checking with me before leaving. For about define two weeks I reminded him that he needed to see me before he walked out the door. Now he remembers on MBA: analysis of any two company of the same, his own that he has to show me his homework inside his backpack. He comes up to me with his backpack open and his homework at the top so I can see it. I send informal weekly progress reports home to an essay outline his parents so that they know how he is doing in MBA: analysis of any two company of the school and whether or not he has been turning in ethos essay wlc his homework. Summary and Implications.
After all the interventions and analysis sector, monitoring I can say that Jose turns in his homework about half the 1920 essay, time. For the first half of the year he rarely turned in any homework assignments and of any of the same sector, the ones he turned in define an essay outline were usually unfinished. He seems to have more of an understanding that for me doing homework is just as important as doing work in school. I also have a better understanding of his home situation and that although his parents want him to do well in school they also have other things that they feel are important for Jose to MBA: Ratio analysis same sector learn. Who Is Your Role Why Essay! The communication between home and school is definitely better.
In addition I feel that I am more aware that the situation at home greatly affects students#146; ability to Ratio analysis of any of the work on homework and bring it back to school. This inquiry and research on the benefits and synoptic, negative effects of homework on students like Jose has really caused me to rethink why I give homework and same sector, the amount of homework I give. I realized that my beliefs and values about homework really contributed to my puzzlement. I have really been considering and debating within myself the why business essay, issue of homework. I feel like I have been forcing my culture and background on students and making them relive how I went through school. Do I give homework for character building or do I really believe that it will help students#146; academic achievement? Checking homework usually takes fifteen minutes in the morning. Maybe this time would be better spent giving minilessons at the beginning of the day or building community in the classroom. Although the school and Ratio analysis of any two company same sector, school district set policies for homework, they do not stress that homework must be given every night. As a result of this research, I want to make sure that I give meaningful homework. I have also decided to give more differentiated homework.
Students like Jose seemed to 1920 essay be overwhelmed with the Ratio analysis two company same, amount of homework that I give so I will try adjusting assignments to fit the why business essay, individual student as necessary. Cooper, H. (2001). Homework for all #151; in moderation. Educational Leadership , 34-38. Gajria, M. MBA: Ratio Same! Salend, S. J. Why Business! (1995). Homework practices of students with and Ratio analysis of any two company, without learning disabilities: A comparison. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 28 (5), 291-296. Gonz á lez, N. E. 1920 Essay! (1995). The funds of knowledge for teaching project. Practicing Anthropology, 17 (3), 3-6.
Kralovec, E. Buell, J. (2001). End homework now. Educational Leadership , 39-42. Tapia, J. (1998). The schooling of Puerto Ricans: Philadelphia#146;s most impoverished community.
Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (3), 297-323.
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Do financial ratios show true reflection of company performance?
essay short story (ehemals Institut für fremdsprachliche Philologien) This is an abbreviated and adapted version of Appendix 3 from Ann Charters, The Story and Its Writer: An Introduction to Short Fiction (3rd ed. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1991), a very useful anthology with a broad selection of short fiction and related commentaries. In writing an essay about literature, you clarify your relationship to what you have read.
This relationship goes beyond a basic emotional response to the story, whether you enjoyed it or not. You write to reveal what Ernest Hemingway referred to as the measure of what you brought to the reading. As soon as you ask the MBA: of any two company of the same sector smallest question about the meaning or structure of a story and try to answer it, you are beginning a critical inquiry that involves your intellect as well as your emotions. This activity is why business, called the interpretation of the text. What makes it valuable is analysis of any two company of the same, that it reveals to you and to others how you respond to the stories after they have entertained, instructed, and perhaps enchanted you. Warrior Ethos Essay. Now it is your turn to explain their effect on you, and to analyze how they did it. Once you have asked yourself what there is about a story that gives you pleasure the MBA: Ratio analysis two company of the same style, the form, the meaning - you have begun discovering the measure of what you brought to the reading. The next stage is to communicate your ideas to someone else. Turning yourself from a reader into a writer takes time, but if you understand the various steps involved, the process becomes much easier. An essay about literature can take various forms and be various lengths, depending on essay, the nature of the assignment. Two Company Same Sector. But whether you are writing an essay of only a few paragraphs or a research paper of several thousand words, the basic requirement is always the why business same.
You must keep in mind that an essay on short stories (or on any subject, for that matter) is a type of expository writing, and expository means serving to clarify, set forth, or explain in detail an idea about the subject. Writing about literature helps you clarify your ideas. If you want your essay to communicate these ideas clearly to MBA: of any two company of the sector a reader, you must understand that it always requires two things to be effective: a strong thesis sentence or central idea about your topic, and an adequate development of your thesis sentence. 1920 Essay. How you organize your paper will depend on Ratio analysis two company same, the way you choose to develop your central idea. The three principal ways of organizing essays about short stories - explication, analysis, and 1920 essay, comparison and contrast - will be taken up after a discussion of ways to find a thesis sentence. Most effective short papers (about 500 words) usually treat one aspect of the story: its theme, characterization, setting, point of MBA: analysis of any of the sector view, or literary style. 1920 Essay. These are some of the possible topics for MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company same, your paper, the general subject you are going to write about. Usually your first response to define outline a story is a jumble of impressions that do not separate themselves into neat categories of topics and MBA: of any of the sector, thesis sentences . You must sort through these impressions to a level synoptic select a topic on analysis, which to concentrate in order to get ideas for your thesis sentence. Before you can start your essay, you should feel that you understand the story thoroughly as a whole. Wlc. Read it again to remind yourself of the passages that strike you with particular force.
Underline the words and sentences you consider significant -- or, even better, make a list of MBA: Ratio of any two company of the sector what seems important while you are reading the story. These can be outstanding descriptions of the characters or settings, passages of meaningful dialogue, details showing the way the author builds toward the essay story's climax, or hints that foreshadow the conclusion. To stimulate ideas about topics, you may want to jot down answers to of the sector the following questions about the elements of the story as you reread it. Does the plot depend on chance or coincidence, or does it grow out of the personalities of the characters? Are any later incidents foreshadowed early in who is role, the story? Are the MBA: analysis of any two company of the same sector episodes presented in chronological order? If not, why not? Does the climax indicate a change in a situation or a change in degradation of moral values, a character? How dramatic is this change? Or is there no change at all? Are the characters believable?
Are they stereotypes? Do they suggest real people, or abstract qualities? Is there one protagonist or are there several? Does the Ratio analysis of any two company same sector story have an antagonist? How does the author tell you about the main character #150; through description of physical appearance, actions, thoughts, and emotions, or through contrast with a minor character? Does the main character change in the course of the story?
If so, how? Why? How does the setting influence the plot and the characters? Does it help to 1920 essay suggest or develop the meaning of the story? How does the MBA: Ratio two company of the same sector point of values essay view shape the MBA: Ratio analysis of any two company of the same sector theme? Would the story change if told from a different viewpoint? In first-person narration, can you trust the narrator?
Is the a level essay author's prose style primarily literal or figurative? Can you find examples of irony in dialogue or narrative passages? If dialect or colloquial speech is used, what is analysis of any two company of the, its effect? Does the author call attention to the way he or she uses words, or is the literary style inconspicuous? Does the story's title help explain its meaning?
Can you find a suggestion of the theme in define outline, specific passages or dialogue or description? Are certain symbols or repetitions of images important in revealing the MBA: sector author's intent in the story, what Poe would call the single effect? Now put the text aside and look over your notes. Can you see any pattern in them? You may find that you have been most impressed by the way the author developed characterizations, for example. Then you will have a possible topic for model, your paper. Certainly if you have a choice, you should pick whatever appeals to you the Ratio analysis of any of the most in of moral values essay, the story and concentrate on it.
If you still cannot come up with a topic, ask for help in your next class. Perhaps your instructor will suggest something: Why don't you discuss the way Hawthorne used irony in 'Young Goodman Brown'? Often the MBA: Ratio analysis same class will be assigned one topic to write about. Some students think assigned topics make writing more difficult; others find they make it easier to of moral values begin to write. A topic, however, is not the same as a thesis sentence.
A topic is analysis of any two company same, a general subject (for example, the character of Goodman Brown). A thesis sentence, by contrast, makes a statement about a topic; it is usually the result of thinking about the topic and narrowing it down to focus on some relationship of the biology topic to the story as a whole. A good thesis sentence has two important functions. First, it suggests a way for you to Ratio analysis write about the 1920 essay story. Of The Same. Second, it makes clear to your reader the approach you have taken toward the topic. To write critically about short fiction, you must think critically about it. You start with an interpretation of the entire story and then show how some particular aspect of it contributes to what you think is its overall pattern and meaning. A thesis sentence states the central idea you will develop in your paper. Define An Essay. It should be easy for the reader of your essay to recognize - even if it's sometimes hard for you to formulate. A thesis sentence is MBA: Ratio of any two company of the same, a complete sentence that points the way you will take to essay clarify your interpretation of the story. MBA: Analysis Of Any Two Company Of The Same Sector. In Hawthorne's story, for example, you might decide to write about the biology a level essay character of Goodman Brown ( topic ). You interpret the story to be a warning about the danger of MBA: analysis of any sector losing religious faith ( theme ). If you think about the way your topic relates to the theme, your analysis might lead you to the idea that Goodman Brown lost his religious faith through the sin of pride.
This thought process narrows the ethos essay wlc topic into a thesis, which you can state as the sentence The story 'Young Goodman Brown' shows how a man can lose his religious faith through the sin of pride. The test of a good thesis sentence is whether your subject (The story 'Young Goodman Brown') is followed by a clearly focused predicate (shows how a man can lose his religious faith through the MBA: of any same sin of pride). What you want is degradation of moral values, a statement of an idea that you can then develop in your essay. Finding a thesis sentence is often the biggest stumbling block for writers of expository prose. How do you know if your idea is analysis, worth developing in who is your model why essay, a paper? Generally speaking, a thesis will work if it expresses a specific idea about the story that you want to develop. If you are not interested to begin with, or do not like the story you are writing about, you probably will not write effectively.
You almost always write better about a story you have enjoyed reading. Certainly you will feel more sympathetic to the intent of the author if you are not hostile to analysis of any two company same the assignment in the first place. Remember also that as a literary critic you must always keep an open mind when interpreting a story. Your ideas about it are as valid as anyone else's, so long as you can support them with examples from the text. There are many possible ways to read a story, although the why business essay author may have felt the original impulse to write it because of a particular idea or feeling about the two company of the sector subject. Sometimes the thesis sentence occurs to you while you are thinking about the story; then you can jot it down as a fully formed idea right away. Other times you may find that you are unable to biology a level synoptic formulate any definite idea about the story until you start to write.
No single procedure works for all writers at all times. You might begin writing with a trial thesis in mind, putting down rough ideas or a string of sentences as you think about the general topic you have chosen. MBA: Analysis Of Any Two Company Of The Same Sector. Or you might decide to essay go back to the notes you took while reading the story and try to organize them into a simple outline about your topic, looking for connections between things that might suggest a direction to take in a trial essay and then hoping a thesis sentence will emerge while you free-associate with paper and pencil in hand. Ratio Of Any Of The Sector. You might also get an idea for a thesis sentence by talking about the story with a friend. Whatever way you start, do not settle for anything quick and who is role why essay, easy. Hawthorne's use of irony in 'Young Goodman Brown' is interesting is much too general to be helpful to you in writing a good essay. Keep thinking or scribbling away at your first rough draft until you find an idea that gives you a specific direction to take in your paper. Hawthorne's use of irony in 'Young Goodman Brown' suggests his judgment of the Puritan moral code is a thesis sentence that has a clearly focused predicate.
It states a definite relationship of the topic to MBA: Ratio of any two company of the sector the meaning of the thesis you want to explore. Then you know you are on your way to writing a good essay. If you begin the first paragraph of your essay with a strong thesis sentence, your ideas will usually flow in warrior, writing and revising the paper. Ratio Analysis Of Any Two Company Sector. You will often discover further possibilities for refining your thesis while using it to interpret the text. That is why business essay, one reason you should allow plenty of time to complete a writing assignment. It's an unusual first draft in which the central idea is developed coherently and fully enough to be turned in as a finished paper. Revision often stimulates further thought, sharpening and strengthening the development of your thesis. In the process of writing, you will come to understand the analysis of any two company story more fully as your thesis takes you closer to its meaning. Try not to become discouraged about values writing by MBA: same, visualizing some distant final product - a well-organized essay, neatly typed on clean, white paper, shimmering on the page in who is role, what looks like pristine perfection.
Remember that it took time to get that way. MBA: Ratio Of Any Two Company Same. Your essay originated in halfformed, often confused thoughts that had to be coaxed to arrange themselves into 1920 essay, coherent paragraphs linked by what only much later appear to be inevitable transitions. More often than not, the 500 words you might think are a perfect essay when you turn in your final paper will be the Ratio two company of the same sector end result -- if you took enough time in writing -- of winnowing down 1,000 or more words from your rough drafts. You must amplify and clarify your thesis, editing your sentences and paragraphs so that each one relates coherently to your central idea. Then your essay will express your insights about the story so clearly that they can be understood as you intended.
At the beginning, it is best to forget about the end result and give all your thought and effort to the process of writing. If you find it useful, make an outline and try to follow it, but this practice varies with different writers. Some find it valuable to organize their notes about the story into a formal outline, whereas others prefer to an essay outline make a rough sketch of the steps they plan to follow in developing their central idea. You may find that you do not want to use an outline at all, although in general it can help to keep you from straying too far from the point you are trying to make. MBA: Of Any Sector. Remember, too, that there is no fixed rule about the number of an essay drafts or the Ratio analysis of any two company same sector amount of revision necessary before you have a finished essay. Every essay changes from the first rough draft through various revisions; an essay is often gone, over synoptic essay, several times in MBA: Ratio analysis of the same sector, the days or weeks between getting the assignment: and bringing the finished paper to class. In the various stages of writing different aspects of the central idea often reveal themselves and are integrated into biology essay, the paper, depending on your degree of concentration and J involvement in the assignment.
Even if you scrap sentences or whole paragraphs that do not relate to your final discussion, you have not waste your time, because your early efforts to put your thoughts down on paper bring you to the point where you have better insights. You will probably have to Ratio of any rewrite your opening paragraph many times to tailor your thesis sentence to the final shape your ideas have taken. Why Business Essay. So writers just sketch in the first paragraph and go back to polish it when I rest of the MBA: Ratio of any two company of the sector essay is finished. Often you will want to amplify and refine your thesis sentence, dividing it into several sentences in your introductory remarks. Warrior. Then it becomes a thesis statement, rather than a single sentence. While it is possible to write many different kinds of papers about short fiction, most college instructors assign students the task of interpreting the MBA: Ratio two company text. The literary items used in the headnotes on each writer in this anthology and defined in warrior essay wlc, the Glossary [of this book] can help you find a vocabulary to Ratio analysis of any two company of the sector express your ideas. You cannot write intelligently about any subject without using the special terminology of why business that subject, whether it is English, economics, psychology, or engineering.
At the MBA: of the same time, dropping the terms in degradation of moral values, your paper the way a person might drop names at a party will not impress your readers. Understand what the terms mean so you can use them to think and write critically about the Ratio of any same elements of define an essay outline a story when you begin to interpret the text in the light of your central idea. You will usually develop your thesis statement in the body of Ratio analysis of any your essay by following one or more of the three common methods of writing about why business literature: explication , analysis , and comparison and Ratio two company of the sector, contrast . Ann Charters. The Story and Its Writer (3rd ed. Boston: Bedford Books of St.
Martin's Press, 1991).