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ben stein cbs essay There's this e-mail that makes the rounds now and essay help in toronto, then. It's always reported as being written by Ben Stein, though actually only the first part of it is (the bit about Christmas trees). You should be able to get the basic idea of higher modern studies voting behaviour essay what the e-mail says because the text of the help in toronto, entire e-mail is embedded in between my responses, but if you're interested in the original article itself and the validity thereof, you might want to read these things first: Anyway, my mother forwarded this to me (as it was forwarded to her) and she said, Love to hear your response to this. And respond I did. After writing it, I decided some of the points I made were things I wanted to respect assignment, say on my site, so here they are. The e-mail text is in the Courier font. Enjoy! The following was written by essay help Ben Stein and recited by him on CBS Sunday Morning Commentary.

I am a Jew, and every single one of nature my ancestors was Jewish. And it does not bother me even a little bit when people call those beautiful lit up, bejeweled trees Christmas trees. I don't feel threatened. I don't feel discriminated against. That's what they are: Christmas trees. Very true. Christmas trees are Christmas trees.

Well, considering many people decorate them because they're carrying on a tradition they don't even realize was invented to celebrate Pagan traditions, this is essay help, a bit ironic, but I don't have any problem with someone decorating a tree in celebration of essay question Christmas if they think it helps their holiday seem merrier. I do have to wonder what they think a decorated tree has to do with Jesus, though. Ancient Pagans revered a tree that could stay green in winter as a symbol of the Green Man's birth and a promise of spring. If a Christian has any insight as to why they celebrate Christmas on essay, December 25th even though the art essay, Bible makes it obvious that the birth couldn't have happened in the dead of winter, I'd love to hear it. But considering it's always been common knowledge (among those who actually pay attention to the past, that is) that early Christians deliberately appropriated the time frames and celebration styles of the cultures they were trying to help in toronto, indoctrinate as it made conversion easier, I think I already have my answer as to writting, what Christmas trees symbolize. . . . In Toronto! It doesn't bother me a bit when people say, Merry Christmas to me. I don't think they are slighting me or getting ready to put me in a ghetto. In fact, I kind of like it.

It shows that we are all brothers and sisters celebrating this happy time of of moral values year. It doesn't bother me at all that there is a manger scene on display at a key intersection near my beach house in Malibu . In Toronto! If people want a creche, it's just as fine with me as is the Menorah a few hundred yards away. It doesn't really bother me to get wished a Merry Christmas, but acting as though everyone really celebrates it even if they don't believe in God is the essay question to discuss, attitude I don't appreciate. We're NOT all brothers and sisters celebrating this happy time of year any more than we're all brothers and sisters celebrating this happy time of essay help in toronto year when the higher studies voting, kids get out of school and essay in toronto, talk about summer vacation as if everyone gets to go on leave just because they are. I don't know about you, but I have to work even if it's summer, so summer vacation doesn't apply to me and I wouldn't want people to respect assignment, assume I'm celebrating it. Essay In Toronto! I don't like getting pushed around for being a Jew, and I don't think Christians like getting pushed around for being Christians.

I think people who believe in God are sick and tired of getting pushed around, period. Writting A College Essay! I have no idea where the concept came from that America is an explicitly atheist country. I can't find it in the Constitution and I don't like it being shoved down my throat. Help! Nobody likes getting pushed around for anything they hold dear. Writting A College! That's universal.

It's not just the people who believe in God. Essay! And I've got news for anyone who thinks everyone's pushing people who believe in God around: More than 98% of the degradation values essay, people in the world believe in some form of supreme spiritual being, and the remaining maybe one and a half percent are NOT bossing around the rest of essay help you in a dictatorship. They're just not. People who believe in writting a college God are in essay in toronto power. Known atheists are significantly less likely to get elected for public office than even homosexuals, and essay question to discuss, we all know how much the Religious Right hates THEM. If not being a theist basically means everyone thinks you don't have the moral integrity or the proper values to lead, that means you don't get to whine that you're getting pushed around for believing in God.

You should NOT be offended that your faith gets attacked when it steps in places it was never meant to step. Many people who believe in God still don't believe other people should be forced or encouraged by government or society to essay help in toronto, believe in their religions. Nobody claims America is an explicitly atheist country. Higher Modern! In fact, many places in America are the help, most religious on higher voting behaviour essay, Earth--Europe is in toronto, a lot more atheist than we are. Essay! The Constitution doesn't say we should not believe in God. It just says that we should never establish an official religion or use the government's power to enforce adherance to any religious creed whatsoever. Or maybe I can put it another way: where did the help, idea come from that we should worship Nick and Jessica and we aren't allowed to worship God as we understand Him?

I guess that's a sign that I'm getting old, too. But there are a lot of us who are wondering where Nick and Jessica came from and where the America we knew went to. . . . Is someone saying somewhere that worship should be transferred to essay, celebrities and now thou shalt not worship God how you want? Yes, where DID this idea come from? From this e-mail. Because nobody is saying that. In light of the many jokes we send to one another for a laugh, this is a little different: This is not intended to be a joke; it's not funny, it's intended to get you thinking. Help In Toronto! Billy Graham's daughter was interviewed on the Early Show and Jane Clayson asked her How could God let something like this happen? (regarding Katrina) Anne Graham gave an essay extremely profound and help, insightful response. Of Moral! She said, I believe God is deeply saddened by this, just as we are, but for years we've been telling God to get out of our schools, to get out of our government and to get out of our lives. And being the essay help in toronto, gentleman He is, I believe He has calmly backed out. How can we expect God to give us His blessing and nature thoreau, His protection if we demand He leave us alone? Ahh yes.

Katrina (or 9/11, or Turkish earthquakes, or fires in California) happened because of what humans did to God. Wow. This has to help, be one of the most stunningly ignorant and ARROGANT statements I've ever heard. Chinese! First off, Billy Graham's daughter is essay in toronto, speaking for higher modern studies voting behaviour God, and essay help, right there that's the picture of arrogance. She's claiming that because some people did some things that won't let her religion get its grubby little fingers into the nooks and crannies that the chinese, Constitution decrees it shouldn't, God reared back and said Fine then. Have a natural disaster and see how you like it! (But I'll make sure to essay, aim it at a place where no direct correlation can be drawn, so people like Billy Graham can claim it's because of homos or abortion being tolerated there.) I don't know if people who say this kind of thing are really just this short-sighted, but guess what? Natural disasters have ALWAYS happened. And they are just that: Natural. Forest fires and hurricanes and floods and earthquakes exist because they are part of ancient art essay how nature renews itself.

They are side effects of a planet with weather systems and a plate tectonics mechanism, and essay help, that's a fact. THEY HAPPENED LONG BEFORE HUMANS GOT HERE. Can they seriously believe that putting the smackdown on display of the Ten Commandments or something like that could CAUSE natural disasters? What's really ironic about this is that probably almost all of respect them have shrugged and said that's absurd! when presented with the idea that some American Indians believe in rain dances. But secondly, the in toronto, bit about being the thoreau, gentleman He is, I believe He has calmly backed out . . . I hardly even know how to start. Maybe I shouldn't, and should just say . . . if you think God's way as described in the Judeo-Christian tradition is to calmly back out when denied or ignored because of being such a gentleman, then . . . Essay! you should READ A BIBLE.

Because you obviously HAVEN'T. The God of Abraham is only the most jealous, obsessive, foul-tempered, bad-mannered deity in all of Western literature. When he says don't look back and you look back, you get turned into a pillar of degradation of moral values salt. And on a grander scale, if God gets sick of the help in toronto, way everyone's acting, He tends to do things like, oh, flood the whole world and drown everyone. God of the Bible is extremely intolerant, especially of anything that involves belief in and respect of HIM. Higher Modern Studies Behaviour! Not to mention that if He backed out, does that mean the in toronto, hurricane or terrorist attack or earthquake happened by itself because His presence disappeared? Or does it mean He sent it in retaliation for of moral essay our actions? (That last sounds more like Him, as per the Bible.) Regardless of whether it's Him standing by and doing nothing in the wake of a disaster or whether He sent them purposely, is this gentlemanly behavior, Anne? The statement Billy Graham's daughter made was hardly profound and insightful.

It was just a demonstration of essay help ignorance and arrogance . . . and furthermore, sadly, it is nature essay thoreau, all too prevalent an attitude among those who think themselves the true followers of God's real message. In light of recent events. Essay Help! terrorists attack, school shootings, etc. I think it started when Madeleine Murray O'Hare (she was murdered, her body found recently) complained she didn't want prayer in our schools, and degradation of moral values, we said OK. Wait, things started going wrong recently? You found a starting point of humans-ignoring-God-related disasters? This is getting silly! Maybe this is a joke e-mail after all. In Toronto! School is a college essay, a government-run institution. If you want to have a moment of silence for some reason, dandy. Essay Help! But you can't announce that it's prayer time and definitely can't dictate a correct prayer to the students because doing so is directly in opposition to nature thoreau, the Constitution's tenets.

And yes, leading students in essay help prayer or suggesting anything that they should be praying about in a school setting DOES indicate that this is the school's position on such things. If your family was Christian and you were taught Christianity all your life but then you just happened to thoreau, be the minority in some area, I would think you would be grateful for any rule that says your children wouldn't be subjected to the majority religion in a place they are required by law to go every day. Then someone said you better not read the in toronto, Bible in school The Bible says thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not steal, and love your neighbor as yourself. And we said OK. Actually if you take certain parts of the Bible as literature they are interesting parables, and it's true that no understanding of Western literature is complete without at a college essay least a basic understanding of the Old and New Testaments' contribution to the body of literature. In fact, I read the story of Job in high school as required reading, and I didn't think there was anything wrong with that assignment. Reading the Bible is help, not outlawed in essay question school. Essay Help! Teaching it as if it should be regarded as the eternal, inerrant Word of God is another matter. And the Bible says a hell of ancient chinese a lot more than thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not steal, and help in toronto, love your neighbor as yourself.

The Bible does NOT have the nature essay thoreau, monopoly on morality, and the Bible is essay, not the only place you can find it. People learn everyday courtesy, morals, and important social concepts in nature thoreau school all the time without any help from religion, and nobody thinks it's wrong to teach don't kill, don't steal, and essay in toronto, love your neighbor. It's just that the a college, document that's been repeatedly posted and removed in essay help in toronto classrooms worldwide is a RELIGIOUS DOCTRINE. So most people who want this doctrine posted in ancient schools hop up and down screaming there's nothing wrong with the Ten Commandments! Even if they came from a religious source they're still a good idea! Our children need moral guidance! But do they even KNOW what the commandments are? I think there are only four of them that are obviously good ideas in all situations, and then there are two more that are probably good ideas in in toronto most situations. Then there are four that are specifically religious and nature essay, outside the context of the religion they are irrelevant. Yes, it's a good idea to essay, not murder, not steal, not lie, and not commit adultery. And yes, it's usually a good idea to honor your father and mother (though what exactly does that mean, and values essay, what if your dad tells you you should do something that this list says thou shalt not??), and it's usually a good idea to not covet (though again what exactly that means is a little hairy--are they saying you shouldn't be jealous--a feeling you really can't help, since it's in the human nature supposedly created by this God--or are they just saying you shouldn't try to get it for your own?

That's already covered in stealing, I thought). But then, thou shalt have no other gods before me, thou shalt not make idols (or graven images), thou shalt remember the Sabbath, and thou shalt not take the lord's name in vain . . . these are RELIGIOUS. EXPLICITLY SO. Help In Toronto! They are not just good ideas. They are specific religious practices. And if a school or other government-funded institution posts these things, this is the same as declaring a position, which is unconstitutional. It is essay thoreau, illegal to not pay your taxes. I think it's only fair that it be illegal to use the tax money to support actions that break the essay help, same laws that say I have to pay the nature, taxes.

It's a double standard, and it's wrong and stupid. Not to essay, mention I somehow doubt that it's because the Ten Commandments weren't on the wall of the question to discuss, classroom that some kids got disgusted and essay, started a school shooting. Saying that's the case is misdirection of the worst kind. Essay! How many psychotic people have murdered others specifically in the name of God? A lot. What they had in essay help in toronto common was being psychotic.

And considering the Old Testament depicts one of modern studies its heroes being willing to sacrifice his son to God because he heard a voice in his head saying God wanted him to in toronto, kill his kid as a show of faith, I don't think the Bible is necessarily a good document to assignment, help people figure out where their morals should lie. A modern dad who did that would totally get put away. Think he shouldn't? Maybe we should read that ol' Bible a little more to get our morals on straight. Then Dr.

Benjamin Spock said we shouldn't spank our children when they misbehave because their little personalities would be warped and we might damage their self-esteem (Dr. Spock's son committed suicide). We said an expert should know what he's talking about. And we said OK. This is kind of non sequitur. Child rearing is different for everyone and there are experts on both sides for and against spanking. Is this e-mail trying to help in toronto, tell me that if we teach children that all their transgressions will be answered with violence, they will grow into less violent people? I think it's important that there be CONSEQUENCES and that children recognize that their actions have effects.

If there is an understanding, a connection, between a mistake and its consequences, children learn. Maybe some don't learn as well if the consequence isn't physically painful. Higher Studies Essay! I don't know, but like I said, this doesn't really have much to help, do with anything. (Oh yeah, and Dr. Essay Question! Spock doesn't have a son who committed suicide, either. What a rotten thing to make up and spin so it looks like Spock's advice hurts children so badly that they kill themselves. Smooth. One of his grandsons, who was schizophrenic, did commit suicide, but it'd be disgusting to assume that a mentally ill young man must have killed himself because his grandfather didn't know what he was doing when it came to essay in toronto, child-rearing. It's horrifying that someone would take a family's personal tragedy and try to respect, make it an essay help advertisement for the truth of a unrelated religious agenda!) Now we're asking ourselves why our children have no conscience, why they don't know right from wrong, and why it doesn't bother them to kill strangers, their classmates, and themselves.

Except that people have been shaking their heads at the state of the world and chinese, whining about kids today since antiquity. It is no worse today than it was. It's just DIFFERENT, which makes some people think it's worse. I guarantee you, if you went back in time a few hundred years, say to the time of slavery, and saw that white masters were allowed to torture or kill their slaves just because they were thought sub-human due to their skin color, you would shake your head and say OH, what has happened to the state of the essay help in toronto, world? This is essay, upside-down! How can people be so cruel? We would never act like this in my time! That's just how it was then, and help, it was horrible, and now the horrible things in our world regarding how we treat each other just happen to be different. Writting Essay! We're not really going in help in toronto a downward spiral. Higher Studies Voting! Some things are worse than they were, and some are better.

Believe it or not, documents like the Ten Commandments were written in help in toronto the times of the early Jews thousands of years ago specifically BECAUSE morals have always been a struggle for the human species. Respect Assignment! Making a generalization that children today have no conscience and kill people and help in toronto, claiming it has something to do with a lack of God in their lives is obscenely ignorant. During the Crusades Christian soldiers killed strangers for question God plenty of times, and during the in toronto, Inquisition witch-hunters tortured people in the name of nature what God wanted (by their understanding of Him--and I guarantee you, it was Bible-based). Probably, if we think about it long and hard enough, we can figure it out. Essay In Toronto! I think it has a great deal to do with WE REAP WHAT WE SOW. Funny how simple it is for people to trash God and values essay, then wonder why the help, world's going to ancient chinese, hell. Funny how we believe what the newspapers say, but question what the Bible says. Considering believing in God, being religious, or even attending church has NO correlation with being a good person, I'd say this is essay, misleading. Ancient Chinese Art Essay! It is not God that keeps people on the straight and essay, narrow--and it never was.

If anyone honestly thinks that declaring martial law and force-feeding everyone a Judeo-Christian, Bible-based education would make the world a better place, they are completely nuts. They tried that in seventeenth-century England. Writting A College Essay! Guess what happened? The United States of America happened. People ran away from that kind of brutality, that kind of enforced adherence to help, a specific moral philosophy as seen by the ruling party, and essay question to discuss, they started their own place where people would be free to think what they wanted about God and everything else. This society WAS founded on freedom--NOT on God. This country's founders, the people who wrote the help in toronto, Constitution, were Deists, and writting a college, many of them weren't even Christian in the real sense of the word. When they wrote in essay in toronto our founding document that there should be no officially recognized state religion, they spelled out that they meant freedom of religion--and freedom FROM it, if desired. Essay Thoreau! They did NOT mean This great new country is going to essay help, be a place where people can worship Our Idea of God any way they want based on essay, Judeo-Christian values. Essay! If you're going to moan about where the respect essay, America we used to know went to, try taking a look at what it's become compared with what it was meant to be. Help In Toronto! Our country's motto is now In God We Trust, and idiots who seek to pull the wool over ancient chinese art essay, our eyes act as though it's always been that way.

Nope. It became our motto in essay in toronto 1956. Essay! It used to be E Pluribus Unum. Out of many, one. Essay Help! And that was the intention of the people who WROTE the founding documents. (In 1782, incidentally. It has a bit more history than In God We Trust. Especially since it's Latin.) We ended up with a motto that doesn't represent all of a college us because the people in power believe this way. How dare you claim YOU'RE the ignored, the shunned, the stepped-upon when it's your bigotry and small-mindedness that's causing a lot of the essay help, problems we have . . . and now you're blaming the problems on people's failure to further accept your hijacked platform! Those of us who don't believe in God the way you do--or don't believe in God at higher modern voting behaviour essay all--generally practice religious tolerance. We have to do so in order to avoid committing immoral acts like killing, lying, and stealing--we have to tolerate you because it is your right to help, practice something even if it's dumb, and we aren't planning on killing you, lying about you, or stealing your country to deny you that pleasure.

Unfortunately you're trying to do that to us, and you have always done so because those are the kinds of morals you find in those Bibles of ancient yours. You complain that we take them out help, of the schools and thoreau, that's why people don't know what's in them, but DO YOU? Do you know in help what situations God recommends that you kill your enemies? Do you know that God commands His followers to do so countless times in those stories? Do you even realize that that's what you're essentially doing? You're trying to bury us as if it's a sad state of affairs that your religion isn't in charge of what people do and think. What's a sad state of affairs is when people think it needs to writting a college essay, be.

Morals are perfectly capable of being taught and passed down outside of a religious context. In Toronto! Do you refrain from robbing banks simply because you know the police will probably catch you and throw you in jail? Or do you refrain because you know that money isn't yours and it's wrong to degradation values, do it? I vote for the latter. And I for one have never needed the looming figure of an essay in toronto angry God in my head threatening me with hellfire in order to higher studies essay, behave like a decent human being.

I behave decently because my mother taught me to respect other people and do things to and for them only to essay help in toronto, increase their happiness, if possible. Studies! (Or at least don't hurt them.) I never heard her say one word about how if I behaved badly I would get punished by essay help in toronto God, nor did she tell me I should depend for my sense of what is ancient art essay, right and help in toronto, wrong on a book. I have a conscience because I am human and I had good morals socially reinforced in my mind before it was fully formed by a GOOD UPBRINGING, not because I follow any particular God. Funny how you can send 'jokes' through e-mail and they spread like wildfire but when you start sending messages regarding the Lord, people think twice about sharing. Funny how lewd, crude, vulgar and degradation values, obscene articles pass freely through cyberspace, but public discussion of help in toronto God is suppressed in the school and workplace. Are you laughing? Funny how when you forward this message, you will not send it to many on your address list because you're not sure what they believe, or what they will think of degradation you for sending it. I wouldn't send this to anyone on in toronto, MY address list because it's a bunch of preachy, hypocritical bullshit. Funny how we can be more worried about what other people think of us than what God thinks of degradation of moral us. Or what some arrogant son-of-a-bitch is trying to essay help in toronto, tell me God thinks of me because of my unwillingness to follow a revealed text written by men thousands of years ago.

The men who wrote the books of the Bible probably didn't know what was good for my soul any more than the doctors of that time knew what was good for my body. Speaking for God like this just takes the cake. Writting A College! Pass it on in toronto, if you think it has merit. If not then just discard it. no one will know you did. But, if you discard this thought process, don't sit back and question to discuss, complain about what bad shape the world is help in toronto, in.

Yeah, I guess if I don't pass on this drivel, it means I lose my rights to complain. That makes a whole lot of higher modern behaviour sense. The whole thing was written with this smarmy tone as if obvious truths were being conveyed here; as if everyone who reads it would necessarily agree with the idea that rejection of the Bible (and the help in toronto, God described in it) is the cause of all these problems we have in the world. Truthfully? I found it pompous, pretentious, presumptuous, and not at all profound. It's obvious the author of this piece thinks this is really laid out clear here and that all who read it will see where the real blame lies. Nature Essay! *I* think the real blame lies in trying to help, blame everyone else for not seeing the light by your definition. The light is all of a college us being allowed to create our own, and being free to live by it as long as it doesn't snuff anyone else's out. If you don't like light, just put out your eyes. Help! Don't put out the sun. Some of us like it where it is.

My Best Regards, Honestly and respectfully, MY Best Regards, Honestly not respecting you very much right now, May the Force be with you. Any comments left here are PUBLIC. Writting Essay! If you are not comfortable with that, mail me directly. Comments from others: Toon Review: I read this whole thing out loud. (Yet to myself, which is weird.) I honestly agree with everything that you've said. I know that sounds like a lot of butt kissing, but trust me. I'm not exaggerating. Help! First of all, I doubt this was written by respect Ben Stein, so says my gut instinct. Second, you've raised many interesting and educational points, so much so that I think this should be a big long four-part youtube video. (If it isn't already.) And, I kid you not, I had the EXACT same thought some time ago when you were talking about Abraham killing his son as a sign of faith, and how if someone were to do that today, (In the name of essay in toronto God,) well, I don't think very many people will believe him. I used the same ideology to wonder. For instance, there are a lot of modern Christians I know (I'm not one of help in toronto them) who say they are waiting for a college essay the Messiah to come back, for Jesus to return.

Uh huh. And if someone TODAY were to essay help in toronto, show up and claim he was the son of God, everyone would think he's a maniac. I could say more on the matter, but I don't want to fill up too much space. :P. Thank you for a very interesting read! Keep it up. And may the Force be with you as well. Bunks: That's a very well-written piece. I was impressed with some of the essay question, info you provided (most notably how religious unrest in England led to the founding of America).

Ben Stein makes me sad. Essay In Toronto! Ever since that movie came out, every time I see him, I just shake my head sadly. Essay Thoreau! I used to like him a lot; he's a smart guy very funny. But this kind of in toronto thing destroys all credibility. Synesthesia: Ben Stein kind of annoys me.

Mainly because of his video about evolution I should see one day. It's just that creationism or intelligent design shouldn't be taught in essay assignment schools as science because it's just not real science, but theology! Anyway, the essay in toronto, person who wrote that part about Spock's son was wrong. His son didn't commit suicide. Suicide has little to do with not getting spanked. I wish these people would realise that you can raise well adjusted kids without inflicting pain on them. Essay Assignment! That to say that when spanking was mainstream every single child in the whole country was good, patriotic and pure is just plain false. It's like they don't want to look at essay the whole picture but they just want to believe that the 50s was such a perfect time and only recently now that there's Happy Holidays instead of Merry Christmas, and to discuss, since there's not enough paddling in essay help in toronto schools only nature essay NOW has the country suddenly turn evil. What are these folks smoking? Joe: I'm a Catholic, so I respectfully disagree with the majority of this essay: although I disagree with Stein as well. odd. I consider your points very well put together and I can definitely see where you're coming from; this is one of the best religious essays I've read.

The problem is that you don't have all the facts in some of help your cases. Degradation Essay! For example: And considering the Old Testament depicts one of its heroes being willing to sacrifice his son to God because he heard a voice in his head saying God wanted him to kill his kid as a show of faith, I don't think the Bible is necessarily a good document to help people figure out help, where their morals should lie. A modern dad who did that would totally get put away. Higher Studies Behaviour Essay! Think he shouldn't? Maybe we should read that ol' Bible a little more to get our morals on straight. Well, here's the thing. You didn't quite finish the story. Abraham did not kill his son. The voice in his head also happened to help in toronto, tell him not to: that it was just, as you noted, to show his faith and commitment. I'm not trying to start a debate (unless you're interested, in which case I'm game), I just figured it might be worth pointing out. Essay Question To Discuss! Bree: when watching your asexuality video, i found one about an atheist who refused to in toronto, participate in prayer during sports because she felt it was disrespectfull to them.

Because of that, she was excluded and essay question, harrased by teachers and students. Essay Help! When interviewed, a person who lived there didnt even know what atheists beleived! (a basic understanding of word stems could have could have clued them in. ) Wolfgang: Great essay. Small nitpick: when you say They tried that in essay seventeenth century England. Guess what happened? The United States of essay help in toronto America Your history is just a bit off there. People who wanted to persecute based on their religions in England, but the Anglicans were already doing that, so they reached a compromise, because England had a lot of land in the New World on their hands.

The crown gave people colonies for a diverse number of a college reasons, but most with total religous freedom only had it incidentally. Essay In Toronto! Then there was this thing called the French-Indian War, the aftermath of which the Crown handled poorly, which ended up creating lots of new taxes. Ancient Chinese! Like the help, people in current U.S. Degradation Of Moral Values Essay! territories, the Crown Colonies were taxed without their representation, which gave the Brittish Colonists something to unite against. A lot of the scholars of the day were Deists, and scholarly, charismatic men took to leading this Revolution. Essay In Toronto! Realizing that the country they were planning to chinese art essay, create was filled with bottom-of-the-barrel religions that England was quick to essay help in toronto, toss out for essay assignment being too conservative (Puritans) or too liberal (Quakers), they decided that the Union as a whole shouldn't have a religion. Since their original post-Revolutionary Union, what with it's Articles of essay Confederacy that pretty much said Do what you want, States, but pretty please help us be a Union., didn't work out so well (see: Shays' Rebellion) they made a new Constitution in essay question to discuss Order to create a more perfect Union. When they added the in toronto, Bill of rights, the same charismatic scholars who led the Revolution decided Okay, let's build a wall of seperation between Church and state, because that was a popular idea at the time. And that's how America was made! Wow. for a historical nitpick, that was pretty long. Anyway, my point was that we should stop pretending stuff isn't complicated. Essay To Discuss! Michael W. Gephart: It is not necessarily anti-Christian to call a Christmas Tree a Holiday tree.

Many people leave their tree up until after New Years. Since they use it to celebrate two holidays, it can rightfully be called a Holiday tree. Merry Xmas, non-believers!

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My Life as an Undocumented Immigrant. By JOSE ANTONIO VARGAS JUNE 22, 2011. One August morning nearly two decades ago, my mother woke me and put me in essay in toronto a cab. She handed me a jacket. “ Baka malamig doon ” were among the few words she said. (“It might be cold there.”) When I arrived at the Philippines’ Ninoy Aquino International Airport with her, my aunt and a family friend, I was introduced to a man I’d never seen. Ancient. They told me he was my uncle. He held my hand as I boarded an airplane for the first time. It was 1993, and I was 12. My mother wanted to essay help, give me a better life, so she sent me thousands of writting, miles away to live with her parents in America — my grandfather ( Lolo in Tagalog) and grandmother ( Lola ). Essay Help In Toronto. After I arrived in Mountain View, Calif., in the San Francisco Bay Area, I entered sixth grade and quickly grew to love my new home, family and culture. I discovered a passion for language, though it was hard to learn the of moral, difference between formal English and American slang.

One of help, my early memories is respect of a freckled kid in middle school asking me, “What’s up?” I replied, “The sky,” and help in toronto he and a couple of to discuss, other kids laughed. Help In Toronto. I won the eighth-grade spelling bee by memorizing words I couldn’t properly pronounce. (The winning word was “indefatigable.”) One day when I was 16, I rode my bike to of moral values essay, the nearby D.M.V. office to get my driver’s permit. Some of essay help, my friends already had their licenses, so I figured it was time. But when I handed the voting, clerk my green card as proof of U.S. Essay Help. residency, she flipped it around, examining it. “This is essay fake,” she whispered. “Don’t come back here again.”

Confused and essay help in toronto scared, I pedaled home and of moral values essay confronted Lolo. I remember him sitting in the garage, cutting coupons. I dropped my bike and ran over to him, showing him the help, green card. “ Peke ba ito ?” I asked in Tagalog. (“Is this fake?”) My grandparents were naturalized American citizens — he worked as a security guard, she as a food server — and they had begun supporting my mother and values essay me financially when I was 3, after my father’s wandering eye and inability to properly provide for us led to essay in toronto, my parents’ separation. Lolo was a proud man, and I saw the shame on his face as he told me he purchased the card, along with other fake documents, for me. “Don’t show it to ancient chinese, other people,” he warned. I decided then that I could never give anyone reason to doubt I was an American. I convinced myself that if I worked enough, if I achieved enough, I would be rewarded with citizenship. I felt I could earn it. I’ve tried. Over the past 14 years, I’ve graduated from high school and help college and built a career as a journalist, interviewing some of the most famous people in essay the country. On the surface, I’ve created a good life.

I’ve lived the American dream. But I am still an essay help, undocumented immigrant. And that means living a different kind of reality. It means going about my day in fear of being found out. It means rarely trusting people, even those closest to me, with who I really am. It means keeping my family photos in a shoebox rather than displaying them on ancient chinese shelves in my home, so friends don’t ask about essay help in toronto, them. It means reluctantly, even painfully, doing things I know are wrong and unlawful. And it has meant relying on a sort of 21st-century underground railroad of supporters, people who took an interest in studies essay my future and took risks for me.

Last year I read about in toronto, four students who walked from essay Miami to Washington to lobby for essay, the Dream Act, a nearly decade-old immigration bill that would provide a path to legal permanent residency for young people who have been educated in this country. At the risk of essay question to discuss, deportation — the Obama administration has deported almost 800,000 people in essay help in toronto the last two years — they are speaking out. Their courage has inspired me. There are believed to be 11 million undocumented immigrants in writting a college essay the United States. We’re not always who you think we are. Some pick your strawberries or care for your children. Help In Toronto. Some are in high school or college. Respect Assignment. And some, it turns out, write news articles you might read. I grew up here. This is my home.

Yet even though I think of myself as an essay in toronto, American and consider America my country, my country doesn’t think of studies behaviour, me as one of its own. My first challenge was the help in toronto, language. Though I learned English in higher behaviour essay the Philippines, I wanted to lose my accent. During high school, I spent hours at a time watching television (especially “Frasier,” “Home Improvement” and reruns of “The Golden Girls”) and movies (from “Goodfellas” to help, “Anne of Green Gables”), pausing the VHS to try to copy how various characters enunciated their words. At the local library, I read magazines, books and newspapers — anything to learn how to to discuss, write better. Kathy Dewar, my high-school English teacher, introduced me to journalism.

From the moment I wrote my first article for the student paper, I convinced myself that having my name in print — writing in essay help in toronto English, interviewing Americans — validated my presence here. The debates over “illegal aliens” intensified my anxieties. In 1994, only a year after my flight from the Philippines, Gov. Pete Wilson was re-elected in part because of his support for Proposition 187, which prohibited undocumented immigrants from attending public school and question to discuss accessing other services. (A federal court later found the essay help, law unconstitutional.) After my encounter at the D.M.V. in 1997, I grew more aware of anti-immigrant sentiments and stereotypes: they don’t want to essay, assimilate, they are a drain on society. They’re not talking about me, I would tell myself. I have something to essay in toronto, contribute. To do that, I had to work — and for that, I needed a Social Security number.

Fortunately, my grandfather had already managed to thoreau, get one for me. Lolo had always taken care of everyone in essay the family. He and my grandmother emigrated legally in 1984 from Zambales, a province in studies voting the Philippines of rice fields and bamboo houses­, following Lolo’s sister, who married a Filipino-American serving in essay help in toronto the American military. She petitioned for her brother and his wife to join her. When they got here, Lolo petitioned for his two children — my mother and her younger brother — to follow them. But instead of mentioning that my mother was a married woman, he listed her as single. Legal residents can’t petition for their married children.

Besides, Lolo didn’t care for my father. He didn’t want him coming here too. But soon Lolo grew nervous that the immigration authorities reviewing the petition would discover my mother was married, thus derailing not only nature essay thoreau her chances of coming here but those of my uncle as well. So he withdrew her petition. After my uncle came to America legally in 1991, Lolo tried to essay, get my mother here through a tourist visa, but she wasn’t able to obtain one. That’s when she decided to modern studies, send me.

My mother told me later that she figured she would follow me soon. She never did. The “uncle” who brought me here turned out to be a coyote, not a relative, my grandfather later explained. Lolo scraped together enough money — I eventually learned it was $4,500, a huge sum for him — to pay him to smuggle me here under a fake name and fake passport. (I never saw the passport again after the flight and have always assumed that the coyote kept it.) After I arrived in America, Lolo obtained a new fake Filipino passport, in my real name this time, adorned with a fake student visa, in addition to the fraudulent green card. Using the fake passport, we went to essay in toronto, the local Social Security Administration office and applied for a Social Security number and card. Higher Modern Studies Voting. It was, I remember, a quick visit. When the help in toronto, card came in writting the mail, it had my full, real name, but it also clearly stated: “Valid for work only with I.N.S. Essay. authorization.” When I began looking for ancient chinese, work, a short time after the D.M.V. incident, my grandfather and I took the essay help, Social Security card to modern, Kinko’s, where he covered the “I.N.S. authorization” text with a sliver of white tape. Essay Help. We then made photocopies of the card. At a glance, at least, the copies would look like copies of a regular, unrestricted Social Security card.

Lolo always imagined I would work the kind of low-paying jobs that undocumented people often take. (Once I married an of moral values essay, American, he said, I would get my real papers, and everything would be fine.) But even menial jobs require documents, so he and I hoped the doctored card would work for essay, now. Essay Thoreau. The more documents I had, he said, the better. While in high school, I worked part time at Subway, then at the front desk of the local Y.M.C.A., then at a tennis club, until I landed an unpaid internship at in toronto, The Mountain View Voice, my hometown newspaper. First I brought coffee and helped around the office; eventually I began covering city-hall meetings and other assignments for pay. For more than a decade of getting part-time and full-time jobs, employers have rarely asked to check my original Social Security card.

When they did, I showed the photocopied version, which they accepted. Over time, I also began checking the citizenship box on ancient my federal I-9 employment eligibility forms. (Claiming full citizenship was actually easier than declaring permanent resident “green card” status, which would have required me to provide an alien registration number.) This deceit never got easier. The more I did it, the essay help, more I felt like an writting essay, impostor, the essay in toronto, more guilt I carried — and the more I worried that I would get caught. But I kept doing it. I needed to live and survive on my own, and values essay I decided this was the way. Mountain View High School became my second home. I was elected to represent my school at school-board meetings, which gave me the chance to meet and befriend Rich Fischer, the superintendent for our school district. I joined the help, speech and debate team, acted in school plays and higher modern studies voting essay eventually became co-editor of The Oracle, the student newspaper.

That drew the essay in toronto, attention of my principal, Pat Hyland. “You’re at school just as much as I am,” she told me. Pat and Rich would soon become mentors, and over time, almost surrogate parents for me. After a choir rehearsal during my junior year, Jill Denny, the degradation of moral essay, choir director, told me she was considering a Japan trip for our singing group. In Toronto. I told her I couldn’t afford it, but she said we’d figure out a way. I hesitated, and higher modern studies behaviour then decided to essay help, tell her the essay question to discuss, truth. Help. “It’s not really the money,” I remember saying. “I don’t have the right passport.” When she assured me we’d get the proper documents, I finally told her. “I can’t get the right passport,” I said. “I’m not supposed to be here.”

She understood. So the choir toured Hawaii instead, with me in tow. (Mrs. Denny and I spoke a couple of months ago, and essay she told me she hadn’t wanted to in toronto, leave any student behind.) Later that school year, my history class watched a documentary on Harvey Milk, the openly gay San Francisco city official who was assassinated. This was 1999, just six months after Matthew Shepard’s body was found tied to art essay, a fence in Wyoming. During the discussion, I raised my hand and said something like: “I’m sorry Harvey Milk got killed for being gay. In Toronto. . . . Essay Thoreau. I’ve been meaning to say this. . . . I’m gay.” I hadn’t planned on essay coming out that morning, though I had known that I was gay for several years. With that announcement, I became the only openly gay student at school, and it caused turmoil with my grandparents. Higher Studies Behaviour Essay. Lolo kicked me out of the essay help, house for a few weeks. Though we eventually reconciled, I had disappointed him on two fronts. First, as a Catholic, he considered homosexuality a sin and was embarrassed about having “ ang apo na bakla ” (“a grandson who is gay”).

Even worse, I was making matters more difficult for myself, he said. I needed to marry an American woman in order to gain a green card. Tough as it was, coming out about being gay seemed less daunting than coming out about my legal status. I kept my other secret mostly hidden. While my classmates awaited their college acceptance letters, I hoped to question to discuss, get a full-time job at essay, The Mountain View Voice after graduation. Respect. It’s not that I didn’t want to go to college, but I couldn’t apply for essay help in toronto, state and federal financial aid. Without that, my family couldn’t afford to send me. But when I finally told Pat and Rich about writting a college essay, my immigration “problem” — as we called it from then on — they helped me look for a solution. At first, they even wondered if one of them could adopt me and fix the situation that way, but a lawyer Rich consulted told him it wouldn’t change my legal status because I was too old. Eventually they connected me to a new scholarship fund for high-potential students who were usually the essay, first in their families to attend college. Most important, the fund was not concerned with immigration status.

I was among the to discuss, first recipients, with the scholarship covering tuition, lodging, books and other expenses for in toronto, my studies at San Francisco State University. As a college freshman, I found a job working part time at The San Francisco Chronicle, where I sorted mail and wrote some freelance articles. My ambition was to question, get a reporting job, so I embarked on a series of internships. First I landed at The Philadelphia Daily News, in the summer of 2001, where I covered a drive-by shooting and the wedding of the 76ers star Allen Iverson. Using those articles, I applied to The Seattle Times and got an internship for essay in toronto, the following summer. But then my lack of proper documents became a problem again. The Times’s recruiter, Pat Foote, asked all incoming interns to bring certain paperwork on their first day: a birth certificate, or a passport, or a driver’s license plus an to discuss, original Social Security card. I panicked, thinking my documents wouldn’t pass muster. So before starting the essay help, job, I called Pat and told her about my legal status. Degradation Of Moral. After consulting with management, she called me back with the answer I feared: I couldn’t do the internship. This was devastating.

What good was college if I couldn’t then pursue the essay in toronto, career I wanted? I decided then that if I was to succeed in a profession that is a college all about truth-telling, I couldn’t tell the truth about myself. After this episode, Jim Strand, the essay help in toronto, venture capitalist who sponsored my scholarship, offered to pay for an immigration lawyer. Rich and I went to meet her in San Francisco’s financial district. An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. I was hopeful.

This was in early 2002, shortly after Senators Orrin Hatch, the Utah Republican, and essay Dick Durbin, the Illinois Democrat, introduced the essay in toronto, Dream Act — Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors. Ancient Chinese Art Essay. It seemed like the in toronto, legislative version of what I’d told myself: If I work hard and contribute, things will work out. But the a college, meeting left me crushed. My only essay help in toronto solution, the respect, lawyer said, was to go back to the Philippines and accept a 10-year ban before I could apply to return legally. If Rich was discouraged, he hid it well. Help In Toronto. “Put this problem on a shelf,” he told me. “Compartmentalize it. Keep going.” And I did. For the summer of 2003, I applied for degradation, internships across the in toronto, country. Several newspapers, including The Wall Street Journal, The Boston Globe and The Chicago Tribune, expressed interest.

But when The Washington Post offered me a spot, I knew where I would go. Essay Question. And this time, I had no intention of acknowledging my “problem.” The Post internship posed a tricky obstacle: It required a driver’s license. (After my close call at help in toronto, the California D.M.V., I’d never gotten one.) So I spent an afternoon at The Mountain View Public Library, studying various states’ requirements. Oregon was among the most welcoming — and higher essay it was just a few hours’ drive north. Again, my support network came through. A friend’s father lived in Portland, and he allowed me to use his address as proof of essay, residency. Pat, Rich and Rich’s longtime assistant, Mary Moore, sent letters to me at degradation values essay, that address.

Rich taught me how to do three-point turns in help in toronto a parking lot, and ancient art essay a friend accompanied me to Portland. The license meant everything to me — it would let me drive, fly and work. But my grandparents worried about the essay, Portland trip and the Washington internship. While Lola offered daily prayers so that I would not get caught, Lolo told me that I was dreaming too big, risking too much. I was determined to pursue my ambitions. Essay. I was 22, I told them, responsible for my own actions. But this was different from Lolo’s driving a confused teenager to Kinko’s.

I knew what I was doing now, and I knew it wasn’t right. Help. But what was I supposed to do? I was paying state and federal taxes, but I was using an invalid Social Security card and writing false information on my employment forms. Higher Behaviour Essay. But that seemed better than depending on my grandparents or on Pat, Rich and Jim — or returning to a country I barely remembered. I convinced myself all would be O.K. if I lived up to the qualities of a “citizen”: hard work, self-reliance, love of essay in toronto, my country. At the D.M.V. in Portland, I arrived with my photocopied Social Security card, my college I.D., a pay stub from The San Francisco Chronicle and my proof of state residence — the letters to the Portland address that my support network had sent. It worked. My license, issued in a college essay 2003, was set to expire eight years later, on my 30th birthday, on Feb. 3, 2011. I had eight years to succeed professionally, and to hope that some sort of immigration reform would pass in the meantime and allow me to stay. It seemed like all the time in the world.

My summer in Washington was exhilarating. Essay. I was intimidated to be in a major newsroom but was assigned a mentor — Peter Perl, a veteran magazine writer — to help me navigate it. A few weeks into the internship, he printed out one of my articles, about a guy who recovered a long-lost wallet, circled the first two paragraphs and left it on my desk. “Great eye for details — awesome!” he wrote. Writting A College Essay. Though I didn’t know it then, Peter would become one more member of my network. At the end of the essay help in toronto, summer, I returned to The San Francisco Chronicle. Nature. My plan was to finish school — I was now a senior — while I worked for The Chronicle as a reporter for the city desk. But when The Post beckoned again, offering me a full-time, two-year paid internship that I could start when I graduated in June 2004, it was too tempting to essay help, pass up. I moved back to Washington.

About four months into my job as a reporter for The Post, I began feeling increasingly paranoid, as if I had “illegal immigrant” tattooed on my forehead — and in Washington, of all places, where the debates over essay immigration seemed never-ending. Essay Help In Toronto. I was so eager to prove myself that I feared I was annoying some colleagues and editors — and worried that any one of these professional journalists could discover my secret. The anxiety was nearly paralyzing. I decided I had to tell one of the higher-ups about ancient chinese, my situation. I turned to Peter. By this time, Peter, who still works at The Post, had become part of essay in toronto, management as the paper’s director of newsroom training and professional development.

One afternoon in values essay late October, we walked a couple of blocks to Lafayette Square, across from the White House. Over some 20 minutes, sitting on a bench, I told him everything: the Social Security card, the driver’s license, Pat and Rich, my family. Peter was shocked. “I understand you 100 times better now,” he said. He told me that I had done the right thing by telling him, and that it was now our shared problem. He said he didn’t want to essay help, do anything about it just yet. I had just been hired, he said, and I needed to prove myself. “When you’ve done enough,” he said, “we’ll tell Don and Len together.” (Don Graham is the chairman of The Washington Post Company; Leonard Downie Jr. was then the paper’s executive editor.) A month later, I spent my first Thanksgiving in Washington with Peter and his family.

In the five years that followed, I did my best to “do enough.” I was promoted to staff writer, reported on video-game culture, wrote a series on Washington’s H.I.V./AIDS epidemic and covered the role of technology and social media in the 2008 presidential race. Essay Thoreau. I visited the White House, where I interviewed senior aides and covered a state dinner — and gave the Secret Service the Social Security number I obtained with false documents. I did my best to steer clear of reporting on immigration policy but couldn’t always avoid it. On two occasions, I wrote about essay help in toronto, Hillary Clinton’s position on driver’s licenses for undocumented immigrants. I also wrote an article about Senator Mel Martinez of Florida, then the chairman of the Republican National Committee, who was defending his party’s stance toward Latinos after only essay one Republican presidential candidate — John McCain, the co-author of a failed immigration bill — agreed to essay help in toronto, participate in a debate sponsored by Univision, the Spanish-language network. It was an odd sort of dance: I was trying to stand out in a highly competitive newsroom, yet I was terrified that if I stood out question to discuss, too much, I’d invite unwanted scrutiny. I tried to compartmentalize my fears, distract myself by essay help in toronto, reporting on the lives of other people, but there was no escaping the central conflict in my life.

Maintaining a deception for so long distorts your sense of self. To Discuss. You start wondering who you’ve become, and in toronto why. In April 2008, I was part of a Post team that won a Pulitzer Prize for the paper’s coverage of the degradation of moral values essay, Virginia Tech shootings a year earlier. Lolo died a year earlier, so it was Lola who called me the day of the announcement. The first thing she said was, “ Anong mangyayari kung malaman ng mga tao ?” What will happen if people find out? I couldn’t say anything. After we got off the help in toronto, phone, I rushed to the bathroom on to discuss the fourth floor of the newsroom, sat down on help the toilet and cried. In the art essay, summer of 2009, without ever having had that follow-up talk with top Post management, I left the paper and moved to New York to join The Huffington Post. In Toronto. I met Arianna Huffington at a Washington Press Club Foundation dinner I was covering for The Post two years earlier, and she later recruited me to join her news site.

I wanted to degradation values, learn more about Web publishing, and I thought the new job would provide a useful education. Still, I was apprehensive about the move: many companies were already using E-Verify, a program set up by the Department of Homeland Security that checks if prospective employees are eligible to work, and I didn’t know if my new employer was among them. But I’d been able to get jobs in other newsrooms, I figured, so I filled out the paperwork as usual and succeeded in landing on the payroll. While I worked at in toronto, The Huffington Post, other opportunities emerged. My H.I.V./AIDS series became a documentary film called “The Other City,” which opened at the Tribeca Film Festival last year and was broadcast on Showtime.

I began writing for magazines and landed a dream assignment: profiling Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg for essay, The New Yorker. The more I achieved, the more scared and depressed I became. I was proud of my work, but there was always a cloud hanging over it, over me. My old eight-year deadline — the expiration of my Oregon driver’s license — was approaching. After slightly less than a year, I decided to leave The Huffington Post. In part, this was because I wanted to help in toronto, promote the documentary and essay write a book about online culture — or so I told my friends. But the real reason was, after so many years of essay in toronto, trying to be a part of the system, of chinese, focusing all my energy on help in toronto my professional life, I learned that no amount of professional success would solve my problem or ease the sense of loss and displacement I felt. I lied to a friend about why I couldn’t take a weekend trip to Mexico. Degradation Values Essay. Another time I concocted an excuse for essay, why I couldn’t go on an all-expenses-paid trip to Switzerland. I have been unwilling, for years, to be in a long-term relationship because I never wanted anyone to get too close and ask too many questions. All the while, Lola’s question was stuck in writting essay my head: What will happen if people find out?

Early this year, just two weeks before my 30th birthday, I won a small reprieve: I obtained a driver’s license in the state of Washington. The license is valid until 2016. This offered me five more years of acceptable identification — but also five more years of fear, of lying to people I respect and help institutions that trusted me, of running away from who I am. I’m done running. I’m exhausted. I don’t want that life anymore. So I’ve decided to come forward, own up to what I’ve done, and tell my story to the best of my recollection. I’ve reached out to former bosses­ and employers and apologized for misleading them — a mix of humiliation and liberation coming with each disclosure.

All the people mentioned in this article gave me permission to use their names. I’ve also talked to family and friends about my situation and am working with legal counsel to review my options. I don’t know what the consequences will be of telling my story. I do know that I am grateful to nature essay, my grandparents, my Lolo and Lola, for help, giving me the chance for a better life. I’m also grateful to my other family — the of moral, support network I found here in America — for help in toronto, encouraging me to pursue my dreams. It’s been almost 18 years since I’ve seen my mother. Studies Behaviour. Early on, I was mad at in toronto, her for putting me in this position, and higher then mad at myself for being angry and ungrateful. By the time I got to college, we rarely spoke by phone. In Toronto. It became too painful; after a while it was easier to just send money to help support her and my two half-siblings.

My sister, almost 2 years old when I left, is almost 20 now. I’ve never met my 14-year-old brother. I would love to see them. Not long ago, I called my mother. I wanted to fill the gaps in my memory about that August morning so many years ago. Respect Essay Assignment. We had never discussed it. Part of me wanted to shove the memory aside, but to essay help, write this article and face the assignment, facts of my life, I needed more details. Did I cry?

Did she? Did we kiss goodbye? My mother told me I was excited about essay in toronto, meeting a stewardess, about ancient chinese art essay, getting on a plane. She also reminded me of the one piece of advice she gave me for essay help, blending in: If anyone asked why I was coming to America, I should say I was going to Disneyland. Jose Antonio Vargas ( is a former reporter for writting essay, The Washington Post and shared a Pulitzer Prize for coverage of the Virginia Tech shootings. He founded Define American, which seeks to change the conversation on immigration reform. Editor: Chris Suellentrop ( A version of this article appears in print on June 26, 2011, on Page MM22 of the in toronto, Sunday Magazine with the headline: Outlaw. Today's Paper | Subscribe.

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Sophie’s World Reaction Paper Essay. The first chapter of the book was entitled “The Garden of Eden” the story was well written, I was able to imagine the environment and I was able to see how Sophie would react on those given situations. The first questions that Sophie receives make her think about who she is and where the world came from. These questions are easy to ask and almost impossible to answer, but what is most amazing of all is that people stop asking them. Sophie realizes that she has never really thought about these things before, and essay when she does she understands that nothing could be more important. It seems that knowing who we really are is a college, necessary for our lives to have meaning and import. Sophie thinks about the fact that the essay help, world is part of the universe and that must come from somewhere. Sophie did not accept that something must have come from essay nothing. Essay In Toronto? Sophie also thinks that even if God created the universe, he himself must have come from respect somewhere. As a reader I also feel the help in toronto, same as Sophie’s reaction and also ask myself “who am I’’ and higher modern studies voting behaviour essay “where the essay, world came from’’. As little children we are tremendously inquisitive, and we wonder about ancient chinese everything, but as life goes on we begin to take certain things for granted even though we do not understand them.

The second chapter was entitled “The Top Hat’’. Sophie tells no one about the strange letters, and is uninterested in in toronto, playing with her friend Joanna the to discuss, next day. Essay In Toronto? After school she rushes home and finds a letter written to her. Values Essay? It contains three pages describing philosophy. The letter suggests that what is most important in life is philosophizing attempting to understand ourselves and our role in the world. There are not many philosophical questions, but there are many ways to answer each one. Life itself is essay help, like a magic trick, and philosophers must always observe it with wonder. After reading the values essay, letter, Sophie goes back to the mailbox and finds another one, which stresses the fact that all that is required to be a philosopher is the capacity for essay in toronto, wonder. Babies have this capacity, but most people become inured to life and no longer find it wonderful. Philosophers are different from others, and the philosopher writing the letters wants Sophie to never lose her sense of wonder.

The letters will comprise a philosophy course for essay thoreau, her to take. Sophie tries to have a philosophical discussion that night with her mother, but it only leads to her mother wondering if Sophie has begun taking drugs. What is most important in life is asking these philosophical questions and most people do not ask them. In fact, a philosopher has more in common with a child than with most adults. Gaarder seems to think that most people live their lives without actually partaking in the most important part of essay, living. It is thinking that is critical and not just thinking about practical, everyday affairs. We need to question, think about life itself, to ask why about everything that we normally take for granted. A day later, after school, Sophie finds a letter from her dad, working far away, and then another on philosophy. This letter describes the situation leading up to help in toronto, the beginning of western philosophy. Higher Studies Behaviour? Before the Greek philosophers, people explained life through myths—stories about the gods. But the early Greek philosophers questioned the myths and in toronto began looking for other explanations for why the world is the way it is.

Sophie thinks about this and realizes that making up stories to explain the workings of nature is not so far-fetched, for she would do the same if she did not already have other explanations. Sophie learns that before people started turning to other types of explanations, they made up myths to explain what they could not understand. After reading about nature this, she thinks that she probably would have done the same thing—when things seem to happen of their own accord it is easy for us to believe that there is some higher power behind their actions. But what is important is to attempt to explain things using our reason rather than making up stories. With our reason we may be able to actually gain an help in toronto, understanding of the world, whereas the myths simply transfer the uncertainty elsewhere. Sophie realizes that the suggestion that God created the world does not really answer anything. Although for some it might solve the issue of where the world came from, Sophie understands that one could simply ask where God came from, and we would be back to essay, the same problem. In Toronto? The philosophical questions are not to be escaped through easy answers but rather to be struggled through, and the implication is modern studies voting behaviour, that a good life is one that constantly involves battling these issues. Essay? I also realize that the suggestion that God created the world didn’t really mean anything because we actually didn’t know where God came from. The Natural Philosophers. Later that afternoon, while Sophie is to discuss, thinking about philosophy, her mother finds one of the letters.

Since it has no stamp, she thinks it is a love letter, and Sophie lets her think that in order to maintain her privacy. Inside it are three more philosophical questions, and Sophie puzzles over them for a day before she receives the next package. The letter tells her that her philosophy course will go from ancient Greece up to the present moment. It also points out that it is very important when assessing each philosopher to understand what his project was—what questions he was attempting to answer. Sophie learns that the ancient Greeks believed the world was eternal, and help in toronto so they did not ask about where it came from a college but rather were interested in the question of change.

The natural philosophers believed that there was one substance that all things were made of. Some thought it was water, others air, but they were all left with the problem of how changes occurred. Essay Help? Parmenides believed that nothing actually changed, and he held to his reason despite the evidence of his senses, making him the degradation values essay, first rationalist. Heraclitus believed in his senses and felt that nothing stayed the same. But Empedocles resolved this problem by suggesting that there were four basic substances and in toronto that all changes are the result of voting, intermingling of the essay help, four. Higher Behaviour? He also makes a distinction between “substance” and “force”, something that scientists still do today. In Toronto? Anaxagoras, from higher modern studies behaviour essay Athens, believed nature was made up of infinitesimal particles but that each one contained part of everything.

Sophie thinks about all of in toronto, this and concludes that one cannot learn philosophy; one can only learn how to think like a philosopher. After reading the writting, last packet, Sophie finds another white envelope in in toronto, the mailbox. It asks only why the nature, Lego is “the most ingenious toy in the world.” She thinks about this question, and the next day receives a packet about Democritus, the Greek philosopher who believed that everything was made up of tiny, invisible, and eternal particles called atoms. She learns that physicists today still believe that there is some smallest particle in the physical world. Sophie is amazed by in toronto the fact that Democritus managed to use the respect, philosophers before him to come up with a new theory. Sophie finds another envelope with three new questions on it, and she decides to essay help, send a note of her own. She writes a letter to whomever it is who is teaching her philosophy, inviting that person to coffee. She leaves it in to discuss, the mailbox and then goes upstairs to go to bed. Help? Just before falling asleep, she thinks she sees a man in nature thoreau, a beret come to the mailbox, put something in, and take out her letter.

Sophie goes and gets the envelope and learns that the ancient Greeks were fatalists—they believed that everything in life was predetermined. However, the historians Herodotus and Thucydides and the doctor Hippocrates began to look for naturalistic explanations for essay, the events that occur in life. The next day is Saturday, and when Sophie wakes up, she finds a scarf with the name Hilde on it. Sophie goes into her hiding place and essay finds another letter there. It is a response to her own, and she learns that Alberto Knox is the essay help, name of the philosopher who is communicating with her and that he will send his letters via a messenger. He also mentions that she may come across a silk scarf that belongs to someone else and that she should take care of it. Sophie is bewildered because the letter was delivered directly to a secret spot and she cannot comprehend the connection between the philosopher and essay assignment Hilde Moller Knag. Help In Toronto? She gets the essay assignment, next package, delivered directly to essay in toronto, her by a Labrador, Alberto’s messenger. The letter in the package tells her the dog’s name is Hermes.

Sophie learns about skepticism, the belief that we cannot have true knowledge about the world, practiced by writting the Stoics in Athens. Then she learns of Socrates, who lived in essay, Athens and spent his time conversing with people throughout the city. What we know of him comes from the nature, writings of his pupil, Plato. Socrates would ask questions in essay help, an attempt to get people to art essay, come to proper philosophical conclusions on essay help, their own. He was considered subversive and condemned to die, and, rather than appeal for mercy or flee Socrates drank hemlock and nature essay thoreau died. Essay Help In Toronto? Socrates believed in principles that he upheld. He knew that he did not know very much, and this made him much smarter than other people. Socrates had faith in human reason and believed that people were only happy when they acted according to their reason. Degradation Values Essay? Therefore, if someone knows what the right thing to do is in a situation she will do it, because it will make her happy. Socrates did not believe that people would deliberately act in a way to make them unhappy. Essay In Toronto? Sophie gets into another discussion with her mother after reading the letter, but her mother seems quite unreceptive to these ideas.

Sophie receives a videotape that evening and she is amazed to see that it contains Alberto in Athens. He tells her all about the way the city used to be and how Socrates would talk to people who went by, and then, somehow, he takes her back to ancient Athens. Essay Assignment? Alberto speaks to Socrates and Plato, and then Plato gives her a few questions to think about. Sophie is essay, astounded by the videotape and cannot figure out what is going on. The next day, Sophie thinks about the questions that Plato gave her, and when she receives a letter describing his philosophy, she learns that they are central to his thought. Plato set up a school, called the Academy, and respect assignment much of his work is preserved.

He believed that everything in nature changes, but that there is an eternal world of ideas outside of the natural world. Plato thought that each thing that we see is an approximation of some perfect idea that exists somewhere else. We cannot have true knowledge about things that change, so we cannot actually know the real world, but we can have true knowledge about things that we perceive through our reason. Thus Plato was very fond of mathematics, because it involves solely the essay help, use of higher modern voting essay, reason. Plato believed that people were made up of a body that is a part of the natural world but also an immortal soul that is in contact with the world of ideas. When we are born, our soul no longer has the knowledge of that world, but through experience we jog its memory and recollect the true and perfect ideas. Plato suggested a few ways of ordering human civilization, based upon ruling through reason, and he believed that women were just as capable of reasoning as men. The Major’s Cabin. After reading about Plato, Sophie tries to follow the path that Alberto’s dog Hermes had taken into the woods. In Toronto? She comes upon a little lake and sees a red cabin on writting a college essay, the other side of it. Without knowing why, Sophie uses the essay in toronto, little rowboat at the shore to go over to the cabin.

She knocks, and then enters, and inside she sees paintings entitled “Berkeley” and “Bjerkely.” By looking around, Sophie figures out that the cabin belongs to Alberto and Hermes. Of Moral Values Essay? She looks at herself in a mirror and essay in toronto thinks that her image blinks back at her. Then Sophie finds Hilde Moller Knag’s wallet inside as well as an essay to discuss, envelope with her name on it, which she takes. She runs away when she hears Hermes barking, and she cannot row back across because the help in toronto, boat slid down the bank into the middle of the thoreau, lake. Sophie reads the questions in the letter, but does not think much about them because she has to explain to her mother what happened without getting her mother too worried. She explains everything away without mentioning Alberto and convinces her mother that she does not have a boyfriend. Her mother tells her the cabin she went to is called the major’s cabin. Sophie writes the in toronto, philosopher a letter, apologizing for degradation of moral values, her actions, and then thinks about the questions he gave her. Then she talks with her mother, who feels she is growing up very fast and is surprised to learn that Sophie is not excited about her approaching fifteenth birthday. Later that afternoon, Sophie receives a package containing information on ##Aristotle# plus a small note saying that Alberto is not upset with her but that he will have to move.

Aristotle, she learns, was a pupil of Plato’s. His project involved studying the in toronto, changes within nature, and he believed in the use of one’s senses. Aristotle believed that Plato’s world of ideas did not exist but that the eternal idea was really a concept—the idea of a horse that we have after seeing many of them. Essay To Discuss? Therefore, that eternal idea is in our minds but it comes from the natural world. He did not think there was any reality beyond what we could perceive. Aristotle felt we have innate reason, but not innate ideas. Things have a substance and a form, and the former describes their physical characteristics while the latter describe their limitations or possibilities. Aristotle believed in different types of ##causality# one of which was “final” cause, the purpose that he assigned to everything in essay help, nature.

For example, it rains “because plants and animals need rainwater in order to grow.” He attempted to categorize nature and also founded logic. Aristotle sees man at the top of nature followed by higher modern studies voting animals and then plants, and God to help in toronto, him is the force that set the stars in degradation values essay, motion. He believed monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy were good forms of government but warned against the dangers of each. Essay Help In Toronto? Unlike Plato, he viewed women as “unfinished men.” Aristotle’s ideas have a great effect on Sophie, and writting essay she organizes her room after reading the letter. Then she has another discussion with her mother, who thinks her daughter is growing stranger and stranger. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 26 December 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Sophie’s World Reaction Paper.

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3 Resume Formats: How to Choose the Best One [Examples] Especially if it’s your first one? Your hands are hovering over the keyboard. You look at in toronto the blank Word document with the cursor pulsing in your face Now, what? What do you write? Where do you put the modern voting behaviour information?

Wouldn’t it be great if there were road maps for resumes? Choosing the format of a resume is essay key to starting the assignment resume writing process. But it’s not as easy as it sounds. Essay Help? So, how do you choose a resume format put you ahead of the other job seekers? This article will tell you which resume format is right for you, and a college, how to use the format of a resume to your advantage so that you stand out in a sea of other resumes. Want to save time and help, have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume.

See templates and create your resume here. Question To Discuss? How Do I Choose a Good Resume Format? Choosing the format of a resume is like shopping for an outfit for prom. Both the outfit and the format need to accomplish two things: Show off your best assets. Essay In Toronto? Be unique and within a certain dress code at the same time. Modern Studies? Just like everything else with resume writing, there are no black and white rules when it comes to choosing the format of a resume.

To make things easy, there are three main types of essay in toronto, recognized and accepted resume formats. Nature Thoreau? Each takes a different approach to the organization of the information on your resume. And each resume format has strengths and weaknesses. The three types of help, resume formats are: How do you know which one is chinese best for essay help in toronto you? The reverse-chronological resume format is for everyone. Your mom, your little sister, and essay question to discuss, your uncle can all use a reverse-chronological resume format. The combination resume format is for people who want to show off their skills a little bit before jumping into their experience because they are either a career changer or a high-level professional. The functional resume format , aka the skills-based resume format, is help controversial and should be avoided by everyone.

More on that later. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” Speaking of higher studies behaviour, skills, find out what skills are the most desirable and how to essay in toronto put them on writting a college essay a resume. Help? The guide has a great infographic too: What Skills to Put on a Resume? [Examples+ 6 Tips] The Usual Choice - The Reverse-chronological Resume. The reverse-chronological resume format is the most common format and can be used by virtually anyone applying for a job. It is the bread and butter of resume formats. Benefits of the Reverse-chronological Format. 1. It’s standard. Recruiters are used to scanning this easy-to-read resume format. They will automatically know where your information is, and that you’ve sent a complete resume. Nature Thoreau? 2. Essay Help? Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) can read it too . It is easy for the robots to find the different sections of your resume when you use the reverse-chronological format.

3. The reverse-chronological resume format puts an writting essay emphasis on work history and experience . If you are an average job seeker, your work history is where most of your relevant skills will be located. Weaknesses of the Reverse-chronological Resume Format. 1. It’s standard. Choosing this standard resume format is safe, but it will look like all of the other resumes in in toronto, the pile. So you will need to make an writting a college essay extra effort to catch a recruiter’s eye and showcase your skills and achievements. 2. The reverse-chronological format puts an emphasis on work history and experience. If you have large gaps in your work history or no experience then it may not be the best format for help in toronto showing off your skills. The reverse-chronological resume format places an emphasis on your job history by putting it at the top of the resume under the contact information.

You start by listing your most recent work and follow with past jobs in a reverse chronological order - thus the name of the format. Ancient Chinese? Think of it like eating dessert before you get your main course followed by an appetizer. And it’s great because starting with dessert at the top of your resume is essay a good way to catch the attention of the recruiter. Here is respect assignment what a reverse-chronological resume format sample looks like. We created it in our resume builder (you can make your resume here): As you can see in the resume format sample, the essay experience section comes first followed by the education section and question to discuss, other additional sections. Are you struggling with how to write a resume? Read our complete guide: So how do you dress up this standard resume format so that it works best for you and help in toronto, attracts attention?

How To Improve Your Resume By Adding These 3 Sections. Here are three ways that you can dress up a boring, old reverse-chronological resume format: Add a resume summary or resume objective. Add achievements to your experience section. Add a Hobbies and Interests Section. I recommend starting with a carefully constructed resume objective or a resume summary. Choose the resume objective if you are an entry-level applicant, changing your career, or have very little experience. All other professionals should opt for the resume summary. Resume objectives and summaries are confusing, and they are hard to write.

So, we’ve written complete guides about writing resume summaries and values, objectives so that you don’t have to struggle anymore. In Toronto? We’ve also made examples for almost any profession so you can see a sample from your own field of expertise. The Only Way to Use Resume Objectives [20+ Examples] (read now) 7 Resume Summary Tips That Will Get You the Job [INFOGRAPHIC] (read now) Adding your achievements within the experience section as bullet points is a way to get your top accomplishments at the top of your resume. Pro Tip: Use the essay to discuss PAR (Problem Action Result) approach to writing about your achievements: In situation P (Problem) I did A (Action) which led to help in toronto R (Result) . So to pick a completely random and made up example: My previous employer wanted to increase revenue (P) so I created a new marketing campaign on Facebook (A) which led to a 15% increase in sales and essay question, a 10% increase in revenue (R) . Finally, adding a hobbies and interests section will give recruiters a fuller image of you as a person. While it may seem unprofessional to include such an informal section in the format of a resume, a lot of businesses are beginning to look for candidates who will fit in with their office culture. Your personal interests can make you more attractive and memorable to a recruiter, and essay, signal that you would be a good fit for question to discuss the company. If you want to find out more about the benefits of a hobbies and essay, interests section and how to add one to your resume, you can read the article below. Art Essay? The Only Way To Put Hobbies Interests on help in toronto a Resume [5 Tips] (read now) How to Use a Combination Resume Format to Boost Skills. A combination resume format is the essay assignment only real alternative to the reverse-chronological resume format. As the name implies, the combination resume format combines aspects of the other two resume formats, focusing on skills without throwing out the experience section.

The experience section is still important and near the top of your resume just like in a reverse-chronological resume format. You start a combination resume format with a resume summary (aka Qualifications Summary). Help In Toronto? Your resume summary can be formatted as a paragraph or as a list of bullet points, and question, is a short, snappy introduction that highlights your career progress and skill set. Your experience section comes next. Here is where the reverse-chronological and combination resume formats differ. With the combination resume format , you can emphasize your skills by grouping the bullet points under specific, skill-based subheadings. As you list your roles and essay help, responsibilities under each job, you can organize the bullet points like this: Cinderella Bootcamp (2009-01 - present) Her Royal Highness, Princess Event Organizer. Spearhead team building activities for groups of up to 10 housekeeping princesses. Head up and manage a team of 15 mice responsible for kitchen and housekeeping duties. A College Essay? Project management involving the motivation of a team of 20+ bluebirds responsible for camp laundry, with a 10% increase in productivity after two months.

Conduct webinars on essay how to wash dishes in glass heels. Orchestrate the creation of internal communications between different departments. Essay? Responsible for organizing, writing, and essay help, communicating the daily schedules and activities of both staff and voting behaviour essay, bootcamp participants. Pro Tip: Grouping your bullet points under such subheadings is also good for providing ATS with keywords . In Toronto? The emphasis that the combination resume format places on skills is what makes it a good choice for talented professionals, who have a lot of skills and experience, and career changers. Career changers are able to chinese focus on skills that will translate from their old role or profession to their new one. After the skills-based experience section, the combination format continues in help, the same way as the reverse-chronological format: education and additional sections. Why the higher studies voting behaviour essay Functional Resume Format is Dysfunctional. A functional resume format takes the pressure off of your job history and refocuses on your skills and abilities. Sounds great right?

In fact, the in toronto format of a functional resume just throws job history out of the window. On a functional resume, an experience section is reduced to a list of old, dusty employers at the bottom of the resume. Writting Essay? You can eliminate dates and your roles and responsibilities. The bulk of the resume becomes a place for showcasing your skills in any order you see fit. If you aren’t careful, it can look like a jumble of random skills listed under vague headlines like “customer service skills” or “leadership skills.” You do not have to link these skills with job experience or explain how you got them. So your leadership skills could come from being the oldest sibling in your family. And your awesome customer service skills could go all the way back to that time when you were five years old with a lemonade stand in your front yard. Help? The fact that there is nature essay thoreau no specific information or proof that you learned your skills in any sort of job setting is the essay help real weakness of the functional resume format. The lack of proof alone makes you look suspicious and could result in chinese art essay, a recruiter simply throwing out your resume.

There are experts that will tell you that it is a good format for students , people who have gaps in essay, their work history, or people who are changing their careers. But it just makes you look sneaky - like you’re hiding something. It is also not good for ATS because the robots can't scan your resume for dates or specific sections. I would recommend not using the respect essay assignment functional resume format if you can avoid it. Here's How to Choose a File Format - PDF Resume Vs. Word Resume. Should you save you create a PDF resume or a Word resume? The benefit of help in toronto, creating a PDF resume is that your resume formatting will not get messed up when it is opened by assignment a recruiter.

It also gives you more creative freedom as you'd use platforms such as Photoshop or InDesign to create a PDF resume. At the same time, your resume may need to help pass through Applicant Tracking System (ATS) software. And some ATS software may have trouble reading a PDF resume. ATS does not like graphs or tables and requires plain text. In that case, a Word resume is probably a better choice. In any situation, having both formats on question to discuss hand is essay best practice. Bonus: Download FREE ultimate checklist of 54 things you need to do before you send your resume. “Resume 101 Checklist.” While there are not many resume formats to choose from, the values choice is important. The format of a resume really comes down to whether or not you want to help in toronto focus on your skills or your career progression. A College? Either way, you have to essay in toronto find ways to modern studies voting overcome the cookie cutter nature of help, resume formats without coloring too far out of the lines. You also have to essay thoreau make sure that a recruiter doesn’t take one look at help in toronto the format of your resume and decide that you are trying to hide something. Essay Assignment? The best way to enhance a standard resume format is to essay help in toronto improve each section and to place your most important skills and achievements near the top third of your resume.

If you can open with a great resume summary, followed by strong skills, experience, and achievements sections, then you can make any old resume format work for modern studies voting essay you. Help In Toronto? Do you have any questions about choosing the right resume format for your position? Is there anything else that should be included in the article? Leave a comment. Natalie is a writer at Uptowork.

She loves writing about writting essay resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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Causes of Inequality: Analytical Strategies. Offered as the course: Social Stratification. SOC-GA 2137 – Fall 2017. Robert Max Jackson. This guide concerns the systematic analysis of social inequalities. While stressing what causes social inequalities, it considers such topics as: what is essay help in toronto, a social inequality, how do social inequalities arise, why do they take different forms, why do they vary in degree across societies, what sustains social inequalities over studies behaviour time, how do various institutions and practices contribute to inequalities, and how does inequality change. click on help a topic to go to that section. click on a topic to go to that section.

Note: – This web site is both a subject reading guide and a course outline. The contents are always in progress. This guide serves to provide both a guided, extended reading list on analyzing social inequality (or stratification) and the syllabus for a graduate course based on the core of this extended reading list (over 200 articles are included below). The selection and organization of essay question materials stresses primary analytical issues facing the study of inequality (rather than types of essay inequality or the popularity of topics). Most of the readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. The links on this page provide access to higher, the NYU community access and will not be successful for essay in toronto those elsewhere. However, this entire page is mirrored with an externally oriented version (click here for the external version) that is the essay same as this except that it uses generic links. Anyone having access to help, online scholarly publications through their institutions should be able to gain access to the articles using the links on that page.

Additionally, most of the respect essay links have the DOI number or the JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. Most of the readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. This page which you are now viewing is the alternative version designed for users outside of NYU. Essay Help In Toronto? This version uses generic links that should properly lead to all the referenced material. These materials will be available to you if you are connecting from a university or other organizational network that has contracted rights to degradation of moral values, the material from its online publisher. Additionally, most of the links have the DOI number or the help JStor number listed at the end of the citation; these can be used to studies behaviour essay, access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. (If you are from NYU, click here to go to the NYU oriented version of this page.)

Description – Scope, Organization, and essay in toronto Access : The scope of the topics and materials . Each kind of social inequality – such as class or gender – has distinctive dynamics and behaviour essay each concrete instance of inequality has historically and culturally specific characteristics. Yet, all social inequalities also share critical common effects and help in toronto requirements for persistence. For example, all social inequalities produce legitimating ideologies, all must curb resistance, all have to transfer the unequal resources and positions to new generations, all produce divergent interests. To understand a structural characteristic of chinese some kind of inequality – such as legitimization processes in essay help in toronto, a class system or violence in gender inequality – we want to recognize that they represent a combination of the dynamics common to nature, most inequality systems and the specific characteristics of essay that type of inequality. The topics below pursue a series of fundamental questions about social inequalities, seeking to investigate the general dynamics of inequalities, comparing these dynamics across different types of writting inequality.

Examples of these topics include: what are the roles of interests in various kinds of inequalities, how is inequality sustained across generations, what processes induce conformity among both the advantaged and disadvantaged, what mechanisms prevent rebellion, and what decides the intensity of inequalities? The readings represent the core of the stratification field in sociology, the essay materials that sociologists working in this area expect other others in the area to know, plus materials needed to art essay, pursue important analytic issues under represented in the field. The class organization and goals . The class is help in toronto, intended for both beginning and advanced graduate students. Critical requirements for taking this course are a strong interest in inequality and a commitment to the class project of investigating new ideas. In this class, each week's activities will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting an analysis of chinese art essay inequality related to essay help in toronto, the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of 2-3 pages).

While mastering the existing research and theory is obviously a prerequisite to doing good work, the approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the literature by stressing actual analyses of essay assignment inequality rather discussions of the literature. The course readings stress the foundational sociological literature on inequality. Each week we will all look at some common readings. Essay Help In Toronto? The course guide will also point toward a range of other recommended and assignment related readings for further study for each topic - students are not expected to read these optional materials as part of the course. The recommended and essay help in toronto related readings represent what a student seeking to specialize in this area might read. Students in the class are encouraged to scan these optional lists each week and look at any pieces that seem particularly valuable or interesting. All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week.

We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on assignment readings and papers. To see the discussant responsibilities for each week, go to: The readings below (the recommended and related readings as well as the common readings that are the basis of the course) are almost all available online – simply click the links to essay help, get to the articles. For convenience, some readings are selections (excerpts from articles or books) that appear in higher voting behaviour essay, two printed collections that are now available online: articles with [Grusky – Classic] appended to the listing are from Inequality: Classic Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi; articles with [Grusky - Contemporary] appended are from Inequality Reader: Contemporary Foundational Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi – for help in toronto most of the selections from these readers, alternative citations and links are also provided for the original publication or an appropriate alternative. Modern Behaviour? Note: Links for all readings will appear in the online version of the course guide.

A note on the hidden material below : Each section of help this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and one for related readings . To simplify navigating through the modern voting behaviour course guide, only the essay help in toronto headings for writting a college these subsections are initially visible. The content of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is essay, similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on essay question the subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the essay page most of the time, it can become an obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for essay question to discuss a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material. To overcome this limitation, it is essay help in toronto, possible to show all the hidden sections by of moral values essay clicking the § symbol at in toronto, the top of the page (and simply reload the page to collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look). The table of contents at essay, the top of the essay help in toronto page will still work to art essay, aid speedy navigation to help in toronto, any section. The first class meeting will involve introductory discussions of the class objectives. Peter M. Essay? Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No.

3 (Mar., 1980), pp. 777-788. On the importance of always considering the implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] II. What do we mean by social inequality? How can we conceive of and talk about social inequality in ways that are general enough to essay in toronto, apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to minimize conceptual ambiguities, and degradation essay precise enough to be analytically effective? Inequality is ubiquitous. People are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and help in toronto enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.

So, what counts as social inequality ? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of higher modern studies voting behaviour it? Analytical task: What is social inequality ? We often think that the meaning of social inequality is self-evident or easy. Perhaps it is when we focus on essay help extreme versions of the more obvious forms of social inequality, such as the rich compared to the poor. But, equally, perhaps it is not when we consider inequalities that are subtler or more complex, such as those based on assignment sexual preference or ethnic identity or between nations. Essay Help? We want to begin by looking a little deeper into our conceptualization of social inequalities. Nature Thoreau? Choose two kinds of inequality . For each of essay these two kinds of inequality, consider an writting a college essay, example showing a high degree of inequality and another showing equality or a minimal amount of inequality. For example, if we used political inequality as one kind, we might select one highly authoritarian nation and one highly democratic one, or we might compare two unions or two professional organizations. Here we are simply trying to conceive a simple 2 x 2 table, showing two kinds of in toronto inequality and two levels of inequality for ancient chinese each kind.

This is the simplest design for doing social analyses, whether that analysis is help, empirical or theoretical. (Note: It is degradation values essay, fine to use standard, commonly discussed kinds of inequality, but being original and essay in toronto creative about kinds of inequality to essay, consider is also good.) Describe (briefly) how the relevant groups are unequal for each type. For each of these two kinds of help inequality, try to list the main ways that those affected are unequal. Do not worry about why such inequality exists. For now, we are concerned with what we mean by inequality, not what causes it. Try to specify the crucial experiences, opportunities, or other circumstances that distinguish the beneficiaries of the inequality from those who are disadvantaged. Consider also the relationships between the ancient art essay disadvantaged and advantaged, both direct and indirect. (The idea of indirect relationships refers to ways that the help advantaged or disadvantaged influence the modern voting behaviour essay circumstances or actions of those who are differently situated without direct interaction, e.g. by controlling government policies or creating a culture of fear.) In short, for each of the two types of inequality, what induces us to call one example high inequality and another low? A final question . Essay In Toronto? After working through the questions above, try to complete a definition sentence beginning In general, social inequality exists when . . The goal of this sentence is to provide a definition of social inequality general enough to embrace the range of social inequalities but also precise enough to distinguish social inequality from its absence. The implicit strategy is voting behaviour, compare what social inequality means for the two chosen examples, then to try to identify the common conditions that make them (and other forms) all merit being called social inequality (distinguished from the characteristics specific to certain types of inequality or concrete historical and cultural conditions).

To do this involves not only the essay in toronto empirical comparison, but the appropriate conceptual abstraction. For the ambitious (to develop a deeper grasp). Higher Modern Behaviour? Here are some other issues that you might integrate into your initial assessment of inequalities Vantage points . Might some people (scholars, political actors, others) disagree that any of the essay components you identify should really be considered inequality ? If so, why? (The goal here is to think through the reasons that people disagree about respect assignment, what should be called inequality?) Try to figure out how we might measure the amount of inequality. Of the ways that you have listed people being unequal, select which of these differences seem most important. What might be reasonable ways to measure each identified facet of essay help inequality? For each kind of higher modern studies voting behaviour inequality you have selected an example where inequality is high and another where it is low. Can you think of a measurement procedure that will allow one to look at any society or group and essay help in toronto determine if some aspect of inequality is high, medium, or low? Focus on realistic means that could be applied in research, that could be used for the same aspects of inequality when they apply to other kinds of inequality. Do this only for the two or three facets of inequality in your examples that seem most decisive.

For each of the two types of inequality, if we put aside differences in the circumstances of advantaged and nature disadvantaged people, what important differences in social organization distinguish societies (or other social groupings such as communities or organizations) where that type of inequality is high from those where it is essay in toronto, low? The goal here is to consider if societies (or other levels of social organization containing inequality) that have high levels of some type of inequality consistently differ from societies that have low levels, in ways other than the question to discuss difference in the level of this kind of inequality. Most people responding to essay help in toronto, the prompts above will think about inequality between kinds of people. Consider two other important concerns. First, inequality may be between positions rather than people (this is a critical concern which we will address later). Second, inequality may concern units other that people, such as families or organizations or nations. David B. Grusky. Writting A College Essay? Social Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed.

Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 2807-2821. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Paula England. Reassessing the Uneven Gender Revolution and its Slowdown. Essay Help? Gender Society 25:1 (Feb 2011): 113-123. (Response to critics of Gender Revolution . above) [doi: 10.1177/0891243210391461] . Archibald O. Haller. Societal Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed. Essay To Discuss? Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001.

2864-2874. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Pennock, J. Roland. Equality and Inequality. In The Oxford Companion to Politics of the World , edited by Joel Krieger: Oxford University Press, 2001. . III. In Toronto? What are common forms of higher voting social inequality?

What is the range of social inequalities that we should be addressing? Pundits, scholars, and ordinary people usually focus on the couple forms of inequality they experience as most troubling. Contemporary sociology's sometimes blinkered perspective is reflected in the many readers and texts on race, class, and gender. The range of analytically relevant inequalities is considerably wider. Analytical Task : This week's task is to identify major forms of inequality in two societies. The goal is to see the range of help in toronto inequalities that exist in different societies.

The remainder of this task description just tries to ancient art essay, show how to approach this systematically. To start, choose two societies with which you have some familiarity. It is fine to use this society or an essay in toronto, another society in which you have lived as one example (but it is an interesting challenge to use two societies you have not experienced). The two societies can be from two different parts of the world or from different points in time. Higher Modern? The main goal is to essay in toronto, use two societies that differ significantly in respect essay, their structure and culture, regardless whether those differences reflect location, culture, historical circumstance, or something else. For each example (society), identify the significant, widely-present forms of social inequality that persist over time. widely present means not limited to certain locations nor small parts of the population; note that many instances of inequality that are limited to particular places or subgroups are, however, examples of some more generally defined kind of inequality, so moving to a higher level of generality or categorization identifies a widely present inequality of which they are specific examples two or more instances of inequality with a similar system or structure but involving different populations should usually be considered to of the same kind (e.g., similar ethnic inequality processes or structures may apply to Hindi and help Chinese minorities) The aim here is not to essay, see how long the list of inequalities might be, but we do want to help in toronto, see how diverse the degradation of moral values essay forms of help inequality can be, and to writting essay, consider if important kinds of inequality are overlooked. Try to help in toronto, describe briefly each form of inequality identified (for each society), by indicating: to what degree is the inequality more a continuous gradation (like years of age) or more a division into distinct categories (like employed vs. unemployed) what is unequal, that is what are the assets, opportunities, capacities, relationships, or whatever that define the inequality by their unequal distribution (this is not what explains the inequality, but simply what is a college, unequal); this is self-evident for some kinds of inequality, but not for essay in toronto others. who is advantaged and who disadvantaged; in essence, this asks how are the advantaged people different from the disadvantaged people not only in chinese art essay, the advantages that define the inequality, but in other ways as well (e.g. for ethnic inequalities, the groups are, in theory, defined by ethnic identity [although ethnicity is tricky]; distinguishing characteristics for some kinds of inequality might be more difficult to characterize, and could, in theory, not exist if placement is essay help, random) [ optional – how do the disadvantaged and the advantaged perceive the inequality?; do they have similar or different conceptions of what is unequal, why they are disadvantaged or advantaged, whether it is fair, and the like?] In short , for two societies, you are preparing a list of outstanding inequalities, that gives the assignment primary characteristics of each kind of inequality. Essay Help? You could make this either as two lists or as two simple tables.

Finally , having prepared a catalog of the chinese art essay primary forms of social inequality in the two societies, how would you compare the two societies with respect to their patterns of social inequality? All we are looking for here are initial, outstanding differences and essay help in toronto similarities (note that similarities are at least as important as differences). To be clear, we are just looking for an initial impression – a comprehensive comparison would be a major project, obviously far beyond our scope. If this aspect of the analysis seems baffling, overwhelming, or obscure initially, consider the following questions. Does the overall amount of inequality seem greater in one society than the other or similar or does this seem impossible to guess? Do the structures of the societies or their potential for change seem to be dominated by different or similar inequalities?

Does inequality overall seem more rigid in one society than the writting other? Do major forms of inequality seem to overlap a lot, or are they distinctive and essay help rather independent from each other? Is inequality more continuous in one society and more categorical in degradation of moral, the other? For the ambitious with time to essay help in toronto, go further: How might we categorize the ancient art essay varied forms of help in toronto inequality discerned in the two societies into groups defined by some notable similarities? For example, if we have twelve types of inequality initially, could we usefully fit them into two or three categories that reflect their similarities (and differences)? Here are some examples of criteria that might be used to categorize inequalities: Consider the processes producing them Consider who is advantaged and disadvantaged Consider how one form affects the others Consider their legitimacy claims Consider their histories Consider any other reasonable logic you can conceive for grouping them, remembering that a useful analytic taxonomy will usually rely on some aspect of causation Do any of the forms of social inequality seem more important to the structure and organizational dynamics of a society than do others?

If so, why? Anthony Giddens. Elites in the British Class Structure. The Sociological Review , 20 (1972): 345?372. Alejandro Portes and Robert D. Manning. The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and Empirical Examples. But compare: Roger Waldinger. The Ethnic Enclave Debate Revisited. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , (1993), 17: 444?452. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.1993.tb00232.x] John H. Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information October 1972 11: 17-73. Higher Behaviour? (especially pp.

19-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] John Mullahy, Stephanie Robert, and Barbara Wolfe. Health, Income, and Inequality. Russell Sage Foundation Working Paper Series. 2003. William Julius Wilson. In Toronto? Jobless Poverty: A New Form of Social Dislocation, in nature thoreau, the Inner-City Ghetto. (1999) [Grusky Contemporary] Shelley J. Correll. Stephen Benard, and In Paik – Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?

American Journal of essay Sociology , Vol. Essay? 112, No. 5 (March 2007), pp. 1297-1339. Essay Help In Toronto? [doi: 10.1086/511799] Glenn Firebaugh. The Trend in Between-Nation Income Inequality. Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 26 (2000): 323-339 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.323] . IV. What distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate forms of inequality?

We often use the term inequality to refer only to forms of inequality we consider unjust or otherwise undesirable. Yet, much inequality is nature, commonly accepted as appropriate, fair, or desirable in societies. The amount of legitimacy attributed to a form of inequality can be anywhere between extremely high (e.g. the authority of parents over infants) to extremely low (e.g., slavery in a modern society with well-developed civil rights). The assessment of legitimacy should always consider potential differences among differentially situated groups (e.g., those enjoying advantages in a system of inequality, those disadvantaged, and essay those relatively unaffected), and the degree of agreement or disagreement about legitimacy assessments. Analytically, we want to essay, ask what processes or conditions cause a form of inequality to be considered more or less legitimate.

When does the legitimacy status of in toronto inequality change or become contested? Analytical task : Using examples of degradation values two kinds of essay inequality, consider what circumstances appear to foster or to erode the acceptance of the higher modern studies voting essay inequality as legitimate. First , select two kinds of inequality . These can be from essay, any place or time, but it might be simpler if they coexist in the same society. They do not need to be inequalities considered socially important. For each kind of inequality, select one example or circumstance with high legitimacy when those involved appear accepting or complacent and another example or circumstance with low legitimacy when those involved contest the inequality. Thus you are considering four examples in writting, all, two that are uncontested, high legitimacy and help two that are contested, low legitimacy, based on the two types of inequality. This is, once again, the simplest comparative design for social analysis, essentially a two by two table, with one direction being the two kinds of inequality and the other being the two levels of legitimacy. (Whether an inequality is perceived as legitimate and whether it is contested are not the same, but we are simplifying for our current goals.) Second , for each of the two kinds of essay inequality, describe what are the principal arguments or claims offered by the advantaged (or their representatives) to defend or explain the system of inequality in the examples you have chosen. Look for arguments that respond to three common claims in defense of help in toronto inequality, that it is (1) just, (2) necessary, and (3) beneficial to respect, all. Where possible, identify the general cultural beliefs or symbols from which the arguments seek to gain acceptance or weight, such as religious beliefs, science, or fear of outsiders. Is it possible to distinguish between claims that seem to essay help, be historically or culturally contingent and those more fundamental to the particular kind of inequality? [Explanatory note: If we compare organized religions we find that all have practices and rituals for marriage. Many of the specific rituals are artifacts of the historical conditions in which they emerged, and nature essay thoreau would just as effectively if they were different.

Some aspects of help these practices, such as significant property exchanges (e.g., bride price) may reflect functional needs of the prevailing economic and question to discuss kinship system, although their concrete manifestation can vary. Some even more general aspects, such as requirement of marriage to identify kinship relationships of children may reflect fundamental requirements for the functional order of any kinship system. Claims about inequality can similarly be categorized from the historically arbitrary to those that seem unavoidable.] Third , when describing the legitimacy claims, consider if the claims when the inequality is contested differ from when its acceptance is largely unproblematic. That is, for each of the essay help two kinds of inequality, what seems to distinguish the examples where legitimacy claims succeed from those where they fail? When the disadvantaged seem to a college essay, accept legitimacy claims, which arguments appear to be convincing or acceptable to essay help in toronto, them? Why do they accept these? When the disadvantaged question and contest the legitimacy of the inequality, what are the modern studies principal counter arguments they use? Their counter arguments suggest how the essay help in toronto legitimacy claims are failing. In short , you are developing a description of the ways that people try to legitimate two kinds of inequalities, comparing examples where the legitimacy efforts succeed with examples where they do not.

The goal is not to explain the range of these claims or when they succeed, but to get a first level sense of what legitimacy claims are and why they are important. Finally , in response to the preceding analysis you have developed of legitimacy claims regarding four examples of chinese art essay inequality (based on in toronto two types of inequality), try to state three general hypotheses about legitimacy claims, the a college role of legitimacy, or conflicts over essay help in toronto legitimacy in systems of inequality. Elaborate each of these hypotheses just enough that we can understand what they mean and respect essay what motivates them. These are hypotheses , which means they are not theories and not claims we can defend. Rather, we can think of essay them as informed speculations about what might be true.

They are ideas worth researching or worth thinking about if trying to develop a theory about the legitimation of inequality. Essentially, this is asking what ideas spring to mind as a result of doing the empirical comparisons in this task. Background: Ch. 2 Power, Authority and the State. In Shaun Best, Introduction to Politics and Society . Sage, 2002. (A textbook introduction to legitimacy and authority work.) [doi: 10.4135/9781446220832] Johnson, Cathryn, Timothy J. Dowd, and ancient chinese art essay Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Legitimacy as a Social Process. Annual Review of Sociology 32, no. 1 (2006): 53-78. [doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123101] Raven, Bertram H. The Bases of Power and the Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 8, no.

1 (2008): 1-22. [doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x] Major, Brenda. From Social Inequality to Personal Entitlement: The Role of Social Comparisons, Legitimacy Appraisals, and Group Membership. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology , edited by P. Essay Help In Toronto? Zanna Mark, 293-355: Academic Press, 1994. [doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60156-2] Mansbridge, Jane. Respect Assignment? Cracking through Hegemonic Ideology: The Logic of Formal Justice. Social Justice Research 18, no. 3 (September 01 2005): 335-47. [doi:10.1007/s11211-005-6828-0] Thomas Luckmann. Comments on Legitimation.

Current Sociology June 1987 35: 109-117. [doi:10.1177/001139287035002011] (the entire issue containing this article was on legitimation – click the link on the article page to the Table of Contents to see what this includes) [doi: 10.1177/001139287035002011] Talcott Parsons. Max Weber and the Contemporary Political Crisis: I. The Sociological Analysis of Power and help in toronto Authority Structures. The Review of ancient art essay Politics , Vol. 4, No. 1 (Jan., 1942), pp. 61-76. Help In Toronto? Walter A. Weisskopf. The Dialectics of essay Equality. Annals of the American Academy of Political and help Social Science , Vol.

409, Income Inequality (Sep., 1973), pp. 163-173 [doi: 10.1177/000271627340900118; jstor: 1041502] Joan Acker; Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in of moral, Organizations; Gender Society , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 441-464, Aug 2006 [doi: 10.1177/0891243206289499] Lars Osberg and Timothy Smeeding. Essay? 'Fair' Inequality?

Attitudes toward Pay Differentials: The United States in Comparative Perspective. American Sociological Review Vol. 71, No. 3 (Jun., 2006), pp. 450-473 [doi: 10.1177/000312240607100305] Merove Gijsberts. The Legitimation of Income Inequality in State-Socialist and respect essay assignment Market Societies. Acta Sociologica , Vol.

45, No. 4 (2002), pp. 269-285 [doi: 10.1177/000169930204500402] [jstor: 4194946] David Miller. Distributive Justice: What the essay help in toronto People Think. Ethics , Vol. 102, No. 3 (Apr., 1992), pp. 555-593. Higher Studies? [jstor: 2381840] James Konow.

Is fairness in the eye of the beholder? An impartial spectator analysis of justice. Social Choice and Welfare, 33 (1): 101-127 Jun 2009 [doi: 10.1007/s00355-008-0348-2] Steven Brint, Jerome Karabel. In Toronto? American Education, Meritocratic Ideology, and the Legitimation of Inequality: The Community College and the Problem of essay American Exceptionalism. Higher Education , Vol. 18, No.

6 (1989), pp. Essay In Toronto? 725-735 [doi: 10.1007/BF00155663; jstor: 3447109] Rosamund E. Stock. Explaining the Choice of Distribution Rule: The Role of Mental Representations. Essay Thoreau? Sociological Inquiry Volume 73, Issue 2: 177189, May 2003 [doi: 10.1111/1475-682X.00051] Jurgen Habermas.

Legitimation Crisis . Beacon Press. 1975. James Konow. Help In Toronto? Which Is the Fairest One of modern studies voting All? A Positive Analysis of Justice Theories. Journal of Economic Literature Vol. XLI (December 2003) pp. 11881239 [doi: 10.1257/002205103771800013] Sutphin, Suzanne Taylor; Simpson, Brent. The role of help self-evaluations in legitimizing social inequality. Thoreau? Social Science Research , vol.

38, no. Essay Help In Toronto? 3, pp. 609-621, Sep 2009 [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.01.007] Langer, Ellen J.; Blank, Arthur; Chanowitz, Benzion. The mindlessness of ostensibly thoughtful action: The role of placebic information in interpersonal interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Vol 36(6), Jun 1978, 635-642 [doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.36.6.635] Robert Max Jackson. Down So Long (unpublished ms.).

Disputed Ideals: Ideologies of Domesticity and Feminist Rebellion. V. What is the critical distinction between positional inequality and status inequality? To put it simply, positional inequality refers to inequalities between positions such as the different levels in an organizational hierarchy (e.g., president, divisional manager, supervisor, clerk). These locations give their advantages and disadvantages to the people who circulate through them. Status inequality refers to social advantages and disadvantages that adhere to thoreau, categories of people without regard to the positions they hold (such as race). Grasping the differences between these two types of inequality and the relationships between them is crucial for essay help in toronto analytic clarity. (This distinction has some similarity to the common contrast between achieved status and ascribed status, but it is analytically different. Our distinction stresses the way inequality is socially organized while the achieved/ascribed concepts refer to degradation of moral values, the ways people acquire a characteristic.) Analytical task: How do positional and status inequalities differ and how are those differences important? Select two examples of positional inequalities and two examples of status inequalities . The examples may be two fundamentally different kinds of positional (or status) inequality or they may be two distinctive instances of the same kind of inequality appearing in different societies (e.g., racial inequality in a plantation economy and essay racial inequality in a market economy). It will probably be easier to writting a college, use four reasonably concrete examples (such as contemporary racial inequality in Britain). Using more general categories (such as racial inequality in market economies) is a more ambitious strategy.

As usual, for help in toronto each type of inequality, clearly describe who are the advantaged and essay question the disadvantaged and how they are unequal. Enumerate the characteristics that distinguish the two examples of positional inequality from the two examples of status inequality . To put it differently, in what ways are both examples of positional inequality different from both examples of help status inequality? Examples of things to consider include (but should not be limited to): homogeneity of people sharing similar standing (i.e., level of voting behaviour essay [dis]advantage) intergenerational rigidity (likelihood of having same standing as parents) ways that people's standing may improve or decline over essay help in toronto time diffuseness of impact on people's lives (i.e., what proportion of people's time, activities, and to discuss relationships are highly influenced) legal status and government role in regulating, preserving, or challenging the inequality legitimation processes (content of the essay justifying ideology, who or what promotes the legitimacy) historical roots of the inequality structure For each difference you identify above between the degradation of moral essay positional and status inequalities, please briefly describe how the positional and status inequalities seem to differ with respect to this characteristic, and, if you can, suggest what might explain the difference (or, to put it differently, suggest why you would expect this difference to distinguish other examples of status and positional inequalities). In short : We are making an initial effort to essay help, identify general ways that systems of positional inequality differ from question to discuss, systems of status inequality. The goal is to produce a list of plausible differences, and to get a first sense of help in toronto what form these differences will take and why they appear. note that we are again using a very basic research design, comparing two examples of positional inequality with two examples of status inequality; this is the simplest possible design for trying to to discuss, identify differences between two categories (as we must have at least two examples of each category to make the simplest control for other sources of essay help variation among the phenomena being categorized, in respect essay, this case instances of social inequality) Finally : Based on the differences you enumerate and essay explore from your examples, what hypotheses do you have about general differences between positional and degradation values essay status inequalities? excerpt on discrimination from Robert Max Jackson, Destined for help Equality Symposium on Inequality, Contemporary Sociology 29 (2000):775-818. [jstor: i325498] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in writting a college, Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No. Help In Toronto? 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 [jstor: 3088900] Max Weber, sections on Social Aspects Of The Division Of Labour (18) through Types of Communal Organization of Labour (26), pp. 228-266 of Max Weber: The Theory of Social and Economic Organization . Translated by A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. (Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1947) Guillermina Jasso.

Studying Status: An Integrated Framework. American Sociological Review , Vol. 66, No. 1 (Feb., 2001), pp. 96-124 [jstor: 2657395] Erik Wright . Respect Assignment? . VI.

How do we understand honor status hierarchies, that lack apparent material bases? Academia is one good example of a well-developed system (or systems) of honorific inequality. High school peer groups are often good examples of essay short-lived patterns of reputational inequality. The idea of celebrity is usually associated with unequal prestige. Nature Essay? The key to in toronto, honorific inequalities is that people compete for recognition and respect deference, rather than material goods, power, or opportunities.

Purely honorific inequality structures are rare, as the pursuit of essay prestige is commonly intermingled with materialistic inequities. The study of honor and prestige systems (other than in the specialized form of occupational prestige) is underdeveloped in sociology. Theoretical works recognize its significance, but most treat honorific inequality as both causally derivative and of marginal importance when compared to economic and voting essay political inequalities. Essay? While prestige and respect essay assignment honor are elusively intangible, we are likely to misunderstand any type of inequality if they are ignored. Analytical task: What do non-material inequalities of honor or prestige look like in in toronto, practice and what is the logic of question to discuss their processes? Select two (or more) examples of in toronto honorific inequality systems , where people compete directly for recognition, respect, and deference. Such systems often include income and power rewards. But we are looking for to discuss forms of inequality where honorific status is central. Here are several reasonable identifying characteristics to consider: Does honor (or prestige or the like) motivate competition for desirable locations as much as does power or material rewards?

Is deference to others determined as much by help in toronto their perceived prestige as by their structural position, wealth, authority, or the like? In general, are honor or prestige acts at least as much a cause of material rewards as it is a result of them? For each inequality system selected , try to develop an analytical assessment of the way it works by responding to these: Identify and describe as well as you can what conveys or is experienced as honor ; consider how it looks both from within and from outside; think about ways that the higher modern voting behaviour essay lives of those with more honor differ from the help lives of those with less; also, think about how we know which people have more honor, or to put it differently, how we know to whom we should defer and values who should defer to us. (Think about titles, awards, forms of help dress, access to activities, and so forth.) Describe what people do to gain honor or to compete for honor. What decides the distribution of honor overall within each system? Consider what processes and which people decide who has more honor. Is it controlled from the top or the bottom?

Are people aware who decides the outcomes? What induces people to accept and studies voting behaviour essay conform to help in toronto, the expectations of the prestige system? Why do they defer to those who possess more honor? (Consider both the carrots and the sticks.) Compare these systems of honor and prestige to the systems of positional and status inequality we have considered. Try to identify two or more important differences and two or more important similarities, explaining as best you can why you think each of these differences and similarities exist. In short , the aim of this week's task is to compare two specific examples of honor inequality systems (and secondarily compare them to inequalities where honor is secondary) to get an initial sense of respect assignment how honor inequality systems work. Elliot B. Weininger.

Foundations of Pierre Bourdieu's class analysis. Pp. 82-118 in Erik Olin Wright (ed). Approaches to essay in toronto, Class Analysis . Nature Essay Thoreau? Cambridge University Press, 2005. Cambridge Books Online. [10.1017/CBO9780511488900.005] [doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511488900] Bernd Wegener, Concepts and Measurement of Prestige, Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 253-280 [doi: 10.1146/] Donald J. Treiman A Standard Occupational Prestige Scale for Use with Historical Data. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol.

7, No. 2, (Autumn, 1976), pp. 283-304 [jstor: 202737] John H. Essay? Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information 1972 11: 17-73 (see pp. 19-23, 26-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] Francis Flynn, How much should I give and how often? The effects of generosity and frequency of favor exchange on social status and productivity, Academy of Management Journal Oct 2003, Vol.

46 Issue 5, pp.539-553 [jstor: 30040648] Thorstein Veblen – The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) [Grusky - Classic] [also compare potlatch] VII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter? Research on inequalities commonly treats experience as a simple effect of ancient chinese art essay inequality; interesting but secondary to theory and explanation. Essay? Here we want to respect essay, think of experience not only as a result, but also as a potential ingredient to the explanation of inequalities. The experiences of in toronto inequalities can serve as strong motivating forces at all levels. The experiences also encompass not only the outcomes of inequality, but all the processes that sustain or challenge it. Analytical task: How do lower-status and higher-status people experience inequalities and their locations within them? With what consequences for the systems of inequality?

Select two systems of inequality : one in which you have (now or in the past) been in a relatively low-status location and another system in which you have been in a relatively high-status location. The point here is to select systems in which you have observational knowledge about the experience of inequality. Ancient Chinese Art Essay? If possible, use a form of positional inequality for one example and status inequality for the other, but it okay if that is too much of a stretch given your biography. As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and essay help the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. (OPTIONAL – To go further . To seek a more complete means of assessing experience, double the examples, to consider two systems in which you have experienced low standing and two in which you have had higher standing, again representing both status inequality and positional inequality if possible.

This will give you much more traction for seeing generalization possibilities, but the time requirements may be more than you can manage.) For each of these systems of ancient art essay inequality, try to characterize , briefly, how those in high-status locations have different experiences than those in low-status locations . This is not easy to do well. Among other things, note that it is rarely obvious which kinds of experiences matter more and essay help in toronto it is difficult to writting essay, reduce the varieties of experience into a few categories that are not arbitrary. Focus on typ ical or defining experiences. While experience seems inherently individualistic because it is to such a degree private and internal, the goal here is to move beyond the individual. Help In Toronto? Systems of social inequality are comprised of socially organized structures, processes, and art essay cultural understandings. In the search of a social analysis of inequality, we are looking for common or shared experiences (understanding that these may be shared unequally, so that there are alternative experiences common to subgroups determined by other conditions, circumstance, or even random variation). A good way to start is by thinking about typical experience. To make this effort more systematic and comparable, while trying to assess differences in experience, here are dimensions you might consider : How much and in what ways do people recognize the in toronto inequality and assignment think about it? For example, people may grasp the outlines of social inequality between groups or positions see themselves as being in unequal relationships, but not have a conception of this as part of a larger pattern of inequality (e.g., when women or men see themselves as superior or inferior to the other sex, but do not perceive there to be gender inequality) people may not be able to help in toronto, conceptualize their experience of an inequality as being inequality, but think of it in different terms (e.g., believing it is not that they are inferior or that we discriminate against them, they are just different) in what way do people seem to perceive or talk about fairness with respect to an inequality? what sense of fairness do they have in their own position? and how do they think about the ancient chinese fairness of the help in toronto existence of inequality (of this sort)? how do the advantaged and disadvantaged have distinctive experiences about what other people who share their standing are like? do the to discuss reference groups have different demographic compositions (e.g. sex, ethnicity, age, class) apart from the defining distinctions due to that inequality? are their cultural differences in the ways people dress, ways of in toronto talking, leisure activities, religiosity, or the like? how do people perceive those at their level as different from those at the other end of the inequality spectrum, and how do they interact differently with them? In particular, what, if any, are the common patterns of deference when interacting with a previously unknown person at the other end of the inequality spectrum? (Most importantly, presumably, within the institutional context embracing this form of inequality, but also, potentially, in external contexts.) How do advantaged and disadvantaged people differ in nature thoreau, general ways that they experience the possibilities and realities of life? how do people experience ambition vs. resignation?; how do they differ in expectations for the future? do they allocate blame for failures and credit for successes (of the individual) differently? do they have different orientations toward behavioral tendencies such as violence, intimidation, manipulation, cooperation, and subservience? are there significant differences in essay help, religiosity? do they seem to feel different loyalties toward the institution surrounding the structure of inequality, toward those in a similar location in the inequality structure, toward those at a different level? how do they differ in their trust in authority and government? If you can, consider the implications of ancient chinese social mobility or changing social standing for essay help these experiences of inequalities.

That is, do people differ in their experience of a location in a system of inequality depending on studies voting essay how they got there? Note that even people distinguished by locations in a system of status inequalities may experience some form of mobility. First, they may experience a shift in the relative weight of the status inequality due to changes in other status investing characteristics; an example could be different meaning of race for help affluent blacks vs. poor blacks and affluent whites vs. poor whites, where the analytical class difference may be experience in a college, terms of race. Second, the standing of an entire status group or category may change over time; consider, for example, the changes that have been seen by middle-age blacks and whites in South Africa or women and men in essay help, many countries. Note that someone whose status appears unchanged may experience it differently because the writting a college statuses of significant others do change How do people differ in their experiences of essay in toronto being advantaged or disadvantaged in the referent form of inequality depending on nature their location in essay help in toronto, other important forms of inequality? (For example, how does the experience of degradation of moral being Native American differ between the highly educated and the low educated?) In short , the goal of this task is to contrast the experiences of being advantaged with those of being disadvantaged under two different kinds of inequality. The goal is to examine these differences systematically, and to consider their causes and their consequences. Finally , after completing work on the issues above, considering the patterns of similarities and dissimilarities you have discussed, can you devise any general hypotheses about the help experience of inequalities? That is, from the degradation values essay specific patterns of differences you observe in your cases, what general differences might you expect to find in other inequalities, in essay help, the experiences of inequality, and in the causes and effects of art essay those experiences? Michael Schwalbe, et al., Generic Processes in the Reproduction of Inequality: An Interactionist Analysis, Social Forces , Vol. 79, No. Help In Toronto? 2 (Dec., 2000), pp.

419-452 [jstor: 2675505] Alan B. Krueger – Inequality, Too Much of a Good Thing (2003) [Grusky - Contemporary] Evans, Mariah D. R. and Jonathan Kelley. Nature Essay? Subjective Social Location: Data from 21 Nations. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 2004 16:3-38. [doi: 10.1093/ijpor/16.1.3] Michael Hout and help in toronto Joshua R. Question To Discuss? Goldstein. How 4.5 Million Irish Immigrants Became 40 Million Irish Americans: Demographic and Subjective Aspects of the Ethnic Composition of White Americans. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No.

1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 64-82 [jstor: 2096133] VIII. How should we conceive interests in the analysis of inequality? Almost everyone analyzing any system of inequality refers to interests sooner or later, even authors who emphasize cultural or normative explanations. Yet, interests usually receive casual, unsystematic treatment. This casual reliance on essay help interests builds on two simple assumptions: (1) a range of nature essay relevant potential actions and events will have differential consequences for people depending on their location in a system of essay inequality and writting (2) anticipation or past experiences of these consequences will influence peoples' actions. From this starting point the considerations of interests take many routes, considering objective and subjective interests, individual versus collective interests, realistic compared to misconceived interests, consistent versus inconsistent interests, contradictory and essay help in toronto ambiguous interests, and so on.

Simply put, every theory of inequality relies on a theory of interests (even if a negative theory). Analytical task: Interests Select two examples of inequality; if possible, use one example of positional inequality and one of status inequality. Characterize who are the advantaged and who are the essay disadvantaged in each example As always, specify clearly what is essay, unequal If an example is not itself a system of values inequality, but a subsystem, a site where the effects of a system of inequality are played out, or an intersection between systems of inequality, then be clear what the relevant system or systems of inequality might be For each example, examine the interests that seem to be determined by in toronto the social organization of inequality, regardless how people recognize them. List the most important ways that the objective interests of the advantaged are at respect assignment, odds with those of the disadvantaged; here the objective interests means the interests implied by the structure of in toronto inequality and their location within this structure, regardless of higher voting behaviour their recognition of the interests Similarly, list the most important ways that the objective interests of advantaged people or groups converge with those of the disadvantaged. Here we are concerned with interests related to conditions or practices that have a widespread influence, usually where both the advantaged and disadvantaged are exposed to common effects. For example, potentially a shared interest between officials of an autocratic government and the citizenry in in toronto, maintaining public peace would be relevant, but parallel or similar interests in studies behaviour, being healthy would not. Similarly, the employers and help in toronto workers in degradation of moral values, a corporation may have divided interests about the distribution of the company's income, but they have convergent interests in help in toronto, the corporation being successful. For the above assessments, both the interests at odds and those that converge, consider whether the objective interests seem try to characterize the most important interests in terms of their clarity, consistency, extremity, and the like. thinking about objective interests not as an individual experiences them, but as they are produced and sustained by nature thoreau the systems of inequality, how would you ? Now, a really tough part.

As best you can, with these examples, consider how interests become recognized or conceived by people who are subject to the interest-producing circumstances of in toronto inequality. We want to chinese art essay, avoid the temptation to help, think about this in terms of the reasons an individual might choose one way or another. Instead, we want to examine how the characteristics of objective interests or the of moral values essay structure of the relevant inequality induces people to interpret their interests in one way or another. Essay Help In Toronto? We are seeking the social conditions or dynamics that direct the chinese art essay conception of interests. Note to begin that people may conceive their interests as some subset of the objective interests previously identified, or they may rely on conceptions that ignore or even oppose the essay in toronto objective interests.

What institutional and cultural processes or arrangements seem to influence the emergence of common interests based on the inequalities in your examples? E.g., the aged or young adults may have a strong, self-conscious sense of writting common interests under some circumstances but at other times not recognize possible shared interests.; what determines when they do see their concerns as common interests? Given the objective interests you have identified, think under what conditions you would expect people more likely to identify and pursue each of those objective interests as opposed to the conditions under which they would not do so. Similarly, consider under what conditions people might be prone to misinterpret their interests entirely. Or, under what conditions they are more likely to help, stress oppositional interests and under what conditions they will emphasize the interests they have in common with those with whom they are unequal? For each example, in what important ways and under what circumstances do people's conceived interests seem to diverge from their objective interests? (A classic example occurs when members of a group, such as the working class, believe their interests are best served by a political party that is actually committed to policies that threaten their interests, such as those typically associated with Republicans.) What seems to account for the disjunctions? (Consider both the advantaged and the disadvantaged.) For the inequalities you are using, when and where do individual interests seem to chinese, contradict collective interests?

What consequences does this have? (E.g., it is generally in students' collective interest that professors grade all students the same way, but tall, pretty boys have individual interests in biased grading if professors favor tall, pretty boys.) In short , the goal here is to develop some initial ideas about the ways that interests work. We use two examples as the essay help simplest design that allows us to begin generalizing about inequality, rather than describing the character of to discuss a single instance. Using the chosen examples, we want to produce some initial ideas about the essay help in toronto range of objective interests, both oppositional and shared, created by an inequality system. Respect? Then we want to ask how people's conceptions of their interests arise out of those objective interests in interaction with impinging social conditions. And, in particular we want to consider how and why conceived interests might diverge from or even become inconsistent with objective interests. James Madison, The Federalist No. 10 (The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection [continued], 1787) The Federalist No. Help In Toronto? 51 (The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments, 1788) Aage B. Sorensen; The Structural Basis of Social Inequality The American Journal of question to discuss Sociology , Vol. 101, No. 5 (Mar., 1996), pp. 1333-1365 [jstor: 2782357] Jack Barbalet. Help? (2012).

Self-interest and a college essay the theory of action. Help? The British Journal of Sociology , 63: 412429. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2012.01417.x] Lisa Belkin. The Opt-Out Revolution. New York Times, October 26, 2003 Heather Boushey – Are Women Opting Out? CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2005-36, Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2005 J. A. W. Essay Thoreau? Gunn; 'Interest Will Not Lie': A Seventeenth-Century Political Maxim; Journal of the History of Ideas , Vol. Help In Toronto? 29, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1968), pp. 551-564 [jstor: 2708293] Joseph Heath, Methodological Individualism, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 Edition) Hardin, Russell, The Free Rider Problem, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition) Wikipedia, Prisoner's dilemma Franz Traxler; Business Associations and ancient Labor Unions in help in toronto, Comparison: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings on higher Social Class, Collective Action and Associational Organizability; The British Journal of Sociology , Vol.

44, No. 4 (Dec., 1993), pp. 673-691 [jstor: 591416] Erik Olin Wright; Working-Class Power, Capitalist-Class Interests, and Class Compromise; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 105, No. 4 (Jan., 2000), pp. Help In Toronto? 957-1002 [jstor: 3003886] Dennis Chong; Values versus Interests in the Explanation of Social Conflict; University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. Degradation Of Moral Values Essay? 144, No. 5 (May, 1996), pp. 2079-2134 [jstor: 3312649] Catherine I. Bolzendahl, Daniel J. Essay? Myers; Feminist Attitudes and Support for to discuss Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998; Social Forces , Vol.

83, No. 2 (Dec., 2004), pp. 759-789 Dennis Chong, Jack Citrin, Patricia Conley; When Self-Interest Matters; Political Psychology , Vol. 22, No. Help? 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. 541-570 [doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00253] Mustafa Emirbayer, Ann Mische; What Is Agency?; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Essay? 103, No.

4 (Jan., 1998), pp. 962-1023 [read quickly – to read slowly is to risk calcification of the help in toronto intellect] [jstor: 2782934] . IX. What determines the ancient chinese art essay allocation of people (or other relevant unit) within a positional system of inequality? This issue includes questions commonly addressed in the literatures on essay in toronto social mobility and status attainment (and on placement within organizations). More or less independent of its occupants, a system of positional inequality has a static structure characterized by the direct relationships of authority and dependence between positions ; the ranking of positions according to nature essay, the rewards, authority, opportunities, and statuses attached to them; and help the demographic profile defined by question to discuss the number of positions of each type.

A positional inequality system also has a dynamic structure defined by essay help the movement of people through it, both within careers and between generations. These two components of structure – the static and the dynamic – are linked by the selection processes controlling access to positions. We can usefully conceive positional inequality as the ancient juxtaposition of two parallel systems that are often confused or conflated: first, the structure of relationships among the positions constituting the essay system of nature thoreau inequality (e.g., the enduring authority relationship between a managerial position and a line-worker position), and, second, the relations between the people who occupy these positions (e.g., the interactions between managers and help in toronto workers). The patterns of people's movement between positions both reflects and influences the relationships among positions, but it also shows the impact of impinging status inequalities. Essay Question? To understand the inequalities among people, we obviously need to understand what decides which people occupy which positions. Analytical task: We will explore how positional inequalities work. Recall that two general examples of positional inequalities would be the essay occupational structure of a modern society or the hierarchy of ancient art essay positions within a complex organization. Note that, in this analytical context, income inequality is an effect of positional inequalities; income inequality is not itself a system of inequality (involving neither transferable positions nor status groups), although it functions as both an incentive and essay help in toronto consequence of positional (and status) inequalities.

Also note that positional inequalities are commonly constituted by relatively clear local hierarchies that only modern voting behaviour loosely translate into help in toronto a societal wide hierarchy. For example, complex organizations usually have well-defined positional hierarchies, but their finer distinctions are organization or industry specific. As a result, people (both scholars and ordinary people) use common characteristics of positions – such as income, authority level, or organizational size – to modern voting, translate local positional standings into a comparable metric. Essay Help? Choose two dissimilar examples of positional inequalities. Try to to discuss, choose two that have different institutional settings, are not closely causally connected to each other, or operate by different logics. They may coexist in one society or be drawn from different (in space or time) societies.

For each example, describe the overall structure of positions. Among other things, an analytical description of a positional structure should consider the in toronto following: Assess the chinese differential characteristics attached to the positions (rewards, authority, visibility, etc.) Summarize and characterize the relationships among positions. Consider the simple demographics of the system: how many positions exist at each level?; what is the turnover rate of personnel occupying the help in toronto positions (the departure rates)?; how stable is the essay to discuss demographic profile (i.e., do the relative and absolute numbers remain the same over time)? If possible to assess, how did the existing configuration of positions come into existence? For each example, try to describe the help in toronto normal pathways of movement into and between positions What are the typical initial entry points, the positions that take people who have not previously been in the system of positional inequality? For example, in a large business or organization, many positions are typically filled by promotions from essay, other positions; people are not usually hired from the outside for such positions.

Commonly, a If these entry-point positions are themselves unequal, also consider. How are the help in toronto entry points unequal ? What determines who gets in nature essay thoreau, which ones? Who controls the allocation process of the initial positions (directly and indirectly)? What is the pattern of essay help in toronto movement among positions within the system? To what degree does selectivity operate (the demographic constraint)? (Among other things, this asks what proportion of people at any given level will ascend to a higher level.) Consider if lateral movement among positions is relevant to hierarchical movement. Is there significant downward movement as well as upward in the positional hierarchy? If so, remember to art essay, examine downward as well as upward for essay help all issues about movement among positions. What appears to decide who moves up into more desirable positions (or down)?

Is the determining process fairly consistent across positions or does it vary by how high or in what sector the a college essay position appears? who has decision-making power? how standardized or impartial are the processes governing mobility among positions? Note that impartiality can be the result of self-conscious efforts to eliminate bias and in toronto reliance on inappropriate criteria, but, alternatively, it also can be the result of an uncontrolled process that is a college essay, inherently unbiased (as some would suggest for market mechanisms)? Slave traders, for example, may be just as impartial toward the help in toronto ethnic divisions among their chattel as the most progressive advocate of meritocratic assessments. How is the position-allocation process ideologically conceived?; particularly consider ideological constructs that reinforce, obfuscate, legitimate, or challenge the values essay allocation process. how are success and failure conceived (as moral and practical categories) are there competing ideological formulations of what causes success and failure? Taking into account all the above, comparing the two examples, what can you say about the patterns of affiliation, alliance, deference, patronage, avoidance, opposition, and conflict that constitute the structure of relationships among people occupying different locations in a positional inequality? While exploring this issue, pay careful attention to essay help, the distinction between the positions and the people occupying them. In short , the goal of this task is to gain some insight into the ways that positional systems of writting a college essay inequality work. Using two concrete examples is the simplest possible design for identifying some of the common characteristics of such systems. A commonly unanticipated difficulty in analyzing such systems arises from help in toronto, their duality: a structure of relationships among the positions independent of the people who occupy them and the dynamics of relationships among the people who do occupy the positions. and book review by Deirdre Royster. Contemporary Sociology , Vol.

25, No. 2 (Mar., 1996), pp. 151-153 [jstor: 2077161] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and essay Contest Mobility and the School System (1960) [Grusky – Classic] J. Schumpeter, Social Classes in an Ethnically Homogeneous Environment. (1927) In Imperialism and Social Classes . Help? (read from beginning through the first section of chinese art essay Summary and help in toronto Conclusions, ignore the last few pages) [a brilliant, albeit flawed, analysis of class] DiPrete, Thomas A. and degradation of moral essay Gregory M. Eirich. Essay? Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology , 32 (2006): 271-297 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123127] Aaron M., Jennings, Jennifer L. Cumulative Knowledge about Cumulative Advantage. Swiss Journal of Sociology , 2009, Vol.

35 Issue 2, pp. 211-229 Maria Charles. A World of Difference: International Trends in Women's Economic Status. Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 37 (2011): 355-371 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102548] Peter B Doeringer Michael J. Piore. Unemployment and the Dual Labor Market. Public Interest . 38 (1975: Winter): 67-79. Gary Solon. Intergenerational Income Mobility.

The American Economic Review . Vol. 82, No. 3 (Jun., 1992), pp. 393-408. [jstor: 2117312] Rachel A. Rosenfeld Job Mobility and Career Processes; Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 39-61 [jstor: 2083445] Robert P. Althauser; Internal Labor Markets; Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.

15, (1989), pp. 143-161 [jstor: 2083222] Douglas S. Massey. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. American Journal of Sociology 96(2) (Sep 1990): 329-357. [jstor: 2781105] Symposium, The American Occupational Structure: Reflections after Twenty-five Years. Contemporary Sociology 21 (1992): 596-668. [varied commentators try to makes sense of 25 years of social mobility research] Treiman, Donald J., and Harry B. G. Ganzeboom. Essay Thoreau? The Fourth Generation of Comparative Stratification Research.

In The International Handbook of Sociology , edited by Stella R. Essay Help In Toronto? Quah and Arnaud Sales, 123-51. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2000. [doi: 10.4135/9781848608405.n6] Adrian E. Raftery and Michael Hout. Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education,1921-75. Sociology of Education , Vol. 66, No. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. 41-62. Degradation Of Moral Values Essay? [jstor: 2112784] William H. Sewell, Archibald 0. Haller, and Alejandro Portes – The Educational and Early Occupational Attainment Process (1969) [Grusky – Classic] Ivan D. Chase. Vacancy Chains. Annual Review of Sociology . (1991) Vol.

17: 133-154. [doi: 10.1146/] Christopher Jencks. Inequality in Retrospect. Harvard Educational Review. 43(1) (Spring 1973): 138-164. Christopher Jencks, Lauri Perman and essay help in toronto Lee Rainwater. What Is a Good Job? A New Measure of Labor-Market Success. American Journal of a college Sociology . Vol. 93, No. 6, May, 1988. [jstor: 2780816] Emily Beller and Michael Hout. Intergenerational Social Mobility: The United States in Comparative Perspective.

The Future of essay in toronto Children . Vol 16 N 2 (Fall 2006): 19-36 Thomas J. Ancient? Dohmen, Ben Kriechel and Gerard A. Pfann; Monkey Bars and Ladders: The Importance of in toronto Lateral and Vertical Job Mobility in Internal Labor Market Careers; Journal of to discuss Population Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Jun., 2004), pp. 193-228 [doi: 10.1007/s00148-004-0191-4f] Joseph P. Ferrie; History Lessons: The End of American Exceptionalism? Mobility in the United States since 1850; The Journal of Economic Perspectives , Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer, 2005), pp. 199-215 [doi: 10.1257/089533005774357824] . X. What are the bases of actions that secure dominance over help in toronto time?

From those enjoying the most privileged positions to behaviour essay, those suffering the most disadvantages, people may believe that the system of inequality that divides them reflects the elusively differential favor of the gods, the cruel fate of nature's uneven treatment, or unavoidable results of people's differential efforts and capacities. In truth, systems of inequality require work to keep them going, particularly the efforts of those in superior positions to preserve the shape of the system and their positions within it. We cannot hope to grasp the logic of a system of inequality until we understand what this work is and help in toronto how it gets done. Analytical task: Assess how and why advantaged people (or their agents) act in ways that (1) preserve their advantages and (2) preserve the system of inequality that gives them advantages. Select two examples of inequality to assess the actions of advantaged people. The first example should concern gender inequality – this may be an instance of gender inequality (e.g., gender inequality in an organization, or in an occupation, or in a sport) or it may be gender inequality more generally (although this may prove more difficult). The second example should be a different kind of respect essay inequality, preferably an help in toronto, example of a college essay positional inequality or alternatively an essay help, example of a quite different form of status inequality. Art Essay? For each example of inequality, the goal is to essay in toronto, identify and explain the kinds of actions by advantaged people that (1) seem to occur consistently and (2) seem to reinforce their advantages. To approach this problem systematically, try to answer the following about each example of inequality: How do the studies essay advantaged people treat disadvantaged people in direct interactions; the relevant comparisons are with the help in toronto ways the advantaged relate to chinese art essay, each other and the ways the disadvantaged relate to help in toronto, each other? How do advantaged people have different kinds of relationships with other advantaged people than than they have with disadvantaged people (this is similar to the previous, but concerns the more general problem of relationships rather than interactions )? In what ways might common actions or behavioral patterns of those in the advantaged class – actions that use or reflect their advantaged circumstances – reinforce the privileges of advantaged people, even though the actions are not aimed at disadvantaged people or at sustaining inequality? (For example, the advantaged might buy all unused land for golf courses and expansive estates, leaving poor farmers no way to expand their acreage for crops.) How do advantaged people respond if one of them is challenged by ancient chinese a disadvantaged person. Challenges can take many forms.

A member of a subordinate group may simply refuse to show proper deference, as when a lower caste person does not step aside, a black woman does not go to her place in the rear of a bus, or a member of the secretarial pool addresses managers by their first name just as they do her. Someone with lower standing may adopt the dress or mannerisms of those with higher standing, or attempt to move into their neighborhoods or schools. More directly, someone with lower standing may reject and defy efforts to exercise authority by those above them. And so forth . Consider not only the actions of the person who is essay in toronto, directly challenged, but potential actions by others in the advantaged class. How do advantaged people exercise power in government, over essay thoreau laws, or in help in toronto, the economy in ways that benefit those with advantages? How do advantaged people respond if there is essay, a collective challenge to the system of inequality in help, which they have advantages? Looking over writting the range of actions you identify as relevant above, can they usefully be categorized? For example, one might divide them into those that mainly benefit an individual's status and those that mainly help sustain the help in toronto system of inequality. The goal here is to consider if there is an analytically useful way to reduce the range of relevant actions and behavior patterns into a small number of general types.

What within the system of inequality seems to organize and ensure the actions that sustain it? For example, in the simplest conceivable system of higher modern voting behaviour essay inequality, we might find the only mechanism is the help interests of those in dominance – they individually act on those interests in a manner unmediated by ideology, norms, relationships with others in nature, the dominant group, laws, organizational processes, or anything else. More complex systems involve mechanisms that induce these actions, giving individuals motivation, direction, and essay help in toronto support. Looking at the range of nature essay thoreau actions identified as relevant, what stand out as the mechanisms that make such actions consistent and essay effective? What seem to be important limitations on the actions that secure dominance? How are these actions constrained by laws, norms, ideology, resources, or the like? What conditions or potentials for the future might cause the question actions to lose enthusiasm or effectiveness? In short , this task concerns the ways that inequality systems induce advantaged groups to act in ways that sustain the inequality (and their standing within that inequality). Once again, using two examples is the simplest design to allow initial speculations about the general functioning of in toronto inequality. The questions above aim to help one to think systematically about the range of possible actions and their sources. When analyzing the actions of the advantaged (and disadvantaged) as described above, keeping several considerations in mind may help: The shorthand references here to the actions of higher modern studies essay advantaged people do not imply that all advantaged people act the same way or that the essay in toronto actions that sustain inequality are produced in the same way and at the same rate by all the advantaged.

Such actions may be nearly universal, they may be typical but with a high degree of variation across people and respect essay circumstances, or they may be the essay special actions of a minority who are the a college key representatives of the group interests. Essay In Toronto? The analytical focus should be on the processes and circumstances that induce enough actions of behaviour sufficient effectiveness by enough advantaged people to protect the inequality system. In Toronto? An individualistic focus on degradation of moral values the motives or beliefs of essay help people will probably go astray. Note initially that the relevant actions of the advantaged may differ from assignment, those of the help in toronto disadvantaged in varied ways other than reflecting divergent interests. For example, (1) the respect opportunities to act may differ (e.g. differential access to higher education), (2) analogous actions may have different effects, and (3) even with equivalent opportunities and effects, they may choose to in toronto, act differently (e.g. because they have different beliefs or respond to different interests). Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan.

Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and essay thoreau Jamal? A Field Experiment on in toronto Labor Market Discrimination. The American Economic Review , 94(4): 991-1013. [doi: 10.1257/0002828042002561] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System [Grusky – Classic] But compare: Sackett, Paul R.; Hardison, Chaitra M.; Cullen, Michael J. On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests. American Psychologist , Vol 59(1), Jan 2004, 7-13. Modern Behaviour? [doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.7] Joe R. Feagin. The Continuing Significance of Race: Antiblack Discrimination in Public Places. American Sociological Review Vol. 56, No.

1 (Feb., 1991) (pp. 101-116) [jstor: 2095676] Toward an Integrated Theory of Systemic Racism. Pp. 203-223 in Krysan, Maria and help in toronto Lewis, Amanda E. Degradation Essay? The Changing Terrain of Race and Ethnicity 2004. Gil Eyal, Ivan Szelenyi, and Eleanor Townsley. Essay Help? The Theory of Post-Communist Managerialism. New Left Review March-April 1997. Kim A. Weeden – Occupational Closure and Earnings Inequality 176. XI.

What induces reducing or overcoming inequalities? Inequality systems do not only have causes that bring them into existence and causes that preserve them, they also have causes that potentially reduce or eliminate them. Systems of inequality may decline because they are pushed out of the way by new systems of inequality, because they simply become increasingly ineffective or irrelevant, because the disadvantaged are increasingly able to overcome their circumstances as individuals, or because the ancient chinese art essay system is dramatically overturned by essay help collective actions from below or intrusion from invaders. How and why these processes dilute, undermine, or eliminate inequalities is theoretically underdeveloped. Analytical task: Declining inequalities Select as example of social inequality, positional or status, that showed significant reductions in the degree of inequality over time. For the selected example of inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of essay question to discuss inequality, the analysis should include careful consideration of the system itself. (Note that inequality may decline in a component as a result of overall decline in the system, decline in a component may induce greater inequality in the system, or decline in a component may take place independently of and without noticeable impact of the enveloping system.

In what ways did those involved in essay help, the example of inequality being considered actively promote or resist its decline? In our simplest examples, those involved reduces to the advantaged group versus the disadvantaged. Essay Assignment? In real life, seems can be much more complex. In Toronto? Each system of inequality may have multiple types of involvement, distinguished by studies essay subtle or ambiguous differences of interests, relationships and activities. And, systems of inequality overlap and interact.

We want to be sensitive to this potential complexity, but willing to reduce it conceptually as far as possible to produce a manageable model. Essay Help? Note that people may actively promote or resist a change in inequality for motives that are not focused on the issue of the inequality's persistence. Respect Essay? The goal here is to characterize the types of people whose actions tended to reinforce the essay in toronto inequality and those whose actions tended to erode it. Recall that members of advantaged groups may join the challengers (against their putative interests) and members of the disadvantaged may join the supporters. Were any other coexisting systems of inequality declining or becoming more extreme during the same period? If so, is it possible to identify causal processes that might connect the essay assignment simultaneous changes?

Were there direct clashes over the competing interests of those advantaged and those disadvantaged by system of inequality that was declining? If so, what were there causes and their consequences? Were there any independent changes in the circumstances of the advantaged people that plausibly diminished their will or ability to sustain the pattern of inequality? Were actors who were not direct participants in the systems of inequality (i.e. not acting as members of the advantaged or disadvantaged) significant for promoting or obstructing the movement toward change? The state is an obvious contender here, but so are others whose interests or symbolic commitments seem to be at help, stake.

Are there other processes, actors, circumstances, or causal dynamics neglected by the above questions that seem important to ancient chinese art essay, analyzing the changes in inequality in the examples being considered? In short , the goal this week is to explore the conditions and processes that work against the persistence of inequalities under appropriate structural and historical circumstances. Jens Beckert; The Longue Duree of Inheritance Law. Discourses and Institutional Development in France, Germany, and the United States since 1800; Archives Europeennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Sociology , vol. Essay Help In Toronto? 48, no. 1, pp. 79-120, 2007 [This contains the central argument of the book that is discussed in the symposium listed next.] Anne Alstott, Marion Fourcade, and Philippe Steiner; Review Symposium on thoreau Jens Beckert Inherited Wealth . Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008; Socio-Economic Review 7(1) (2009): 145-159 [doi: 10.1017/S0003975607000306] Erik Olin Wright. Help? The Shadow of Exploitation in Weber's Class Analysis.

American Sociological Review. Vol. Thoreau? 67, No. 6, (Dec., 2002) : 832-53. Essay Help? [jstor: 3088972] Marco H.D. van Leeuwen and Ineke Maas. Historical Studies of Social Mobility and Stratification.

Annual Review of Sociology . 2010. 36:42951. Respect? [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.10263] Alejandro Portes and Min Zhou – The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and essay in toronto Its Variants (1993) [Grusky – Contemporary] XII. What are the theoretical and empirical relationships between different forms of inequality? Multiple systems of inequality coexist in societies, with crosscutting categories and with individuals simultaneously located in each. An older tradition in sociology suggested that the degree of overlap between different forms of inequality was one condition influencing the ancient chinese likelihood of class formation. A more recent interest has been the intersection between race, gender, and class as experienced by individuals, with the central (largely atheoretical) premise that the implications of one's status in one system depends on one's statuses in the others. Our concern here is more at the level of in toronto inequality's organization, asking in respect, what ways different systems of inequality interact with each other. Analytical task: Interdependence of inequalities Select one society and historical moment (or one period, such as the in toronto second half of the 20 th century). Within this historical context, select two examples of systems of positional inequality and two examples of systems of essay to discuss status inequality, chosen such that a significant number of individuals will have a location within each of the four systems considered. Essay Help? . Assess in of moral essay, what ways and to what degree an individual's status in one instance of inequality relates to others. To be systematic, consider How standing in one form of positional inequality relates to standing in the other example of essay help in toronto positional inequality How standing in one instance of writting a college status inequality relates to standing in the other form of in toronto status inequality How standing in the systems of positional inequality relate to standing in the systems of status inequality Assess how the organization and functioning of these systems of inequality influence or overlap each other.

Among other things, this might include considering How the locations in essay question, the two examples of positional inequality are related. Are any locations defined simultaneously in both systems? Are there enduring relationships between locations in the two systems that continue regardless who are in help in toronto, those locations? Are there sustained patterns of movement between the two systems? What relationships exist among the the symbolic representations and of moral ideological legitimation schemes associated with the forms of inequality being examined? Are they simply independent?; are they separate but drawing on some common ideas?; are they partially or wholly merged into one scheme that serves all at once? In what ways is persistence of one system of inequality dependent on its relationship with another? For example, how might the essay elimination of any one system of inequality affect the others.?

What links exist between the laws and governmental mechanisms that support these systems of inequality? Can we identify inconsistencies or sources of friction between these systems of inequality? How do historical developments and changes in these systems relate to each other? Peter M. Blau. A Fable about essay, Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. Help In Toronto? 58, No. 3 (Mar., 1980), pp.

777-788. On the importance of always considering the essay question implications of numbers. Essay? [jstor: 2577184] Jacobs, Jerry A. The Sex Typing Of Aspirations And Occupations: Instability During The Careers Of Young Women. Social Science Quarterly 68.1 (1987): 122-137. William T. Bielby and Denise D. Bielby. Essay? I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and essay help Reluctance to essay, Relocate for a Better Job. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 97, No. 5 (Mar., 1992), pp. 1241-1267, [jstor: 2781415]

Perhaps the most fundamental question about inequalities, and sometimes seeming the essay in toronto most illusive to of moral values essay, answer, is the misleadingly simple question, what causes inequality? While no general, all embracing answer is possible (at this time), progress in understanding inequality demands that we continually try to improve our analyses of the causes. Any effort to do this must consider different forms of causation that are possible. Analytical task: We want to investigate what causes inequalities. Causation is a difficult, often elusive, concept. What we mean by the causes of inequalities can take different forms. Help In Toronto? We can ask why it comes into existence. This question about origins may concern the specific historical circumstances or sequence of events in which an question to discuss, inequality emerges. Help In Toronto? Or we might interpret original causes in terms of the social conditions necessary for such inequality to emerge or, somewhat differently, the social conditions that make it unavoidable. We might instead ask what causes (or allows) an inequality to essay, persist over time, potentially distinct from the reasons for its origin, the conditions and processes that sustain it.

Or, we might focus on the variations in the severity of some inequality, seeking the key to understanding it in essay in toronto, the conditions that cause it to be great in ancient, some places and slight in others. In Toronto? In either case, we may stress the thoreau mechanisms, the recurring actions and social processes that produce the inequality, or we may stress the conditions that allow or require it. Given this expanse of possibilities, we must narrow our question, to make it reasonable. Choose two kinds of essay inequality, each of which varies considerably in its intensity. For each kind choose one example that has low inequality and another that has high inequality. These four examples, two with low inequality to compare with two having high inequality, will be the basis of the analysis.

These may come from the same historical and cultural setting or from essay, different ones. Essay Help? For each kind of respect inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality, the analysis should stress the system. For example, if we start with two unequal occupations, we would say that they are in most cases not a system of inequality but a part of one. So, we could shift our attention to the system of occupational inequality. Or, if we begin with the inequality between women and men within the financial industry, we could move to essay help in toronto, the general inequality between the sexes. In general, an example of inequality that is a component, result, or instance of essay thoreau a system of inequality may have particularistic causes that seem sufficient to account for its contours or variations.

However, we expect its existence is derivative of the relevant system of help inequality and of moral essay that it and essay help other similar instances that are derivative of the same system of inequality are all subject to the causal processes that generate and sustain that system of inequality. Thus, an question, effort to identify and make sense of the essay causal processes cannot look at the component or instance alone. Describe each kind of thoreau inequality and the difference between the higher and lower inequality instances. Essay? As always, describe who are distinguished by art essay the inequality, and essay in toronto what it is that is ancient art essay, unequal. Specify why we consider the inequality in one instance to be significantly higher than in the other. This is a measurement issue on the surface, but commonly has deeper implications about what the inequality means.

Comparing the instances of high inequality with those of low inequality, construct a series of hypotheses about about the possible causes of high inequality (compared to low inequality). In some cases these hypotheses may apply to both kinds of inequality similarly while in help in toronto, others they are quite different – try to nature, be clear about this. For each hypothesis, explain the help reasoning behind your speculation. In attempting to essay question, generate hypotheses representing a systematic analysis, among other things to think about, you might consider: the origins of each example of inequality (e.g., do the high and low inequality instances arise from essay help, distinctive conditions that relate to their subsequent intensity) the history of changes in levels of inequality if applicable and known (e.g., does knowledge of their varying intensities over time suggest anything about why or how they differ in the instances you compare?0 political and legal contexts ideological and cultural contexts relationships to other forms of inequality direct relationships between those advantaged and essay those disadvantaged by the inequality how individuals' statuses are decided . Each of the foregoing refer to important aspects of an inequality system that imply the existence of some causal process. Looking back over help in toronto the previous topics we have examined should give more facets of essay inequality calling for a similar causal analysis. Moving beyond hypotheses, see which of these more general questions you can begin to answer.

Consider to what degree the origins, the help in toronto persistence, or the severity of the thoreau inequality is explained by the outcomes of self-interested actions of individuals and organizations. Consider to what degree the origins, the help persistence, or the essay severity of the inequality is explained by in toronto its functional and structural relationships to important social arrangements or needs. Consider to studies voting behaviour, what degree the origins, the persistence, or the essay help severity of the inequality is explained by some competitive processes. Try to be self-conscious about the degradation of moral values comparisons being made, implicit or explicit, and what alternatives might be possible. Try not to forget that inequality induces processes, conditions, and structures that limit resistance's effectiveness and part of its explanation lies in the ways this obstruction or resistance works. In short , our analytical goal is to generate ideas about what produces inequality, by first looking at what seems to explain variations in the degree of severity of essay help two types of inequality. Karl Marx.

Marx on Social Classes and Class Conflict. Relevant excerpts from writting essay, Marx's work. Ernest Mandel. Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818-1883). The New Palgrave Dictionary of help Economic , Second Edition. Eds. Steven N. Writting? Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume. Palgrave Macmillan, [1987] 2008. Help In Toronto? (Knowledgeable summary and degradation essay defense of Marx's ideas.) [doi: 10.1057/9780230226203.1051] Robert C. Hauhart. The Davis-Moore Theory of Stratification: The Life Course of a Socially Constructed Classic. The American Sociologist, Vol.

34, No. 4 (Winter, 2003), pp. 5-24. [jstor: 27700363] W. Graham Astley; Organizational Size and Bureaucratic Structure; Organization Studies , vol. 6, no. 3, pp. Essay Help In Toronto? 201-228, 1985 [doi: 10.1177/017084068500600301] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. The Evolution of Top Incomes: A Historical and International Perspective. The American Economic Review, 96(2) (2006): 200-205. [doi: 10.1257/000282806777212116] Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and ancient Bart Bonikowski. ?Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment.? American Sociological Review 74(October): 777-799 [doi: 10.1177/000312240907400505] Paula England. The Failure of Human Capital Theory to essay in toronto, Explain Occupational Sex Segregation.

The Journal of degradation of moral values Human Resources , Vol. Essay Help In Toronto? 17, No. 3 (Summer, 1982), pp. 358-370 [jstor: 145585] and Wage Appreciation and Depreciation: A Test of Neoclassical Economic Explanations of Occupational Sex Segregation. Social Forces (1984) 62 (3): 726-749. [doi: 10.1093/sf/62.3.726] Jos C. N. Raadschelders; Size and Organizational Differentiation in Historical Perspective; Journal of essay Public Administration Research and help in toronto Theory : J-PART, Vol. 7, No. Writting A College? 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. 419-441 [jstor: 1181603] Devah Pager and Diana Karafin. Bayesian Bigot?

Statistical Discrimination, Stereotypes, and Employer Decision Making. Essay In Toronto? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science . 621 (January 2009): 70-93. [doi: 10.1177/0002716208324628] Kathryn M. Neckerman and Florencia Torche. Inequality: Causes and Consequences Annu. Rev. Sociol . 2007. Essay? 33: 335-57. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131755] Guillermina Jasso.

A New Model of Wage Determination and Wage Inequality. Rationality and Society 2009 21(1): 113-168. Essay? [doi: 10.1177/1043463108099350] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. Writting A College Essay? Income Inequality in essay help in toronto, the United States, 1913-1998. The Quarterly Journal of degradation of moral Economics Vol. 118, No.

1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-39 [doi: 10.1162/00335530360535135] Thomas Piketty's (a French economist) recent work on economic inequality over time has been a major contribution. Much of it is essay help, available from essay question, his personal website (and more recent work). Particularly recommended are: Thomas Piketty. On the Long-Run Evolution of essay in toronto Inheritance: France 1820?2050. The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011) 126(3): 1071-1131. [doi: 10.1093/qje/qjr020] Atkinson, Anthony B., Thomas Piketty, and Emmanuel Saez.

2011. Essay Question? Top Incomes in the Long Run of History. Journal of Economic Literature , 49(1): 3-71. [doi: 10.1257/jel.49.1.3] Thomas Piketty Gabriel Zucman. Capital is Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Rich Countries 1700-2010. A slide presentation. Paris School of Economics. Help? March 2013.

Thomas Piketty. Self-ful?lling beliefs about social status. Journal of Public Economics , 70, 1, (1998): 115-132. [doi: 10.1016/S0047-2727%2898%2900063-2] Murray Milner, Jr. Theories of Inequality: An Overview and a Strategy for Synthesis. Social Forces , Vol. 65, No. 4 (Jun., 1987), pp. 1053-1089 [jstor: 2579023] . XIV. What makes some forms of inequality more important than others to the organization of social structure and the patterns of respect assignment human action?

Some have argued that class dominates in particular societies or all societies. Others have suggested that gender inequality is the most fundamental inequality. Essay Help? Putting aside grand claims, most would agree that some kinds of inequality have greater influence over the organization of a society (or other social entity) and the history of nature thoreau that organization. How we can systematically assess the relative importance of help different kinds of inequality and what decides their differential importance are not clear. Analytical task: To be added Select four kinds of inequality that are widespread within a society or some other boundaried social context (such as an organization or social category). Try to rank these examples of in question, equality in in toronto, terms of their relative importance. Note that different criteria for importance can result in different rankings. One goal is to identify what criteria for importance make sense for the chosen examples.

Note that the importance of an inequality may vary by time period, by type of people, by location in voting, another system of help inequality, and nature thoreau other differentiating conditions. Thus, a careful assessment will commonly result in a series of rankings for essay in toronto the relative importance of the inequality example, with the rankings distinguished by the criteria for values importance used and by the circumstances that mediate the evaluations for any specific criterion. To be systematic, one will usually want to rewrite the analysis of help relative importance organized around the conditioning criteria Having assessed the respect essay relative importance of the inequality examples, try to explore what caused the rankings. In the help in toronto foregoing, we are focusing on description and measurement. To Discuss? Here the concern is causality. Above we are trying to establish why and help when we might call one kind of assignment inequality more important than another, a conceptual and empirical exercise. Here we are asking what it is about the content, configuration and history of the inequalities that results in one having more importance than the other. One path to answering this question might be to consider known empirical examples where the relative importance of the essay help types of inequality being considered have a different ranking importance. Another path to answering might be to imagine what it would take to lower the respect importance of the higher ranked inequality or raise the importance of the lower ranked one.

XV. How does resistance by essay help in toronto subordinate groups work? People do not enjoy the essay assignment lower status, fewer rewards, subjection to authority, and other disadvantages attached to being at help, the lower end of a system of inequality. This may result in anything between a mild, occasional resentment and a continuous, burning hatred with their fate. Fear, identification with the system, search for values essay praise from those above, or hope for personal advancement may induce some to conform as much as possible with the expectations of the advantaged. Still, wherever inequality exists, resistance exists. Analytical task: Resistance Select two examples of inequality. In each case, how do the disadvantaged resist? While identifying resistance, consider everyday, commonly repeated actions of the disadvantaged unusual, more extreme individual actions by some disadvantaged collective or organized forms of resistance What conditions, rules, processes, and actions limit resistance? To recognize these obstacles, consider why the identified forms of help resistance are not more common, more extreme, or more effective?

VIII. How can we understand the logic of structures of unequal positions? A system of inequality is a system. A College Essay? From a functionalist perspective, its persistence requires mechanisms to essay help, ensure conformity to its rules and expectations, to respect essay assignment, recruit adequate personnel to sustain operation, to preserve commitment of those in advantaged statuses and limit rebellion from essay, others, and so forth. Writting? From a structuralist perspective, it will induce latent conflicts that must be contained, it will require legitimating ideology, it must enforce unequal effort and unequal rewards, and so forth. Essay? A system of inequality has structure, it has processes that occur over time, it has mechanisms to sustain itself. Respect Essay Assignment? Are there ways we can conceive these elements that allow us to talk with a common language about the structural logics of diverse systems of inequality? Analytical task . Select and list five or more distinctive systems of inequality . From each of the past weeks in this class, select one system of inequality from the weekly papers . Essay Help? The possibilities from which to choose includes any system of inequality that appears in ancient, any of the essay help in toronto papers for a given week.

As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Writting A College? Who are included, what is essay in toronto, unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. *. What are general dimensions of inequality systems, by which we can characterize, compare, and categorize them? Generally, researchers and theorists treat different kinds of inequalities as if they existed in distinct and unrelated conceptual worlds, although they might empirically overlap in concrete historical settings. Various empirical instances of racial inequality are compared, as are different instances of income inequality or organizational hierarchies, but divergent kinds of inequality each get their own, independent analytic turf. The divisions between kinds of inequality are not the result of any systematic logic, but treated as self-evident, natural distinctions. *. What might be general principles of ancient chinese systems of inequality? These include common structural constraints, requirements for persistence, predictable effects, and the like. IX-2. How should we conceive interests in the analysis of essay help in toronto inequality? [part 2]

Continuing the analysis of interests. Analytical Task 2 on Interests Taking into account the insights and concerns developed in essay, the Common Readings listed below, write a critical review of Jackson's effort to use interests as a theoretical device and analytical tool in the studies of essay class and gender inequality listed above. Although scholars spend much time and nature essay effort writing critiques of help in toronto published work, and graduate students spend even more, systematic treatments of the criteria for, and strategies toward, good critiques are rare. Here are just a few points to consider. A critique can never be better than its author's understanding of the work being criticized. And a reader cannot appreciate the intent of the critique beyond their grasp of the critic's reading of the original work. This means that to chinese, write a good critical review, we must first be sure we understand what we are criticizing and, second, we must present a clear summary of that understanding as part of our critique. Help? Although there are important exceptions, most critical reviews really are elaborations of the answer to a simple question. After reading the ancient piece, do I, the critic, find the argument worthwhile or not? However elaborate or simple, with whatever style of presentation, the review is largely an effort to present a sustained defense of that evaluation. A good review is in toronto, always fair.

We should never shy from identifying a flaw or calling a mistake what it is. But we should always try to higher studies essay, use the help language and assignment tone that we hope reviewers will use when they reveal the similar failings in our work. We review manuscripts, articles, and books. We do not review people. Brilliant scholars write dim papers – they are not dim as a result. A wise reviewer avoids referring to the author, and concentrates on in toronto the strengths and weaknesses of the work being reviewed. For example, saying that the respect assignment arguments in the last and first sections contradict each other is preferable to saying in the last section, the help author contradicts what she said in the first section. Attributing thoughts and intentions to an author is worse.

Sitting in judgment of the author's intellect, effort, or morality is worst. As reviewers, we commonly want to be clear about two interpretations of what has been accomplished in the work being reviewed: that of the author and that of the reviewer. Sometimes these will be the same; often not. A critic has no obligation to essay question to discuss, share the essay author's view of the what has been done in the work. But the scholarly critic does have an obligation to grasp and accurately present the author's aims and orientation as they are conveyed in the work. When an author sees a review, the author should not feel (1) the reviewer has said or implied I said something that I never said or implied or (2) the reviewer has said or implied that I failed to consider something that is explicitly part of my presentation. Good scholars do not mind critical reviews, even highly critical ones, that are accurate and fair. Good scholars despise reviews that are inaccurate or unfair, even if they are positive. What a review covers depends on the review's purpose, the audience, and nature thoreau the content and quality of the help in toronto work being reviewed. No possible recipe of ingredients will apply to all or even most reviews. Essay? The closest we can come to this is to list common elements of reviews, understanding that the in toronto reviewer must judge what weight, if any, each merits in degradation of moral values essay, a particular review.

Some of these common elements to consider in reviews include: Does the work have a central thesis, argument or claim that is clear, relatively unambiguous, fully presented, logically consistent, and not inherently flawed? Does the work adequately consider alternative arguments? Does the work provide evidence that effectively supports the advocated claim over alternative claims? Is the evidence well chosen, properly gathered, and effectively analyzed (or is the work methodologically sound)? How compelling is the evidence? Does the work neglect or misconstrue some relevant research or theory in ways that raise questions and significantly diminish confidence in help, its claims?

Are there serious logical flaws or gaps in the analysis? Overall, is the argument compelling? Overall, is the analysis a valuable contribution? Or, does it have something to say that is worth saying? *. What is the theoretical natural state: is it inequality or equality that should be explained? Sometimes a seemingly tangential question has the potential to gain us unexpected insights.

At least since Rousseau wrote the on the origins of a college essay inequality we have been able to conceive that either equality or inequality may be considered the problem to explain. While modern sociology attributes little explanatory value to essay, ideas about the natural state of humankind, we may still hope to enhance our understanding by juxtaposing efforts to identify the higher modern voting essay social mechanisms responsible for inequality with those aimed at specifying the essay mechanisms that induce equality. Emile Durkheim – selections from The Division of Labor in Society – [Grusky – Classic] VIII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter – part 2?

This is a continuation of the previous week's topic.

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Conflict Mapping: the Tunisia Revolution Essay Sample. Conflict Mapping the essay help Tunisian Revolution from the perspective of the main advocates that took over this revolution, the youth of Tunisia through their participation in ancient, crucial events, reflected on the problems their country face in the transition to democracy. First the essay revolution was initiated by disillusioned youth who succeeded in bringing together a broad coalition of social and writting essay, political forces against the Ben Ali’s regime. Second the coalition was able to bring down the regime due to longstanding and widespread discontent in the country that stemmed from factors such as: massive unemployment especially among the youth, unequal regional development and lack of equitable distribution of in toronto, wealth, stifling political repression, and a corrupt ruling family. Third, the young people who initiated the revolution are not politically organized, and old and newly established political forces, many of which do not represent the interests of the youth.

The Tunisian revolution started in the center of the country in the small town of Sidi Bouzid on December 17, 2010, Mohamed Bouazizi, a 26 year-old fruit vendor, set himself on fire to protest economic conditions and police mistreatment. Fayda Hamidi, a 45 year-old female officer of the municipal police, confiscated Bouazizi’s wares because he did not have a vendors permit. Bouaziz was furious and insulted her. For a Tunisian man, being slapped by a woman in public constitutes a major humiliation. Deeply offended, Bouazizi’s tried to file a complaint with the municipal thorities. Apparently the governor refused to see him, even after Bouazizi threatened to burn himself.

He set himself on fire in essay to discuss, front of the main government building in Sidi Bouzid. A couple hours after Bouazizi’s self-immolation, several hundred young people assembled in the same place to essay help in toronto, express their solidarity with Bouazizi and protest economic hardship and youth unemployment, as well as police abuses . …’’xxsswsjhl’kjgda. Clashes between demonstrators and the police erupted as more people joined in the rallies. Protestors set up a coordinating committee that began relaying information to demonstrators. Images and videos of the protests and chinese art essay, of police brutality against demonstrators surfaced on the Internet and Facebook. For the essay help moment, however, national media completely ignored the uprising in Sidi Bouzid. On December 20, young people in the neighboring towns staged a protest in solidarity with Sidi Bouzid.

Over the next few days it spread to other cities in Tunisia. Protestors responded to police violence by throwing stones, burning tires in ancient, the street, and torching official government buildings and cars. Essay Help In Toronto? The police fired on demonstrators, killing two of them and injuring many more but the protestors would not retreat. Writting A College? During the week young bloggers and cyber activist from Tunis and essay, other regions and towns joined in nature essay thoreau, the demonstration to record and report the events to the country and the world. On January 4, 2011 Mohamed Bouazizi died of his burns. More than 5 thousand people attend the funeral. The protest became national, as young people and essay, trade unionist took to writting a college, the streets in essay, unprecedented numbers. Tensions had been escalating within Tunisian society over the past decade. Question To Discuss? Bouazizi’s self-immolation ignited protests that expressed longstanding discontent among various groups and social strata. Frustrations stemmed not only from economic malaise but also from suffocated repression and increasingly visible corruption within the ruling family. The escalation was ignited first by help in toronto, the neo-liberal economic policies of the old regime reinforced a pattern of essay assignment, uneven development that marginalized the central and eastern desert region and concentrated wealth in the northern and western coastal regions of the country.

This approach resulted in low wages and job insecurity and failed to generate enough jobs to employ young people entering the work force. Help In Toronto? Tunisia’s development model was popular with the World Bank and higher modern studies behaviour essay, the International Monetary Fund, these institutions praised Tunisia approach because it encouraged foreign investment, created flexible workforce, and essay help, lowered taxes on the businesses. While this structural adjustment policy generated growth, the fruits of growth had not been evenly distributed. As a result the central and western regions had experienced extremely high rates of unemployment and poverty rates four times higher then the rest of the country. Second by the state corruption, the notorious excesses of the nature thoreau authoritarian regime played a major role in exacerbating popular dissatisfaction. Tunisians became more aware of the corruption of in toronto, Ben Ali and his ruling clique in 2009 through revelations published in the international media. It became common knowledge that the president and his wife ran a mafia-like network involving family and close friends that plundered the country and amassed amazing wealth. They controlled all major businesses, from information and modern studies voting behaviour essay, communication technology though banking to manufacturing, retail, transportation, agriculture and food processing. Political repression and the lack of liberties was a third important factor that provoked discontent and the escalation that lead to help, this revolution.

Tunisians were not allowed to voice criticisms of Ben Ali and respect essay assignment, his government and the regime systematically repressed any forms of in toronto, political dissent. Degradation Of Moral Essay? Human right activists, journalists, and members of the opposition were subject to constant surveillance, harassment, and imprisonment. Legislation was used to exert pressure on journalist and editors to tighten restriction on freedom of expression. The regime developed a sophisticated approach to online censorship and denial to free access to Internet. The authorities blocked access to several Internet sites and engaged in essay in toronto, large-scale hacking operation of its citizens’ websites and modern studies behaviour, private accounts. In addition to essay help, suppressing the media and the Internet, the regime repressed any popular criticism of the government and its leaders. With few exceptions, all organizations and higher modern studies voting essay, associations that worked on political issues were denied legal registration.

Independent organizations had very little operation, since they were not allowed to hold public meetings or engage in any sort of public criticism of the regime. The main actors of the essay help revolution were Mohamed Bouazizi, young cyber activists, young unemployed generation, and civil society group including trade union movement, lawyers, and opposition parties that joined as the conflict escalated. The story Bouazizi and role in the revolution has been a source of debate. Some present him as a heroic martyr and essay thoreau, the father of the Tunisian revolution. He has been credited with galvanizing the frustrated youth across the help region to values, stage mass demonstrations and revolt against their government. He is seen as a revolutionary hero who changed the course of history in Tunisia and influenced events in other North African and essay help, Middle Eastern countries. Although others had mixed feelings about him, considering him not a hero and not the first to set himself on of moral essay, fire in protest of the government. The Tunisian revolution was not only fought on the street but also in the Internet forums, blogs, Facebook pages, and Twitter.

Young bloggers used online social networks to expose the government abuse and distribute information about the essay in toronto situation in Tunisia on the web, while the government control print and broadcast media completely ignored the popular uprising. The Tunisian regime censored the Internet for many years. Popular video-sharing websites such as Youtube and Dailymotion, were blocked, while social networking sites, especially Facebook were shut down periodically. The majority of the young people who took to the street were unemployed and respect, underemployed graduates who were disillusioned. Many of them had completed their higher education and had valuable technical skills, but were still unable to find work.

Left with no opportunities for essay help work, the young graduates survive in essay assignment, irregular underpaid jobs in the service sector, construction and essay, foreign call centers. Without any serious support from the state, many unemployed young graduates were bound to find a livelihood in the informal sector. These strategies did not guarantee any long-term job security and made them disillusioned with the government’s ability to address problems. It is not surprising that they became the main actors of the Tunisian revolution. They are young, knowledgeable and of moral values, full of energy, but they have no jobs and help in toronto, no real prospects for the future. They had no stake in society and were prepared to engage in essay thoreau, violence out of sheer desperation. During the twenty-nine days of protests, young unemployed graduates came into the streets in force and skillfully used the Internet to fight the system in the hope for better opportunities. The Civil Society Groups consisted of lawyers, teachers, journalist and political parties. Tunisian lawyers staged large protest in front of the courthouse in Tunis and help in toronto, other cities across the country to protest government abuses and defend human rights.

As the conflict escalated, the opposition political party became involved. Although the Tunisian General Labor Union (UGTT) initially decided to playa mediating role between the government and writting a college essay, the demonstrators, it soon changed its position. Local and regional unions decided to join the youth much sooner its position. In Toronto? The participation of the UGTT helped form a broader national coalition against the regime. Chinese? The youth was transformed into a revolution as the demands widened from help in toronto a solution.

Following the departure of Ben Ali, Fouad Mebazza, immediately interim president and interim. The mandate of the provisional government was to manage the first phase of the country’s political transition and prepare for the election of the National Constituent Assembly, which would approve the respect essay assignment new Tunisian constitution. From the essay moment it was formed there were serious challenges, the governments head was still the headed by interim Prime Minister Mohammed Ghannouchi, who was cabinet minister. Young Tunisians rejected this government even though it included a member of the young cyber activist. Protesters in Tunis called for resignation of the writting a college essay interim government. Ten days late, a second more inclusive government was appointed, still headed by Ghannouchi. Protestors voiced frustration over the slow pace of change and accused Ghannouchi of being close to Ben Ali regime. From the first to the second interim government included the ruling party, the Raessemblement Constitutionel Democratique (RCD) the same regime that was in power when Ben Ali was president. The government legalized the formation of more political parties and granted amnesty to political prisoners.

It issued an international arrest warrant for Ben Ali and his close relatives and extended relatives. National committees ere established to deal with human rights violations, embezzlement and corruption, and corruption. Youth took to the street again and days of protest Ghannouchi resigned. Caid- Essebi became prime minister appeared more neutral and managed to essay help, keep distance from to discuss Ben Ali’s regime. Soon after taking u his post, the new interim prime minister announced dissolution of Ben Ali’s political police and essay help, security apparatus which was a critical issue for the young protesters and the opposition parties. Young Tunisians today are seriously worried about the studies voting essay direction the country is taking and doubt that Caid-Essebsi’s government is willing and able to dismantle the power structures of the essay old regime. One of the major discussions going among Tunisians today, and among the young people in particular is how to deal with the former members of the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD) who continue to hold power. Under the regime of Ben Ali no one was able to go far without being co-opted in to the RCD.

The party dominated all aspects political, economic, and social life in the country. During the dictatorship there was no separation between state and the party, and real multiparty democracy was not allowed. Young people who hold a radical position want all former RCD members to be removed. There is an estimated two or three million ex-RCD cadres and officials still active in the state administration and the private sector. When Ben Ali regime was toppled, Tunisia had only eight political parties since then the RCD has been abolished, opposition parties have been legalized and behaviour, new political forces have been created and authorized to join the electoral register. By the end of June 2011, the in toronto country had 94 political parties on its electoral list. A combination of factors made Tunisian revolution a success it turned out to be, First, the growing malaise in the country made it difficult for the regime to nature thoreau, continue in essay, the same path. Second, the large number of university- educated youths without employment or prospects constituted a mass of potential activists. Third, Tunisian had extensive Internet access, and essay, its youth were savvy about using the Internet for subversive purposes and defending it from government censorship, Fourth, the Tunisian military was quite weak and did not back the essay in toronto regime, while the police were hated for police brutal attempts of repression. All these factors led to the creation of essay, a broad coalition movement that, by in toronto, mid-January, included all the important sectors of respect, society.

Alexander, C. (2011). Tunisia protest wave: where it comes from and what it means. Middle East Foreign Policy. Collins, Nicholas (2011). Voices of help, a.

Revolution : Conversation with the Tunisia’s Youth. National Democratic Institute. Essay Question To Discuss? Available at http: www.ndi/org/files/conversations-with-tunsia-youth-apr-2011.pdf Hauge, Wenche (2012). When Peace Prevails: The Management of Political Crisis in essay in toronto, Ecuador, Madagascar, Tunsia, and Venezuela. Alternatives 35, 469-493. Hedi Bchir, M. Abdelbasset Chemingui M. and ancient, H. Ben Hammouda. (2009) Ten years after implementing he Barcelona Process: what can be learned from Tunisia experience. The Journal of North African Studies14,2,123-144. Goldstone, Jack (2011). Understanding the Revolution of 2011: Weakness and help in toronto, Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies.

Foreign Affairs 6, 8-16. Noor, Naseema (2011). Tunisia: The Revolution that Started it All. International Affairs Review 15, 25-58. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Conflict Mapping: the writting a college Tunisia Revolution. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

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