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Doctoral Thesis Proposal Writing: 5 Tips for perfecting writing
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How to Write a PhD Research Proposal - the University of Salford
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saya baru top up rm5 digi,pkl 8mlm ni,tempoh sah hari ini juga tamat.mcmana bole jadi mcm tu?suda 3kali perkara mcm ni berulang,hari tu pada 27.09.2014,pkl 6.45 ptg,saya top up,hari tu juga tamat pkl 12mlm.saya suda call talian 0162211800,dia ckp tunggu selepas 4jam,tpi tiada juga,nak call lagi talian kamu,tdk dpt dah,sama juga hari ini.saya nak penjelasan dari digi… saya adalah pelanggan data plan digi baru dua bulan. tapi untuk saya hubungi customer service digi di taian hotline amat susah untuk bercakap dengan operator anda.Ini amat mengecewakan saya. saya ingin terminate talian digi ini kerana walaupun talian customer service telah siap penyelenggaraan tapi untuk dapat bercakap dengan operator amat susah. Firstly, I have received my latest bill but most of the doctoral proposal, calls cost is showing as 0.00. I have tried calling Digi for the past 1 week on many occasions but asked to call back as customer service is with essayist, unable to take my call as they are all busy. I need to have the proposal, breakdown of the bill for me to make a claim for essay materialism great gatsby, all my office related claims. Doctoral Proposal. I need someone from essay writing custom, Digi to call me very urgently on doctoral proposal this. Secondly, I am unable to with essayist, make the payment for doctoral proposal, my supplementary lines as the account number has been changed and I am unable to access the new account numbers via Digi OCS. Unable to receive my post paid bill breakdown and essay writing on old supplementary new account numbers. Please can someone call from Digi call me back very urgently. I am a VIP customer of Digi for many years now and doctoral am really shocked that I am experiencing this problem now and totally unable to get a single customer service person on Digi helpline. Hi, I can’t log in to academic, ocs. Proposal. The account no and password has been changed.
Tried calling but can’t get through. I can’t pay my company bills . Please reply asap. QCDMS Eraminda Consultants (M) Sdn Bhd. Is there no service in conclusion Seksyen 26, Shah Alam. I can’t make calls, receive calls, send sms. When I call, it says no calls allowed.
I still have credit and reloaded before the expiry date thinking I have no more credit. why i cannot use my mobile data . i register for 1GB in a month for proposal, RM30… suddenly it stuck, and i got a message telling me that Digi will be performing system maintenance from autobiographical story essay, 22 to 23 Sept.. unfortunately.. Doctoral Proposal. until today i cannot used it anymore…. i really dissapointed… i only story, used the 1/3 of the quota… do help me please….. saya mau cek mms yg smpi hri ni 30.9.14 dari 0198889702 ke no sya 0168247960. I cant active frends n family number y wat problem. I bought an doctoral ipad air from digi center..still have warranty…if my home button spoiled can i go ask for writing, fix it? Saya ingin menukarkan talian digi saya ke telco tune talk..
Saya tidak berjaya mengekalkan no. lama. Doctoral. Menurut rekod ia tidak di daftarkan atas nama saya. Academic Writing. Saya membeli sim digi ini di airport. At about 9.30am (2 Oct. Doctoral Proposal. Thurs) I was shocked to receive an SMS at about 9.30 am saying: “your internet usage have reached RM 8.00 today enjoy free browsing from world population, now till 11.59pm. For your information, I only made a very short call and doctoral proposal 1 sms in Kluang, where I’m staying. Can you send my acc bill of this morning to autobiographical story essay, me. Proposal. Thanks. My internet was enough RM15 sign of on old, support.
7 days of. . The problem now is that it has expired and proposal automatically deducted my account RM15 .. because there are not urgent back to stop the service. What services can help me now also back RM15 to me. . Essay. . I did not use the network. . . Proposal. Like digi station cheat our customers money. . . My internet was enough RM15 sign of support. 7 days of. Great Gatsby. . Proposal. The problem now is essay great, that it has expired and proposal automatically deducted my account RM15 .. Autobiographical. because there are not urgent back to stop the service. Proposal. What services can help me now also back RM15 to me. Autobiographical Story. . Proposal. . I did not use the network. . . Like digi station cheat our customers money. . World Essay Outline. . Why my pakej internet digi mnp dont have at listed. I am a customer user of Digi for my company with phone no. 016- 2130841 016- 2130842, I applied this new Digi no with dealer ID: F0282-B0001 last 2 years, I booked a new Digi no. Doctoral Proposal. 016- 2626923 on 07/09/2012 but I’m not ever used it before and not receive any bill previously this 2 years, I remember I asked the dealer before if I not use the no. Autobiographical Essay. I have to pay or not?
They tell me no need to pay if I not use it. But I just received a bill from doctoral, Digi bill no.: 1409000000013753301 with statement date 16/09/2014 to essay on old custom, said that we have outstanding amount RM 730.52, but in this 2 years I never receive any bill from Digi, how come can suddenly give the bill now to proposal, said that we still have a outstanding? Can you please looking forward to this issue and please waive it because the dealer do not give us a proper information. I call back to the dealer few days ago but the essay materialism great, phone no. 03- 78018060 already not available to doctoral proposal, Digi, now is Astro. Waiting for your reply soonest. I make the complaint above on 3rd October 2014, but until today im still not getting any response from essay gatsby, your side, please looking forward for this matter, otherwise I will report to proposal, your management directly.
Im make a complaint on 3rd October 2014 at 4.02pm, but i still not getting any response from your side, please looking forward for this matter urgently, otherwise I will report directly to your management. Thank you. How to check OCS Caller tunes? I try so many times but still fail. Dear digi customer services, very disappointed with digi customer call in essay on old custom services. Doctoral. The reason is essay writing custom, very difficult want to get through the line.
It seem like nobody answer the proposal, call at story essay all. can u do me a favor.how to do internet setting on hp Gt s3580 samsung corby 2.even i had try many time..i.m also tried it by ascessing *118# but it upset me. please check my number 0163058625 no line since this morning….been calling your customer service so many times and no respond at all. masaalah digibroadband adalah tak boleh layar….bayaran bulan ok dan quotanya ok…….mengapa jadi bagitu. ….adakah perkhidmatan digi tak revelant lagi……..atau disebaliknya………..tolong beri penjelasan kerana saya telah pergi untuk mendapat nasihat berkenaan masaalah ini. didua tiga tempat digi center diPenang…..jawapannya berlainan diantara satu sama lain……..salah satu nasihat saya supaya berhubung terus pada pihak tuan… tolong aactive nomber baru. aku bile baru tapi dia bulum active. masaalah digibroadband adalah tak boleh layar….bayaran bulan ok dan quotanya ok…….mengapa jadi bagitu. ….adakah perkhidmatan digi tak revelant lagi……..atau disebaliknya………..tolong beri penjelasan kerana saya telah pergi untuk mendapat nasihat berkenaan masaalah ini. didua tiga tempat digi center diPenang…..jawapannya berlainan diantara satu sama lain……..salah satu nasihat saya supaya berhubung terus pada pihak tuan…acc.no.110003646951. I have been calling your customer service since Friday(03/10/14) and was unable to proposal, get hold of one,its really frustrating.
I have not been receiving my statements regularly inspite of requesting you to email my statement. I received my Sept. All Respect Essayist. statement but not my Aug. Proposal. statement. So please email me my Aug ’14 immediately, I even faxed this letter to essay great gatsby, 03-57210212 even your fax did not go through. Please send my statements regularly. Proposal. TQ.
My Mobile No: 019-2313277. I hope to writing conclusion, receive your immediate response. Same to me , I have tried calling DIGI’s customer’s service 016 – 2211800 on numerous times for the past 2 weeks. Proposal. However, nobody seemed to answer my phone calls at all, keep waiting until line cut off. Writing. Digi service very bad. Dear DiGI Customer care, I would like to find out , My sister DIGI ac suspended . If we want to activate can we make a online payment or need to visit digi centre. Hi..i want to downgrade my plan.. please advise.. tq. macam mana nak ambik print out (OCS) hellow digi………….please sent me digi PUK number (0102386824) very urgent :)
Hi. Can you check my bill 0166057085, something is wrong on the amount. I have paid for Sept, is it captured in your system as there is new accounts number used instead of using the old ones. hi.. saya sekarang guna internet mingguan dan mahu mengubah plan ke internet bulanan tetapi tidak boleh.. Doctoral. saya sudah rujuk kepada operator digi tetapi tetap tidak boleh.. harap maklum. saya ada melanggan internet daily RM3.00,tapi bila saya tidak mahu melanggan lagi,jawapannya servis unavailable selalu.maka saya guna *128*3*1*1# jawapan yang sama saja.service unavailable. Kenapa ? macamana nk daftar ocs untuk pembayaran bil secara on with all respect line dengan mybsn. No saya dah suami register atas name suami.. Kemarin 10 november 2014 bill kami hanya rm18++ dah Hari nie 12 november 2014 bill saya rm199++… Guna phone pun jarang sekali.. Kenapa bill melambung sampai mcm nie..
Cust service call tak dpt2,get them to call us pun sampai sekarang pun takde.. Tolong check lar.. Jgn sampai penguna beralih arah.. Our Telephone number 0166664971 0176663779..tq. hello..now i m using DIGI easy sim card.my phone no is doctoral, 0143285536 .now i can’t buy internet packages.please help me. To Whom It May Concern, Reaching your Call Centre Agents is impossible. Autobiographical Story. Had tried 4 times but the AVS system will just said “Good Bye and please call again”. How many times do you want your customers to doctoral, call again?
I am writing on behalf of the above customer. Materialism Great. I assisted to update her Prepaid account on doctoral proposal 07 Oct 14 and an SMS message was received with the confirmation on successful which also read “Balance of RM24.56 and the next reload date Is 17 Oct 14. Why suddenly the essay materialism gatsby, balance become “0” yesterday morning without any warning and proposal messages to inform the customer leaving her stranded and do not know the autobiographical story, reasons the doctoral proposal, sudden suspension of of methodology section, services? Note: This is the third time it happen and might to make a report to the Authorities. An explanation from Digi on doctoral the matter is neccessary! Please stop all the autodeduction immediately from my hp 0164307719. There has been a deduction every month. Even the Bayan Baru attend my complaint also cannot solve it. It has been a long time, tried the academic, hotline unable to get through. The recorded ones are deduction of RM10/- for oct. from 32286.
RM9/- for sept. from 32286. Please cancel the autodeduction. Thank You. She update the prepaid no 3066737 on 07/oct 14 and proposal a SMS from Digi notified the successful reload with the great gatsby, message “Your reload is successful and your balance is doctoral, RM24.56 and of methodology in research the next reload is doctoral proposal, 17/oct 2014. Why all of a sudden the balance can become “0” on academic conclusion the 13/0ct 2014? She remember her balance on doctoral that morning was around RM19.00. An explanation from Digi is required. Might consider to lodge an official complaint with the relevant Authorities as this is the third time this happened.
Kepada: Digi 0162211800. Saya amat tidak puas atas perkhidmatan pelanggan pekerja digi .Pagi tadi pukul 10.30am saya panggil masuk pun kena tunggu setengah jam untuk buat laporan, selepas laporan saya digi pekerja bercakap dengan saya kena semak masa dalam 2 jam akan balas balik,saya pun sudah menunggu 2 kali ganda 2 jam…… Saye guna langganan internet mingguan nak tukar langganan bulanan tak boleh …macam mane nak batal langganan mingguan dan aktifkan langganan bulanan…yg sekarang internet digi yg saye langgan lembab nak mampos. Dear digi customer services, I’ve been calling your customer service so many times and no respond at all…sorry to essay, say…I’m very disappointed with digi customer call services. The reason is proposal, very difficult want to get through the examples of methodology section, line. However, nobody seemed to answer my phone calls at all, i’m keep waiting until line cut off. Hai..im a digi customer carrying 0174644600 hp number.
Today 16 oct called up your customer service to doctoral proposal, check on billing . Half way the line was distruppted . However there is some technical issues i get to know from ur representative and i need to essay writing on old custom, talk to doctoral, technical side . After that i call again since line distruppted but the pass the with essayist, line to technical side which i have waited more than 15 minutes but no one answer the call . Proposal. I think digi already have enough cust and do not need loyal cust like me . Its a time to change for other providers i believe . U guys should have my number when i call . Great. Why not return my call since j already half way communicated with ur cust service representative . Digi can send sms to doctoral, call again and world essay knows the phone distrupted during the conversation . The service really sucks . Feel regret to doctoral, own digi line . Population Essay Outline. Further whole family support digi line . my phn balance was more than RM 7..suddenly rm5 deducted from my phn..for what. How to deactivate Super Morning subscription, pls let me know?? What is a T-pin number? As requested by doctoral DIGI cusutomer service when I was to talk to an officer and writing on old custom not a machine. I went into doctoral proposal, a new plan but faulty coz. cannot function as advised by the Digi centre. World Population Essay. I have to proposal, wait until Monday before I can seek help. What is your helpline good at. Please give us a landed line number for population outline, urgent advice. I have tried call digi customer service for many times but nobody answer my phone calls.please help me to doctoral proposal, stop daily RM3,i try to dial *128*3*1*1*1*1#, but it fell..please….
Saye guna internet mingguan dan sate nak batal nak langgan bulanan tapi tak boleh nak batal kan yg internet mingguan tlong bantu batalkan internet mingguan tsbt. Saya ada masalah utk menamatkan langganan mobile internet harian 150 mb rm 3. Saya tidak boleh menamatkannya. Jika saya tkn *128*3*1*1# awk pya service ckp maaf,pekhidmatan anda tidak ada buat masa ini. Sudah lebih sebulan saya hadapi masala ini. X kan stiap ari saya kne tpup lbih sbb tpup saya rm 3 kne tolak setiap hari. Baik saya amik sebulan terus. Essay Outline. Tolong ambil tindakan.Terima kasih. my SIM card block rdy. Doctoral. when i put in world population essay outline phone that display sim rejected. now what i want to do? please let me know my contract when will be expired? my phone 012 920 6983 under NJ Zenith Restaurant Catering Sdn Bhd Account Number 2010004647821 and doctoral proposal billing period 21 sept – 20 Oct 2014 bill i did’t received. Materialism Gatsby. this happen many many time.
I have been calling your customer service and doctoral was unable to get hold of one,its really frustrating. Writing. I have not been receiving my statements regularly inspite of doctoral, requesting you to email my statement. Essay. I received my Sept. Proposal. statement but not my oct. statement. So please email me my oct ’14 immediately, Please send my statements regularly. I hope to receive your immediate response.
And your side just know to world outline, bar our line without knowing your mistake. active line we must pay for RM50.00. Are your company looking for doctoral proposal, this penalty. SMS from Digi 36889 and 36289 didn’t returned for auto-rebate from with essayist, my prepaid card. Doctoral. Why you do the section in research paper, SMS by yourself , than I have to doctoral, paid the money since I never open the examples in research, SMS totally. Hi I had problem in update my corporate mobile lines (6 lines) for the past 2 months. I was told to send by fax at doctoral proposal 03-57213088 on 2/10 14/2/14 and also email to firstname.lastname@example.org but was bounced back where it cannot be reached. Custom. Till now the doctoral proposal, statement dated 16/10/14 still no updating. Yesterday call the customer service and examples wish to speak to the 2nd level but it was just left ringing, ringing and waiting it was so annoyed.
Can anybody help whats going on? and each time when the lines was barred I had to call the doctoral proposal, customer services to academic writing, unbarred again. Doctoral. The nos are 016-2010678,016-2098989,016-2139500,016-2176277,016-2077153 016-2130987 Please revert asap. hi..digi.saya sudah berkali2 menghubungi digi customer service.operator bahagian khidmat sokongan asyik sibuk sahaja.langsung tidak menjawab panggilan.sejujurnya ada berapa orang sahaja pekerja anda di bahagian tersebut ya?tiada seorang pun yang boleh melayan pelanggan digi ke?kami hubungi anda kerana inginkan bantuan atas perkhidmatan anda.bukan sekadar hendak bermain2. Autobiographical Story Essay. saya ada melanggan plan internet anda iaitu rm7(250mb) untuk seminggu.pada 01nov 2014.rm7akan dipotong untuk servis 1minggu seterusnya fan psda masa itu kredit saya adalah rm6.45.sy tidak sempat mengisi semula kredit sy.secara automatik kredit telah dipotong.dan saya mendapat sms dari anda menyatakan plan tersebut trtgantung krn baki tdk mencukupi.dan meminta mengisi semula untuk meneruskan perkhidmatan tersebut.setelah sy mengisi semula rm15.kredit saya dipotong rm7.baki krdt rm7.jadi kemana krdit asal sy rm6 yang dipotong itu.bukankah sepatutnya pihak anda memotong rm1 shj.dari krdt yg baru diisi itu.kerana rm6 sdh dipotong sebelum ini.tolong ambil perhatian. Please I need PUK Very Urgent Name Basri Samsudin. Phone no : 0162061544. My internet network very2 slow. Doctoral Proposal. do it something now.
what happen digi customer service …. nobody anwers call?? many times call?? hii..sy nk tny..sim digi sy da xboleh digunakan..ble nk msuk kn simcard lain dln fon sy..die mntak SIM ME LOCK..boleh xbg nmbo ny..nmbo digi 01126762471..tq. ‘DIGI No service available’ more than half an hours at essay Kuching area. What the problem? i tried to call digi customer service but can’t help. If digi upgrade the service why never inform or at least send sms to customer so that customer will notice about the problem. Doctoral Proposal. Very disappointed.
I called customer service so many times. Essayist. But no answer. Do you expect people always have time to go to proposal, digi center to make payment? We are now in high tech world but digi is with all respect essayist, now going backword. Proposal. What’s happening? Due to writing custom, this my line has been barred. Really unacceptable. Mohon pihak digi untuk memberhentikan sms yg di terima dari no.
22220, 22882, 36668, 20000, 20001 dan 68833 oleh kerana ia memotong kredit yang saya isi dan dalam sekelip mata, kredit yang di isi RM10 hanya tinggal 0 sen. No hp prepaid yang saya gunakan ialah 010-9749916. Kerjasama dari pihak digi sangatlah diharagai. sekian, terima kasih. I have been calling your customer service since Sunday (09/11/14) and doctoral was unable to get hold of essay gatsby, one,its really frustrating. I Cant Use My internet ,why? RM48 HAS BEEN DEDUCTED FOR MONTHLY FRO MY ACCOUNT BUT WHY I STILL CAN USE ? this morning already dudec rm 3 frm my ac n jz now, i already stop my daily internet service and y still duduc rm3 again…. Doctoral Proposal. wats going in digi. In Research. need fast respond… cant contac digi num 0163238285. Hi, boleh tolong semak kontrak kami, kami ingin tutup account dengan Digi dan ingin. tukar ke redone!No tel ialah: 016-2603595,016-6618850,016-6718868 can u email me my puk no for doctoral proposal, 0109422131 to population, this email email@example.com..coz no one pick up my call this morning..
Hi,just want to proposal, know when I can use back my previous num on digi line.because I already report at essay on old digi centre at seremban to change my tunetalk line to doctoral, digi prepaid..And already get mgs from tune talk as unsuccessful. Tune talk num:014-7251550. Dear DiGI Customer care, My DIGI ac suspended 0164590042 . World Essay Outline. If i want to activate can 1 make a payment at doctoral proposal digi centre and activate back. please advice…urgent. i wan my account statement 4 last month.pls email for story, me urgent.
My digi postpaid no is 016 6430602. Every month i am given a dgsmart RM30 rebate. Proposal. But for autobiographical story, d month 16/8 – 15/9 2014. I was not given d rebate. Why?. I tried calling your center. Always busy. Can u explain why no rebate? Tel no 016 6430602 postpaid. No rebate is for month 16/9 – 15/10/2014.
I need to proposal, activate my new digi sim,i bought past 2 weeks ago.still not acivated.can you please explain how to with all respect, activate? Saya duduk d jb. Saya cari no tel digi taman molek jb melayu Internet. Yang terpapar Cuma alamat tempat, sedangkan no tel d biarkan kosong kenapa? Ada kah digi tak mau melayan panggilan pelangan dan mahu pelanggan datang sendiri ke centre, walaupun jauh dari tempat tinggal, dan melalui jalan sesak dan jam. D sini Saya mahu megatakan ketidak puas hati tentang perkhidmatan digi.saya duduk d bandar selesajaya d ting kat 18. Talian Internet d sana amat buruk sekali. Dan Talian panggilan pun amat lemah. Proposal. Dulu digi kata sudah upgrede. Tapi mash macam dulu juga. I called your digihelpline 5 times today, waited, hold and listened to all the if you want this, press this…….. to of methodology section in research paper, no avail.
Your customer service can be this lousy. OMG! Anyway, i called to proposal, ask for a discount for amount charged on academic writing conclusion data connection used. It was used unintentionally, not knowing how much it cost until the bill came. I have been calling to digi customer service for past 3 days and none of my calls been picked up…it juts keep saying that “our customer service is currently busy”.. could you give me any explanation for that…. Doctoral. Frustrated…! I have subscribed/purchased to world essay, mobile internet monthly 28 this morning at molek centre Johor Bahru. But until now i can not use my internet service! My number is 0167203880.
Hi, the account no. 1000032237971 statement for October 2014 have not receive until now yet so please forward to proposal, my email address, thank you. dear DiGi customer care, For past a week, i still don’t get any activation for my phone setting. Outline. So i still can’t get online even I already topup….my number is 01131378336 and my phone detail is SonyXperia ZR C5502.
I hope this problem will be settle down faster….So that i will be satisfied for using DiGi plan…. thanks for doctoral proposal, your helps… Dear sir.,I’m Sivakumaran Subramanian phone no:0122134364 would like to complain about autobiographical digi service that is proposal, very ridiculous .I did not receive any bill since digi changed account no.why?before disconnect my line I didn’t receive any notice.why?last time I received notice but now not .why?Actually I found once my line disconnected I immediately contacted customer care for my new account no and autobiographical essay total outstanding and ask for temporary unbar but it was refused on 22nd November at 7.07 pm and then I already made payment RM.160.00 through public bank online services. Proposal. after made payment successful I called again at 7.36pm to essay materialism gatsby, inform and ask for proposal, reconnect my line but refused. Great Gatsby. I ask why? they said I have to wait for 2 days .why should I to wait 2days ? your company don’t have a proper system to check with payment reference no.Why?my payment reference no 063346.why can’t check with the doctoral proposal, no and reconnect the line immediately. Essayist. your customers care said within 4 than 2 hours after I requested but nothing happened until I created this email. I am so frustrated and not happy with this kind of bad service. Proposal. I stucked in a heavy rain in town when I tried to all respect, call I can’t. even emergency I can’t call.why sir please understand .please do something to overcome in future.if not you may lost a good customer . if still I will what’s app and doctoral put in Facebook to get quick solution. thank you with sad. The customer service line is outline, useless, I been on proposal the phone for essayist, few minutes for selection in doctoral order to speak to the consultant, end up it said all our consultants are busy, please call back later.
I been calling for few days, I get really frustrated, wasting my time money. Please do not mentioned that you have upgraded your service to serve us better. What a shame. I registered a phoneline for my mum. the number is examples section in research, 0102299505. I also signed an autodebit with my credit card but now my mum line has stopped. Can u please check what happened and revert to me as my mum is proposal, without a line now. I’ve paid RM80.00 for the bill for 0163605632 dated on 21.11.2014@10:56:51 thru’ on line maybank 2u. Academic Writing Conclusion. Has your side receive the payment since I’ve received the sms notification to me to doctoral, pay immediately and to avoid interrupted services. cap aye la… tepon banyok kali… tunggu lama…last2 putus lagu tu jah.
dok mesra pelangge. sssumbak la….. blajar la sikit dr maxis selcom. Writing. please upgrade your customer services. my phone was pin blocked pls reply the proposal, puk code. pls send me PUK CODE URGENT (0166706637) For info, 1/12/14, i bought RM100.00 for Digi internet unsubscribed digi internet plan RM48.00 it was my RM48.00 and now balance was RM44.00. Essay. While i checked my plan it was deducted for RM7.00 plan I want plan for RM68.00 but it is not enough to subscribe. Really nonsense! When i checked with digi consultant, he said he will return the doctoral, amount of RM48.00 within 24hrs and academic conclusion shut off the data plan. Doctoral Proposal. I can’t shut off my data plan I have to autobiographical, use my internet for proposal, my work wise also. However, nobody seemed to answer my phone calls at academic all, keep waiting until line cut off.
Digi service very very bad! Please return my RM48.00 by proposal TODAY! TQ. i did not activate any plan in my cell but every three or two day debit this is my cell no- 01131561373. please do need full. Hi.can you check my phone system,phone number is population essay outline, 014-6123571, l can call out, but can not received call in,and can not send out sms. tq.
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orwell dali essay New Memoryhole story : Reinventing Big Brother [8 June,2003] A couple of doctoral days ago a new story has been added to the Memoryhole. Read more. 1984 opera [4 May,2005] On May the section 3rd the opera adaption of George Orwell's 1984 received its premiere in the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) in London. Read more. The really frightening thing about totalitarianism is not that it commits ?atrocities? but that it attacks the concept of doctoral proposal objective truth: it claims to control the past as well as the future. , George Orwell, As I Please, 4 February 1944. Nationalism in history. Utopia and socialism. Thoughts on nature. Changes in the language.
Orwell about his time working in a bookshop. Essay on James Burnham, who inspired Orwell when he imagined the geopolitical structure of 1984. Decay of language in literaure. Socialism and the English genius. Great man's thoughts on another great man. Spanish war and newspapers. Another experience as a policeman in Burma. Eleven rules for making a perfect cup of tea. Orwell about essayist, autobiographies. Work : Essays : Politics and the English Language. Now, it is clear that the decline of a language must ultimately have political and economic causes: it is doctoral proposal not due simply to the bad influence of this or that individual writer.
But an effect can become a cause, reinforcing the original cause and producing the world essay same effect in an intensified form, and so on indefinitely. Doctoral Proposal. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the essay custom more completely because he drinks. It is rather the same thing that is happening to doctoral proposal, the English language. Of Methodology Paper. It becomes ugly and doctoral proposal, inaccurate because our thoughts are foolish, but the slovenliness of our language makes it easier for us to autobiographical story essay, have foolish thoughts. Proposal. The point is examples paper that the process is reversible. Doctoral. Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. If one gets rid of these habits one can think more clearly, and to think clearly is a necessary first step toward political regeneration: so that the fight against bad English is materialism gatsby not frivolous and is not the exclusive concern of professional writers. I will come back to this presently, and I hope that by that time the meaning of what I have said here will have become clearer. Meanwhile, here are five specimens of the English language as it is now habitually written.
These five passages have not been picked out because they are especially bad -- I could have quoted far worse if I had chosen -- but because they illustrate various of the mental vices from which we now suffer. Doctoral Proposal. They are a little below the average, but are fairly representative examples. I number them so that I can refer back to essay outline, them when necessary: I am not, indeed, sure whether it is not true to proposal, say that the Milton who once seemed not unlike a seventeenth-century Shelley had not become, out of an experience ever more bitter in each year, more alien [sic] to the founder of that Jesuit sect which nothing could induce him to tolerate. Professor Harold Laski.
(Essay in Freedom of Expression ) Above all, we cannot play ducks and drakes with a native battery of essayist idioms which prescribes egregious collocations of vocables as the Basic put up with for tolerate , or put at a loss for bewilder . Professor Lancelot Hogben ( Interglossia ) On the one side we have the free personality: by proposal, definition it is not neurotic, for it has neither conflict nor dream. World Outline. Its desires, such as they are, are transparent, for they are just what institutional approval keeps in doctoral proposal, the forefront of examples section consciousness; another institutional pattern would alter their number and intensity; there is little in doctoral proposal, them that is world population outline natural, irreducible, or culturally dangerous. But on the other side ,the social bond itself is nothing but the doctoral mutual reflection of these self-secure integrities. Recall the definition of love. Of Methodology Section In Research Paper. Is not this the very picture of a small academic?
Where is there a place in this hall of doctoral mirrors for either personality or fraternity? Essay on psychology in Politics (New York ) All the essay best people from the gentlemen's clubs, and all the frantic fascist captains, united in doctoral proposal, common hatred of Socialism and bestial horror at the rising tide of the mass revolutionary movement, have turned to acts of provocation, to foul incendiarism, to medieval legends of poisoned wells, to legalize their own destruction of examples of methodology section proletarian organizations, and rouse the agitated petty-bourgeoise to chauvinistic fervor on behalf of the fight against the revolutionary way out of the doctoral crisis. Essay Materialism. Communist pamphlet If a new spirit is to be infused into this old country, there is one thorny and contentious reform which must be tackled, and doctoral, that is the humanization and galvanization of the examples paper B.B.C. Timidity here will bespeak canker and atrophy of the soul. The heart of doctoral Britain may be sound and of strong beat, for instance, but the essay writing custom British lion's roar at present is like that of Bottom in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream -- as gentle as any sucking dove. A virile new Britain cannot continue indefinitely to be traduced in the eyes or rather ears, of the world by the effete languors of Langham Place, brazenly masquerading as standard English. When the Voice of Britain is heard at nine o'clock, better far and infinitely less ludicrous to hear aitches honestly dropped than the present priggish, inflated, inhibited, school-ma'amish arch braying of blameless bashful mewing maidens!
Letter in Tribune. Each of these passages has faults of its own, but, quite apart from avoidable ugliness, two qualities are common to all of them. The first is staleness of imagery; the other is doctoral proposal lack of precision. The writer either has a meaning and essay materialism, cannot express it, or he inadvertently says something else, or he is almost indifferent as to whether his words mean anything or not. Doctoral Proposal. This mixture of custom vagueness and sheer incompetence is the most marked characteristic of modern English prose, and doctoral proposal, especially of any kind of political writing. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into all respect essayist, the abstract and doctoral, no one seems able to think of of methodology in research paper turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of proposal words chosen for gatsby, the sake of their meaning, and more and doctoral, more of phrases tacked together like the sections of essay materialism great a prefabricated henhouse. I list below, with notes and examples, various of the tricks by means of which the work of prose construction is habitually dodged: Dying metaphors. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically dead (e.g. iron resolution ) has in effect reverted to being an ordinary word and can generally be used without loss of vividness. But in proposal, between these two classes there is a huge dump of worn-out metaphors which have lost all evocative power and academic writing, are merely used because they save people the trouble of inventing phrases for themselves.
Examples are: Ring the changes on, take up the cudgel for, toe the doctoral proposal line, ride roughshod over, stand shoulder to shoulder with, play into writing, the hands of, no axe to grind, grist to the mill, fishing in troubled waters, on the order of the day, Achilles' heel, swan song, hotbed . Many of these are used without knowledge of doctoral proposal their meaning (what is a rift, for instance?), and incompatible metaphors are frequently mixed, a sure sign that the writer is not interested in what he is writing saying. Some metaphors now current have been twisted out of their original meaning without those who use them even being aware of the fact. For example, toe the line is sometimes written as tow the line. Another example is the hammer and the anvil , now always used with the implication that the anvil gets the worst of it. In real life it is always the anvil that breaks the doctoral proposal hammer, never the of methodology section in research other way about: a writer who stopped to think what he was saying would avoid perverting the original phrase. Operators or verbal false limbs. These save the trouble of picking out appropriate verbs and nouns, and at the same time pad each sentence with extra syllables which give it an doctoral proposal, appearance of symmetry. Characteristic phrases are render inoperative, militate against, make contact with, be subjected to, give rise to, give grounds for, have the effect of, play a leading part (role) in, make itself felt, take effect, exhibit a tendency to, serve the examples of methodology paper purpose of, etc., etc. The keynote is the elimination of simple verbs.
Instead of being a single word, such as break, stop, spoil, mend, kill, a verb becomes a phrase , made up of a noun or adjective tacked on doctoral to some general-purpose verb such as prove, serve, form, play, render . In addition, the population essay outline passive voice is wherever possible used in preference to the active, and noun constructions are used instead of gerunds ( by examination of instead of by doctoral, examining ). The range of verbs is further cut down by means of the -ize and de- formations, and the banal statements are given an appearance of profundity by means of the not un- formation. Simple conjunctions and prepositions are replaced by such phrases as with respect to, having regard to, the fact that, by dint of, in view of, in the interests of, on the hypothesis that; and the ends of sentences are saved by anticlimax by such resounding commonplaces as greatly to be desired, cannot be left out of account, a development to be expected in the near future, deserving of serious consideration, brought to a satisfactory conclusion , and so on and so forth. Pretentious diction. Materialism Great. Words like phenomenon, element, individual (as noun), objective, categorical, effective, virtual, basic, primary, promote, constitute, exhibit, exploit, utilize, eliminate, liquidate , are used to dress up a simple statement and give an air of scientific impartiality to biased judgements. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable , are used to dignify the doctoral sordid process of essay great gatsby international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword, shield, buckler, banner, jackboot, clarion . Foreign words and expressions such as cul de sac, ancien regime, deus ex machina, mutatis mutandis, status quo, gleichschaltung, weltanschauung , are used to give an air of culture and elegance.
Except for proposal, the useful abbreviations i.e., e.g. and etc. , there is no real need for any of the hundreds of foreign phrases now current in the English language. Writing Custom. Bad writers, and especially scientific, political, and doctoral, sociological writers, are nearly always haunted by the notion that Latin or Greek words are grander than Saxon ones, and unnecessary words like expedite, ameliorate, predict, extraneous, deracinated, clandestine, subaqueous , and in research, hundreds of doctoral proposal others constantly gain ground from writing on old custom, their Anglo-Saxon numbers. Doctoral. The jargon peculiar to Marxist writing ( hyena, hangman, cannibal, petty bourgeois, these gentry, lackey, flunkey, mad dog, White Guard , etc.) consists largely of words translated from Russian, German, or French; but the normal way of coining a new word is to use Latin or Greek root with the appropriate affix and, where necessary, the size formation. It is often easier to make up words of this kind ( deregionalize, impermissible, extramarital, non-fragmentary and with all respect, so forth) than to think up the doctoral English words that will cover one's meaning. All Respect Essayist. The result, in general, is an doctoral, increase in slovenliness and vagueness. Meaningless words. World Population Outline. In certain kinds of writing, particularly in art criticism and literary criticism, it is normal to doctoral, come across long passages which are almost completely lacking in meaning. Words like romantic, plastic, values, human, dead, sentimental, natural, vitality , as used in art criticism, are strictly meaningless, in the sense that they not only do not point to writing on old, any discoverable object, but are hardly ever expected to do so by the reader. When one critic writes, The outstanding feature of Mr. X's work is its living quality, while another writes, The immediately striking thing about Mr.
X's work is doctoral proposal its peculiar deadness, the story reader accepts this as a simple difference opinion. If words like black and white were involved, instead of the jargon words dead and living , he would see at doctoral proposal once that language was being used in an improper way. Many political words are similarly abused. The word Fascism has now no meaning except in so far as it signifies something not desirable. The words democracy, socialism, freedom, patriotic, realistic, justice have each of them several different meanings which cannot be reconciled with one another.
In the case of a word like democracy , not only is there no agreed definition, but the attempt to make one is examples of methodology paper resisted from all sides. Doctoral Proposal. It is almost universally felt that when we call a country democratic we are praising it: consequently the defenders of every kind of regime claim that it is writing on old a democracy, and fear that they might have to stop using that word if it were tied down to any one meaning. Words of doctoral proposal this kind are often used in a consciously dishonest way. Essay. That is, the person who uses them has his own private definition, but allows his hearer to think he means something quite different. Statements like Marshal Petain was a true patriot, The Soviet press is the freest in proposal, the world, The Catholic Church is opposed to all respect, persecution, are almost always made with intent to deceive. Doctoral. Other words used in variable meanings, in most cases more or less dishonestly, are: class, totalitarian, science, progressive, reactionary, bourgeois, equality . Now that I have made this catalogue of academic writing swindles and perversions, let me give another example of the kind of writing that they lead to. This time it must of its nature be an imaginary one. I am going to translate a passage of good English into modern English of the proposal worst sort.
Here is a well-known verse from Ecclesiastes : I returned and saw under the sun, that the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, neither yet bread to the wise, nor yet riches to examples section in research paper, men of understanding, nor yet favour to men of skill; but time and chance happeneth to doctoral, them all. Here it is in modern English: Objective considerations of contemporary phenomena compel the conclusion that success or failure in competitive activities exhibits no tendency to be commensurate with innate capacity, but that a considerable element of the unpredictable must invariably be taken into account. This is autobiographical essay a parody, but not a very gross one. Doctoral. Exhibit (3) above, for instance, contains several patches of the same kind of writing English. It will be seen that I have not made a full translation. Doctoral. The beginning and ending of the sentence follow the original meaning fairly closely, but in academic conclusion, the middle the concrete illustrations -- race, battle, bread -- dissolve into proposal, the vague phrases success or failure in world population outline, competitive activities. This had to be so, because no modern writer of the kind I am discussing -- no one capable of doctoral proposal using phrases like objective considerations of contemporary phenomena -- would ever tabulate his thoughts in that precise and detailed way.
The whole tendency of modern prose is away from concreteness. Now analyze these two sentences a little more closely. Materialism. The first contains forty-nine words but only doctoral, sixty syllables, and all its words are those of everyday life. The second contains thirty-eight words of ninety syllables: eighteen of those words are from Latin roots, and population outline, one from Greek. Proposal. The first sentence contains six vivid images, and only one phrase (time and chance) that could be called vague.
The second contains not a single fresh, arresting phrase, and in spite of its ninety syllables it gives only a shortened version of the meaning contained in the first. Yet without a doubt it is the second kind of sentence that is gaining ground in modern English. I do not want to population outline, exaggerate. This kind of writing is not yet universal, and outcrops of doctoral proposal simplicity will occur here and there in the worst-written page. Still, if you or I were told to write a few lines on the uncertainty of human fortunes, we should probably come much nearer to my imaginary sentence than to the one from Ecclesiastes . As I have tried to show, modern writing at its worst does not consist in picking out words for the sake of their meaning and inventing images in order to make the meaning clearer. It consists in gumming together long strips of words which have already been set in order by examples section in research paper, someone else, and making the results presentable by sheer humbug. The attraction of this way of writing is proposal that it is easy. It is easier -- even quicker, once you have the habit -- to say In my opinion it is not an unjustifiable assumption that than to say I think . If you use ready-made phrases, you not only of methodology section, don't have to hunt about for doctoral proposal, the words; you also don't have to custom, bother with the rhythms of proposal your sentences since these phrases are generally so arranged as to be more or less euphonious.
When you are composing in a hurry -- when you are dictating to a stenographer, for writing conclusion, instance, or making a public speech -- it is natural to fall into a pretentious, Latinized style. Tags like a consideration which we should do well to bear in mind or a conclusion to which all of us would readily assent will save many a sentence from coming down with a bump. By using stale metaphors, similes, and idioms, you save much mental effort, at the cost of leaving your meaning vague, not only for doctoral, your reader but for yourself. This is the significance of mixed metaphors. The sole aim of a metaphor is to call up a visual image.
When these images clash -- as in The Fascist octopus has sung its swan song, the jackboot is writing on old custom thrown into doctoral proposal, the melting pot -- it can be taken as certain that the writer is not seeing a mental image of the academic conclusion objects he is naming; in other words he is not really thinking. Look again at the examples I gave at the beginning of doctoral proposal this essay. Essay. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. Doctoral Proposal. One of these is superfluous, making nonsense of the whole passage, and in addition there is the slip -- alien for akin -- making further nonsense, and several avoidable pieces of writing on old custom clumsiness which increase the general vagueness. Professor Hogben (2) plays ducks and drakes with a battery which is able to write prescriptions, and, while disapproving of the everyday phrase put up with , is unwilling to look egregious up in the dictionary and see what it means; (3), if one takes an uncharitable attitude towards it, is simply meaningless: probably one could work out its intended meaning by proposal, reading the whole of the article in which it occurs. In (4), the writer knows more or less what he wants to world population, say, but an accumulation of stale phrases chokes him like tea leaves blocking a sink. In (5), words and meaning have almost parted company. Doctoral. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning -- they dislike one thing and custom, want to express solidarity with another -- but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. A scrupulous writer, in every sentence that he writes, will ask himself at doctoral proposal least four questions, thus: What am I trying to say? What words will express it?
What image or idiom will make it clearer? Is this image fresh enough to have an effect? And he will probably ask himself two more: Could I put it more shortly? Have I said anything that is avoidably ugly?
But you are not obliged to go to all this trouble. You can shirk it by autobiographical, simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding in. The will construct your sentences for you -- even think your thoughts for you, to a certain extent -- and at need they will perform the important service of partially concealing your meaning even from yourself. It is at this point that the special connection between politics and the debasement of language becomes clear. In our time it is broadly true that political writing is bad writing. Where it is not true, it will generally be found that the writer is proposal some kind of rebel, expressing his private opinions and not a party line. Writing. Orthodoxy, of proposal whatever colour, seems to demand a lifeless, imitative style. Essay Materialism Gatsby. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of proposal course, vary from party to all respect essayist, party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn of speech.
When one watches some tired hack on the platform mechanically repeating the familiar phrases -- bestial, atrocities, iron heel, bloodstained tyranny, free peoples of the world, stand shoulder to doctoral, shoulder -- one often has a curious feeling that one is not watching a live human being but some kind of dummy: a feeling which suddenly becomes stronger at with moments when the light catches the speaker's spectacles and turns them into blank discs which seem to have no eyes behind them. And this is not altogether fanciful. A speaker who uses that kind of phraseology has gone some distance toward turning himself into a machine. Doctoral Proposal. The appropriate noises are coming out of his larynx, but his brain is custom not involved, as it would be if he were choosing his words for himself. If the speech he is making is one that he is accustomed to make over proposal and over again, he may be almost unconscious of what he is saying, as one is when one utters the responses in gatsby, church. And this reduced state of consciousness, if not indispensable, is at any rate favourable to political conformity. In our time, political speech and writing are largely the defence of the indefensible. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with the professed aims of the political parties. Thus political language has to doctoral, consist largely of euphemism, question-begging and sheer cloudy vagueness. Autobiographical Essay. Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside, the cattle machine-gunned, the proposal huts set on essay outline fire with incendiary bullets: this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers . People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of proposal unreliable elements . Such phraseology is needed if one wants to essay on old custom, name things without calling up mental pictures of proposal them.
Consider for instance some comfortable English professor defending Russian totalitarianism. He cannot say outright, I believe in killing off your opponents when you can get good results by doing so. Probably, therefore, he will say something like this: While freely conceding that the gatsby Soviet regime exhibits certain features which the humanitarian may be inclined to deplore, we must, I think, agree that a certain curtailment of the right to proposal, political opposition is an unavoidable concomitant of transitional periods, and academic, that the rigors which the Russian people have been called upon to undergo have been amply justified in the sphere of concrete achievement. The inflated style itself is doctoral proposal a kind of autobiographical story euphemism. A mass of Latin words falls upon the facts like soft snow, blurring the outline and covering up all the doctoral details. The great enemy of autobiographical essay clear language is insincerity.
When there is doctoral a gap between one's real and one's declared aims, one turns as it were instinctively to long words and exhausted idioms, like a cuttlefish spurting out ink. In our age there is no such thing as keeping out of politics. All issues are political issues, and politics itself is a mass of lies, evasions, folly, hatred, and essay outline, schizophrenia. When the general atmosphere is doctoral bad, language must suffer. I should expect to find -- this is a guess which I have not sufficient knowledge to verify -- that the German, Russian and population, Italian languages have all deteriorated in doctoral proposal, the last ten or fifteen years, as a result of dictatorship. But if thought corrupts language, language can also corrupt thought. A bad usage can spread by gatsby, tradition and imitation even among people who should and do know better. The debased language that I have been discussing is in some ways very convenient. Doctoral Proposal. Phrases like a not unjustifiable assumption, leaves much to be desired, would serve no good purpose, a consideration which we should do well to bear in autobiographical story essay, mind, are a continuous temptation, a packet of aspirins always at one's elbow. Look back through this essay, and for proposal, certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against.
By this morning's post I have received a pamphlet dealing with conditions in Germany. The author tells me that he felt impelled to write it. I open it at on old random, and here is almost the first sentence I see: [The Allies] have an opportunity not only of achieving a radical transformation of Germany's social and political structure in such a way as to avoid a nationalistic reaction in doctoral proposal, Germany itself, but at the same time of laying the academic writing conclusion foundations of a co-operative and unified Europe. You see, he feels impelled to write -- feels, presumably, that he has something new to doctoral, say -- and yet his words, like cavalry horses answering the bugle, group themselves automatically into autobiographical, the familiar dreary pattern. Proposal. This invasion of one's mind by ready-made phrases ( lay the foundations, achieve a radical transformation ) can only be prevented if one is constantly on guard against them, and every such phrase anaesthetizes a portion of one's brain. I said earlier that the decadence of our language is probably curable. Examples Of Methodology In Research. Those who deny this would argue, if they produced an argument at all, that language merely reflects existing social conditions, and that we cannot influence its development by any direct tinkering with words and constructions. So far as the general tone or spirit of a language goes, this may be true, but it is not true in detail.
Silly words and doctoral proposal, expressions have often disappeared, not through any evolutionary process but owing to the conscious action of a minority. Two recent examples were explore every avenue and leave no stone unturned , which were killed by the jeers of writing on old custom a few journalists. There is a long list of flyblown metaphors which could similarly be got rid of if enough people would interest themselves in the job; and it should also be possible to proposal, laugh the not un- formation out of existence, to reduce the amount of Latin and Greek in the average sentence, to world essay, drive out foreign phrases and proposal, strayed scientific words, and, in general, to make pretentiousness unfashionable. But all these are minor points. The defence of the English language implies more than this, and perhaps it is best to writing, start by saying what it does not imply. To begin with it has nothing to do with archaism, with the doctoral proposal salvaging of obsolete words and turns of speech, or with the setting up of conclusion a standard English which must never be departed from.
On the contrary, it is especially concerned with the scrapping of every word or idiom which has outworn its usefulness. It has nothing to do with correct grammar and syntax, which are of no importance so long as one makes one's meaning clear, or with the avoidance of Americanisms, or with having what is called a good prose style. On the doctoral proposal other hand, it is not concerned with fake simplicity and the attempt to make written English colloquial. Nor does it even imply in every case preferring the Saxon word to the Latin one, though it does imply using the academic fewest and shortest words that will cover one's meaning. What is doctoral above all needed is to let the meaning choose the word, and not the other way around. In prose, the worst thing one can do with words is surrender to with essayist, them. When you think of a concrete object, you think wordlessly, and proposal, then, if you want to world essay outline, describe the thing you have been visualising you probably hunt about until you find the exact words that seem to fit it. When you think of something abstract you are more inclined to use words from the start, and unless you make a conscious effort to prevent it, the existing dialect will come rushing in and do the job for you, at the expense of blurring or even changing your meaning. Probably it is better to put off using words as long as possible and get one's meaning as clear as one can through pictures and sensations. Afterward one can choose -- not simply accept -- the phrases that will best cover the meaning, and then switch round and doctoral proposal, decide what impressions one's words are likely to make on another person. This last effort of the mind cuts out all stale or mixed images, all prefabricated phrases, needless repetitions, and humbug and vagueness generally.
But one can often be in doubt about the effect of a word or a phrase, and one needs rules that one can rely on when instinct fails. I think the following rules will cover most cases: Never use a metaphor, simile, or other figure of speech which you are used to seeing in print. Never us a long word where a short one will do. If it is possible to essay great gatsby, cut a word out, always cut it out. Never use the passive where you can use the active.
Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent. Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous. These rules sound elementary, and so they are, but they demand a deep change of attitude in anyone who has grown used to writing in the style now fashionable. One could keep all of them and still write bad English, but one could not write the kind of stuff that I quoted in those five specimens at the beginning of this article. I have not here been considering the literary use of language, but merely language as an instrument for expressing and not for concealing or preventing thought. Stuart Chase and others have come near to proposal, claiming that all abstract words are meaningless, and have used this as a pretext for advocating a kind of political quietism.
Since you don't know what Fascism is, how can you struggle against Fascism? One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the essay custom present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end. If you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy. Doctoral. You cannot speak any of the necessary dialects, and when you make a stupid remark its stupidity will be obvious, even to yourself. Political language -- and with variations this is essayist true of all political parties, from Conservatives to Anarchists -- is designed to make lies sound truthful and proposal, murder respectable, and to give an essay materialism great gatsby, appearance of solidity to pure wind. One cannot change this all in a moment, but one can at least change one's own habits, and from time to time one can even, if one jeers loudly enough, send some worn-out and useless phrase -- some jackboot, Achilles' heel, hotbed, melting pot, acid test, veritable inferno, or other lump of verbal refuse -- into the dustbin, where it belongs. This site is protected by COPYLEFT.
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1140 Words Essay on A Trek Through the Hills? Really, walking is a great pleasure and proposal, an exercise. R.L. Stevenson and William Haslett have sung the praises of walking tours. Essay On Old Custom? There is nothing in doctoral the world which can beat the pleasure of walking and it becomes all the more attractive if it is taken on the hills. I love the scenery of the hills and walking through the great hills gives me an opportunity of looking at that scenery in its different aspects. Doctoral Proposal? Last year, I was at all respect, Mussoorie and every morning as I looked out of my small cottage, on the winding road stretching out for five-six kilometers I could not resist the temptation of walking on it. One morning I started out quite early. For about a distance of two kilometers, the place was just hedged in from both the sides with cottages occupied by proposal, the people but after that I found myself in a thick gave of pine trees. On all sides, their dry leaves and a sweet smell entered my nose.
Image Source: botswanatourism.co.bw. A soft breeze was blowing and I felt like standing there and autobiographical story essay, inhaling the health-giving air. Doctoral Proposal? That was the place I felt where one can live in the company of on old custom nature. I, however, moved ahead and now the doctoral road started winding up. First there were gradual turns but then there came steep turns and also the road began to rise. I did feel some exertion but every time the soft breeze refreshed me. Essay Gatsby? On one side, there were tall trees growing and on the other side, there was a sort of bush- land.
The bleating of doctoral proposal goats and sheep could be heard and one could see at a distance the cattle grazing. At a distance on academic writing conclusion, my right, I found a solitary hut from doctoral proposal, which smoke was rising. Who lives there? I question myself. Examples Of Methodology Paper? Numerous ideas flashed across my mind. It might be, he was really fortunate in living under such peaceful surroundings.
The joy of walking alone now became clear to me. I was receptive to everything from nature and there was nothing which disturbed my mind and doctoral, took my attention away. I went ahead with numerous thoughts of admiration for materialism great gatsby God which had created such wonderful beauty for man to proposal enjoy. After going for about 50 yards, I came across a small hill rivulet and its sparkling water was cool and refreshing and as I looked into water, I found it crystal clear. The rivulet was not very deep but its ripping water produced a strange sensation in the mind. If felt like sitting there or sleeping there. I sat down to rest and tired as I was 1 did not know when I went to sleep. When I got up, it was already late in with all respect the afternoon and I was so fresh that I wanted to continue my trek. I are some fruit that I had brought with me and drank the cool refreshing water before moving ahead. It was after three hours#8217; trek that I reached an open plateau with beautiful grass laid out like velvet. Here I felt that I must camp for the night.
There was a small spring of water in one corner and I removed my knap-sack and doctoral proposal, relaxed myself. I lay down on the beautiful soft grass and prepared myself for conclusion sleep during the night. The stars were shining in the sky and doctoral proposal, it was pleasantly cool. The moon was going up and it was really a delight to have this change from the sturdy bedroom of cottage at Mussoorie where I was staying. I was on the Tehri-Garhwal road and as I sat up on examples of methodology section, this beautiful lawn, I found the stars and the moon playing hide and seek with the cloud. There was no likelihood of rain however.
But I thought what might happen if some wolves attacked me. I felt very much upset at this idea. But then I gathered courage as the whole place was so open and so quiet. I slept like a log and when I got up the dawn was breaking. Doctoral Proposal? What a pleasure it was to see the autobiographical essay morning twilight break through and spread on all sides. This type of experience can never be had by those who have never stayed in the open.
I was feeling very hungry and proposal, wanted to have something to materialism great drink. I gathered some dry leaves and put a can of water to proposal boil. Soon my coffee was ready and essay great, after my morning wash, when I drank it, I felt a real delight which I have never had from a cup of coffee prepared by the servant at home. As day broke and the light spread on all sides, I found a strange music welcoming me to move on and on. I also heard the ringing of the bells. I thought that I must now leave this road and proposal, move for a while towards my right in the direction from where that sound was coming. I thought of finding some people and knowing how they lived. So I moved on the right and essay, after going for about 2 km., I found a small Bhotia village where the people were living a quiet life in the midst of their agricultural and animal husbandry.
As I reached this village, I felt that I was not able to walk as briskly as I had done before. I was feeling a little pain in my joints and it appeared as if I have also developed a slight temperature. Was it due to exposure at night? May be because in my joy, I might have forgotten to cover myself adequately. It was good that I had reached that village because here I got something fresh to eat.
The people were very kind and generous. They gave me rice and vegetables to eat. The old man of the doctoral village immediately understood that I was having a mild attack of influenza and so he offered me one bowlful of world some medicated drink and asked me to take it. In two hours#8217; time, I was all right. My cold and pain had disappeared and I was again fit to proceed with my journey. As I turned my back on the Bhotia village, my heart went out in doctoral proposal gratitude to those strangers who had been so kind and good to me. Story Essay? As a matter of fact, the proposal whole place breathed the beauty of academic nature and doctoral proposal, whosoever lived had the inspiration from God.
With these thoughts, I was going ahead but I was feeling that one should be hardy enough to enjoy the beauty of nature. City people like me who were accustomed to remain in the closed artificial atmosphere find it difficult to derive real pleasure out of the life in the midst of nature. All Respect? So, one should have more treks and trips that will accustom one to doctoral the open air life. On Old Custom? Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.
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essay on conics Department of Mathematics Education. Dr. J. Doctoral! Wilson, EMAT 6690. A Look at the Major Contributions of Pascal. At the age of sixteen, Blaise Pascal wrote an Essay on Conics that so greatly impressed Descartes that he could not believe that it had been written by someone so young ( Kline 297 ). Praise from such a respected mathematician, of the time and historically, provides an essay, indication of the level of doctoral proposal genius of Pascal. During his short lifetime of thirty-nine years, Pascal is noted for his significant contributions to mathematics, physics, and religious philosophy. Pascal#146;s mathematical work helped to provide the foundation for the modern theory of probabilities and to advance the topics of projective geometry and the calculus.
His work in physics lead to the formulation of what is now known as Pascal#146;s law or principle. However, for section in research a considerable part of his life, Pascal turned away from worldly issues and doctoral devoted his life to God, in conclusion which he developed a reputation as a master of prose through his religious writings ( Orcibal 1 ). Historians can only speculate what Pascal#146;s influence on mathematics and physics would have been had he not divided his pursuits between the worldly and religious, but reviewing what Pascal did accomplish allows for an interesting glimpse at a brilliant 17 th century thinker. Pascal was born in doctoral Clermont-Ferrand, France on June 19, 1623. His father was the judge of the tax court and essay materialism great was respected as a mathematician. His mother died in 1626 and in 1631 the Pascal family moved to Paris. Pascal displayed exceptional ability as a child, but was prone to sickness.
As a result, his father had him tutored at home with instructions that his studies be limited to the languages, and should not include any mathematics. Doctoral Proposal! However, at the age of twelve, Pascal became curious about the subject of geometry and upon hearing a general description from his tutor, began to independently study the conclusion subject with passion. His father was so struck his son#146;s display of talent that he gave him a copy of Euclid#146;s Elements , which Pascal immediately studied and soon mastered. At the age of fourteen, Pascal was admitted to the weekly meetings of Mersenne, Desargues, Roberval, Mydorge, and Fermat, from proposal which the French Academy eventually developed ( Rouse Ball 1 ). Thus, the stage was set for Pascal to begin to produce the major results for which he is known. Although not published until 1779, Pascal wrote an Essay on Conics in 1640, which approached the geometry of conics using projective methods. This work was instigated by with all respect Desargues who wanted Pascal to investigate the method of projection and section, with the particular goal of reducing the properties of the conic sections to as few basic propositions as possible. Pascal#146;s most famous result in projective geometry came out of proposal this work and is now called Pascal#146;s Theorem. Writing! In modern day terminology, this theorem states that if a hexagon is inscribed in a conic, the proposal three points of intersection of the pairs of opposite sides lie in a line.
This result is diagramed below in Figure 1, where points R, S, and world population essay T lie in a line. Additionally, if the opposite sides of hexagon ABCDEF are parallel, points R, S, and T will line in a line at infinity ( Kline 297 ). There is not a clear record of how Pascal proved this theorem, only suggestions. Pascal states that since the theorem holds true for the circle, it must by proposal projection and section be true of essay all conics. If a projection is formed of Figure 1 from proposal a point outside the plane and then a section of this projection, the section will contain a conic and a hexagon inscribed in it.
Furthermore, the opposite on old sides of the hexagon will meet in three points that are collinear, which are the points that correspond to and the line that passes through R, S, and T. As a note, Pappus#146; theorem, Proposition 131 of Book VII of Euclid#146;s Elements, is a special case of Pascal#146;s theorem. Pappus#146; theorem states that if A, B and C are three points on a line and A#146;, B#146;, and proposal C#146; are three points on another line, then lines AB#146; and A#146;B, BC#146; and B#146;C, and AC#146; and A#146;C intersect in three points that line in a line. Examples Section In Research! When the conic of Pascal#146;s theorem degenerates into two lines, such as when a hyperbola degenerates into its asymptotes, then the case described by Pappus#146; theorem results. Lastly, Pascal did not consider the converse to his theorem, that if a hexagon is such that the points of proposal intersection of its three pairs of opposite sides lie in a line, then the vertices of the hexagon lie on a conic, but it also has been proven to be true. There are many results in Pascal#146;s Essay on Conics , but the theorem that eventually came to bear his name is by far the most famous from this work ( Kline 297 ). In his projective geometry work, Pascal used two new ideas that had emerged in section paper the field, which eventually became fundamental principles.
The first is the proposal notion of continuous change of a mathematical entity (geometric figure) from one state to essay materialism great another. Pascal investigated the doctoral situation in which two consecutive vertices of the hexagon of his famous theorem approach one another so that the essay outline figure becomes a pentagon. Pascal then reasoned from doctoral properties of the hexagon to properties of the pentagon by considering what happened to essay materialism these properties under the continuous change. He also used this process in considering the continuous change from a pentagon to a quadrilateral. The second is the notion of which properties of a mathematical entity remain invariant under a transformation. By investigating the relationships of different figures, such as the hexagon and pentagon, Pascal also sought a common approach to these figures. Although there are no existing works, Pascal supposedly deduced approximately four hundred corollaries from his theorem on the hexagon by studying the consequences of the theorem for related figures. As a major field of study, projective geometry was abandoned in favor of algebra, analytic geometry, and the calculus and therefore, the projective results of Desargues, La Hire and Pascal were largely forgotten until a resurgence in the field occurred the 19 th century ( Kline 300 ). In 1642, at the age of eighteen, Pascal constructed the first arithmetic machine to help his father with tax computations.
The machine was, in a sense, the first digital calculator that automatically handled addition by carrying units to doctoral proposal tens, tens to hundreds, etc. With! ( Kline 258 ). This machine brought a great deal of doctoral proposal praise to Pascal and was dedicated to academic conclusion the chancellor of France in doctoral 1644 ( Orcibal 1 ). In addition, Pascal improved upon the original machine in 1650 ( Rouse Ball 1 ). Pascal also became intensely interested in scientific pursuits, which led him to carry out tests based upon the theories of Galileo and Torricelli. By constructing mercury barometers and measuring air pressure, both in Paris and on a mountain top overlooking Clermont-Ferrand, Pascal replicated and extended experiments on atmospheric pressure, providing additional evidence that the weight of the air decreases as the altitude increases. Through his work, Pascal invented the syringe and the hydraulic press and world population helped to further studies in hydrodynamics and proposal hydrostatics. The hydraulic press is autobiographical based upon the principle that is now known as Pascal#146;s principle or law, which states that pressure applied to a confined liquid is doctoral transmitted undiminished through the liquid in all directions regardless of the area to which the pressure is applied. Additionally, Pascal produced writings in 1647-1648 based upon his efforts on the problem of the essay vacuum ( Orcibal 2 ). Doctoral! It should be noted that the originality of his work in essay gatsby physics has been questioned, as some historians of science have described it as popularization, or even plagiarism ( Kline 296 ). In 1653, Pascal used the arithmetical triangle, now known as Pascal#146;s Triangle, to obtain the coefficients of the doctoral binomial expansion of (a + b) n , where n is a positive integral. However, no account of his method was printed until 1665. Despite the name of the triangle, this expansion was known by the Arabs and Chinese of the 13 th century and by Tartaglia, Stifel, and Stevin. In fact, in 1544 Stifel introduced the term binomial coefficient and demonstrated how to calculate (1 + a) n from with all respect essayist (1 + a) n-1 ( Kline 272 ). Pascal#146;s triangle, part of which is shown below in Figure 2, is constructed by proposal each horizontal line being created from the one above it.
Each number in a horizontal line is equal to the sum of the numbers above and to the left of the it in the row immediately above it. For example, the fourth number in writing on old custom the fifth line, 35, is produced from 1 + 4 + 10 + 20. The numbers in each horizontal line are now referred to as figurate numbers. Numbers in the first line are called first order numbers; those in doctoral proposal the second line are called second order, or natural numbers; those in examples of methodology section in research paper the third line are called third order numbers, and so on. Doctoral Proposal! In general, the formula for finding the nth number in the rth row is with essayist (n + r #150; 2)! / (n #150; 1)! (r #150; 1)!. Pascal#146;s triangle, to any specified order, is produced by drawing a diagonal, where the numbers in proposal any diagonal provide the coefficients of the expansion of a binomial. For example, the fifth diagonal contains the numbers 1, 4, 6, 4, and 1, which provide the coefficients of the expansion (a + b) 4 . Pascal was easily able to academic writing expand his triangle to doctoral proposal find the binomial expansion for any (a + b) n , where n is a positive integer ( Rouse Ball 3 ). Today, Pascal#146;s triangle is usually constructed in triangular form, part of which is shown below in Figure 3. The two top rows contain the numbers 1 and 1 1, respectively, where the materialism gatsby top row is considered to be row 0. To find any number in subsequent rows, add the two numbers above it. At the beginning and end of each row, place a 1. Doctoral Proposal! It is essay great help think of this rule for writing 1#146;s as an extension of the addition rule.
To get the first 1 in any row, add the two numbers above it, but since there is only one number, consider the second number zero. Doctoral! Therefore, the first entry of essay materialism gatsby each row is 1. Following the same logic, the last entry of each row must be 1 also. An extension of the zero concept, results in a figurate number triangle, attributed to Jakob Bernoulli. This triangle is simply Pascal#146;s triangle in a square grid with zeroes entered into the empty cells. A number of mathematicians, as early as the 12 th century Indian mathematician Bhaskara, had worked on permutation and combination problems. Pascal also found that his arithmetic triangle corresponded with finding the proposal numbers of combinations of world population essay n things taken r at doctoral a time ( n C r ), which he correctly stated to be (r + 1) (r + 2) (r + 3)#133;n / (n #150; r)! ( Rouse Ball 3 ). This means that when n is fixed and r runs from 0 to world population outline n, the successive binomial coefficients are obtained.
Pascal extended his work in combinations when Chevalier de Mere, in doctoral 1654, posed to Pascal the problem of how to divide the stake between two players of equal skill when the stake is to go to world population outline the player who first wins n points, but the play is interrupted after the first player has made p points an the second player has made q points. This problem had been posed by other mathematicians in the past, but gained significance when Pascal communicated the problem to Fermat. Their correspondence and work on this problem marks the beginning and proposal provided the essay materialism great gatsby foundation for the modern theory of probabilities ( Kline 273 ). Pascal and Fermat agreed on the solution, but independently developed different proofs. The following is a translation of Pascal#146;s proof by Rouse Ball in doctoral his book, A Short Account of the History of Mathematics . The following is population essay my method for determining the share of each player when, for example, two players play a game of three points and each player has staked 32 pistoles. Suppose that the first player has gained two points, and the second player one point; they have now to play for a point on this condition, that, if the first player gain, he takes all the money which is at stake, namely, 64 pistoles; while, if the proposal second player gain, each player has two points, so that there are on terms of equality, and, if they leave off playing, each ought to take 32 pistoles. Thus if the first player gain, then 64 pistoles belong to him, and if he lose, then 32 pistoles belong to him. If therefore the players do not wish to play this game but to separate without playing it, the first player would say to the second, ``I am certain of 32 pistoles even if I lose this game, and as for the other 32 pistoles perhaps I will have them and perhaps you will have them; the chances are equal. Let us then divide these 32 pistoles equally, and give me also the 32 pistoles of which I am certain.'' Thus the first player will have 48 pistoles and the second 16 pistoles.
Next, suppose that the first player has gained two points and the second player none, and that they are about to play for examples section in research paper a point; the condition then is that, if the first player gain this point, he secures the game and takes the doctoral proposal 64 pistoles, and, if the second player gain this point, then the players will be in the situation already examined, in which the first player is entitled to 48 pistoles and the second to 16 pistoles. Thus if they do not wish to play, the first player would say to the second, ``If I gain the examples of methodology section point I gain 64 pistoles; if I lose it, I am entitled to 48 pistoles. Give me then the doctoral proposal 48 pistoles of which I am certain, and divide the essay great gatsby other 16 equally, since our chances of gaining the point are equal.'' Thus the first player will have 56 pistoles and the second player 8 pistoles. Finally, suppose that the first player has gained one point and the second player none. If they proceed to play for a point, the condition is that, if the first player gain it, the players will be in the situation first examined, in which the first player is entitled to 56 pistoles; if the first player lose the point, each player has then a point, and each is doctoral entitled to 32 pistoles. Thus, if they do not wish to outline play, the first player would say to doctoral the second, ``Give me the 32 pistoles of which I am certain, and world population divide the remainder of the 56 pistoles equally, that is doctoral divide 24 pistoles equally.'' Thus the first player will have the essay sum of 32 and 12 pistoles, that is, 44 pistoles, and consequently the second will have 20 pistoles. ( Rouse Ball 3 ) Pascal also considered similar problems when the game is won by whoever first obtains n + r points, where one player has n and the other has r points, and found that his arithmetic triangle could be used to obtain the solutions. Furthermore, Pascal#146;s result to the situation where the skill of the players is unequal corresponds to the general solution provided in modern textbooks on algebra, but Pascal#146;s notation is proposal different and less convenient ( Rouse Ball 4 ).
In 1658, Pascal made his last major contribution to essay materialism great mathematics through his investigation of problems of the cycloid. A cycloid is proposal defined as the curve produced by the locus of points of a point on the circumference of academic writing a circle which rolls along a straight line. Historically, Galileo first brought attention to the cycloid in proposal 1930 by his suggestion that the academic conclusion arches of bridges should be constructed to model this curve. In 1934, Roberval calculated the area of the cycloid, and Descartes subsequently challenged him and proposal Fermat to find its tangents. Fermat, without much difficulty, provided the solution to this problem. With All Respect! Various mathematicians continued to pose questions related to the cycloid, and to the surface and volume generated by its revolution about doctoral its axis, base, or the tangent at its vertex, as well as other analogous questions.
Pascal published the proposed problems he had solved, including the problem of the positions of the centers of mass of the essay materialism great gatsby solids formed by the cycloid#146;s revolution, as a challenge to mathematicians, and doctoral then proceeded to provide his own superior solutions ( Rouse Ball 4 ). Specifically, Pascal published results on the calculation of the essay writing area of any segment of the cycloid cut off by a line parallel to the base, the centroid of the doctoral segment, and the volumes of solids generated by such segments when revolved around their bases (as shown by YZ in Figure 4 below) or a vertical line (the axis of symmetry). In this. work, Pascal used summation in geometrical form, as he did in his earlier work on areas under the curves of the family y = x n , to calculate areas and volumes ( Kline 353 ). This method of summation started with modifications of Eudoxus#146; method of world essay exhaustion and was also used by Roberval, Torricelli, Cavalieri, and doctoral proposal Fermat, among others. Whereas the method of exhaustion employed different kinds of rectilinear approximating figures, depending upon the curvilinear area in question, summation is based upon a systematic procedure using rectangles. As the width d of the rectangles becomes smaller, the sum of the essay writing on old areas of the rectangles approaches the area under the curve. Doctoral Proposal! In the case of calculating the area under a parabola, if the bases are all d in width, and if one uses the characteristic property of the parabola, the sum is d(d) 2 + d(2d) 2 + d(3d) 2 + º + d(nd) 2 . Population! In dealing with problems of the cycloid, Pascal had to replace the characteristic property of the parabola with that of the cycloid to achieve an doctoral, analogous sum in order to calculate areas and volumes ( Kline 351 ). Pascal#146;s solutions in population essay outline his cycloid work are similar to those which a modern mathematician would achieve with the aid of integral calculus. By summation, he obtained what are the equivalent to the integrals of sin f, sin 2 f, and f sin f , where one limit is 0 or p . In addition, Pascal investigated the geometry of the Archimedean spiral, which according to D#146;Alembert, established a connecting link between the geometry of Archimedes and the infinitesimal calculus of Newton ( Rouse Ball 5 ). Throughout much of doctoral his adult life, Pascal fought a personal battle between his desires in with essayist worldly pursuits and in devoting his life to God. In January of 1655, committing himself to a religious life, he entered Port-Royal and remained there until his death on August 19, 1662.
Although he never became one of the solitaires, he from then on wrote only at their request and never again published under his own name. In fact, Pascal used the pseudonym of Dettonville for the publication of proposal his cycloid work. Pascal produced two famous religious works, Les Provinciales and materialism great gatsby Pensees , while at Port-Royal. Les Provinciales was written in defense of Antoine Arnauld who was on trial before the faculty of doctoral theology in Paris for his controversial religious works. It played an important role in promoting a return to inner religion and helped to secure the academic conclusion triumph of ideas of Arnauld, which centered on the protest against the idea that the doctoral profligate could atone for continued sin by frequent communion without repentance. Les Provinciales is considered to have helped Catholicism to rid itself of religious laxity.
Its publication was an essay, immediate success and has gained the reputation of marking the beginning of modern French prose. Pensees , still a work in progress at his death, resulted from Pascal#146;s meditations on miracles and other proofs of Christianity. In this work, Pascal proposed his famous wager to doctoral proposal overcome the indifference of the religious skeptic: if God does not exist, the skeptic loses nothing by believing him; but if he does exist, the skeptic gains eternal life by believing in him ( Orcibal 2 ). Pascal#146;s writings, in a sense, demonstrate that he was at battle with himself concerning secular and holy life. With All Respect! His religious writings display a mathematical-like rigor, but it is clear that Pascal had ambivalent feelings about rigor. Fermat, Barrow, and Pascal all recognized the looseness of their work on summation, but believed that one could make precise proofs in the manner of Archimedes. In Pascal#146;s published work on the problems of the doctoral cycloid, he stated that the infinitesimal geometry and classical Greek geometry were in agreement and section in research that the doctoral method of indivisibles must be accepted by any mathematician who pretend to rank among geometers. However, at times Pascal also argued that the heart intervenes to assure us of the correctness of mathematical steps.
He felt that proper finesse is of higher importance than geometrical logic to with all respect do the correct work, just as the religious appreciation of grace is proposal above reason ( Kline 383 ). Pascal was clearly a brilliant thinker of the 17 th century, in which his work in mathematics, physics, and religious philosophy significantly impacted each area of study. Historians question the paper originality of doctoral some of his contributions, some referring to it as popularization of others work. However, as a result of this popularization, Pascal made an important indirect contribution to each field in essay materialism great gatsby which he studied, namely bringing attention to proposal the problems of the field and thereby creating interest, excitement, and advancement within those fields. Works Cited and Suggested Related Resources.
Kline, Morris. Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times . New York: Oxford University Press, 1972.