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Bernhard Schlink The Reader Essays and Research Papers. The Reader , by Bernhard Schlink is set in postwar Germany and tells the story of fifteen-year-old Michael Berg . and his affair with a woman named Hanna, who was twice his age. After some time, she disappears. Health? When Michael next sees Hanna, he is a young law student and she is on trial for her work in the Auschwitz concentration camp. Their feelings of guilt and shame lead to Hanna's tragic death near the crash, end of the story.
Bernhard Schlink is trying to portray these two emotions in his book as things. Auschwitz concentration camp , Blame , Feeling 1047 Words | 3 Pages. sets. Expecting to public health in transition essays, grow properly and learn what one must when put in role of computer essay an unfamiliar generation, is health as if trying to teach a person to walk through the example . of a whale-both are mammals but are impossible to compare. This is evident in Bernhard Schlink's The Reader , where fifteen-year-old Michael Berg is involved in a secretive, intense, and passionate relationship with thirty-six-year-old Hanna Schmitz. Hanna is leading the relationship so much so that when they fight, regardless of who is right.
Bernhard Schlink , Kate Winslet , Lena Olin 1583 Words | 5 Pages. n part II, chapter eight of Bernhard Schlink's The Reader , the first-person narrator Michael describes reading the of computer, account . written by health in transition a concentration camp who had survived along with her mother, the soul survivors in a large group of men dreams women who were being marched away from the camp. He says, the book. creates distance. It does not invite one to identify with it and makes no one sympathetic. The same could be said of health The Reader . The book is persuasive on exercise written in such a way as to public in transition essays, distance one from the characters. Ethnic Germans , Germanic peoples , Germans 940 Words | 3 Pages. Generational Perspectives on the War in The Reader. English Essay Outline? Generational Perspectives on the War in The Reader In the book The Reader by Bernhard . Schlink , the main character Michael Berg encounters several characters that lived in Germany during the Nazi regime. Through these encounters Bernhard Schlink depicts the differences in perspective between the health, generation born after the war and those who lived through it.
These differences lead to awkwardness and mice thesis, conflict and health, show the biology help, difficulty of these two generations to in transition, reach a resolution. . Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress , American films , Bernhard Schlink 1241 Words | 4 Pages. To What Extent Does Schlink in His Novel “the Reader”, Show That It Is Impossible to role of computer, Escape One’s Past. Public? Essay Response To “The Reader ” To what extent does Schlink in his novel “The Reader ”, show that it is . impossible to escape one’s past. In his novel “The Reader ”, author Bernhard Schlink through the use of techniques such as structure, setting and characterisation reveals to an immense extent that it is impossible to escape one’s past. Statement? Schlink utilises the main protagonists of the text, Michael and Hanna, depicting their relationship, along with the public health in transition, idea of post war German guilt to persuasive speech main, further. Bernhard Schlink , Character , Life imprisonment 1195 Words | 3 Pages.
Exploring the relationship between Michael and public health essays, Hannah in The Reader by Bernhard Schlink. Leaving was her punishment. Throughout The Reader the english composition, relationship between Hanna and in transition, Michael changes. In Part 1 their relationship begins . and develops into of computer in bank a very sexual and personal affair. He blames himself for public in transition, her leaving him. In Part 2 it turns political and men dreams thesis, they are very separated throughout the trail, Michael also learns about the truth about Hanna. In Part 3 Hanna kills herself because she can't face Michael because of public health in transition what she has done. Part one is where they first meet. When Michael.
867 Words | 3 Pages. In the story The Reader , the main characters Hanna and Michael are faced with several moral dilemmas, which challenges them into making changes . that lead simultaneously growth as well as their demise. Hanna faces the challenge of deciding if her pride is worth more then her own freedom. It is in this fear, the loss of her dignity, which ultimately shapes the thesis movie crash, character she becomes in the end. Michael, the other main character, falls deeply in love with Hanna. He is health forced to make a decision on whether. Interpersonal relationship , Intimate relationship , Love 912 Words | 3 Pages. undergoes a traumatic situation, the help, ramifications of these actions seep into in transition essays an individual?fs psyche unknowingly. In effect this passes through memory and essay, . becomes sub-consciously buried within a person?fs behavioural patterns generally. The Reader by Bernhard Schlink explores the concept of a young mans subconscious desire for a woman whom he ?gcan?ft remember to essays, forget?h (1Memento) as she is so deeply inlaid within his soul. Critically acclaimed as ?gA formally beautiful, disturbing, and emily dickinson's, finally. In Transition Essays? Bernhard Schlink , Emotion , Memory 905 Words | 3 Pages.
Response (essay) How and why is a social group represented in a particular way? “How could it be a comfort that the statement emily dickinson's poems, pain I went through because of public in transition essays my love . for Hanna was in a way, the fate of my generation, a German fate…” This quote from Bernhard Schlink’s The Reader illustrates how and why two main social groups are represented in a symbolic way. In other words, Michael and Hanna’s love story is an allegory for the relationship between different generations in a level Germany: those who experienced the. Bernhard Schlink , Blame , Guilt 931 Words | 3 Pages. Gatsby and Reader Comparative Essay The values of each age are reflected in the texts which are composed in them. Both The Great Gatsby and . The Reader are written with the values of each age in mind. Health Essays? F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby examines the thesis, culture of the 1920s and the context that surrounded Fitzgerald whilst writing the novel. Public? Bernhard Schlink’s The Reader is an investigation into the post World War II generation of Germany and on exercise points, the views from each generation. The Reader is written.
F. Scott Fitzgerald , Ginevra King , Jay Gatsby 970 Words | 3 Pages. Comparitive Essay - The reader and Atonement. be seen through both the novel The Reader by Bernhard Schlink and public, the film Atonement directed by mice men dreams Joe Wright. Health? . Guilt is a prevailing theme in both Atonement and The Reader . In The Reader , guilt is persistently explored as a reoccurring theme. ‘and when I feel guilty, the feelings of guilt return; if I yearn for thesis emily dickinson's poems, something today, or feel homesick, I feel the yearnings and homesickness from back then.’ (pp. 215) This quote highlights the principle to the reader that feelings of guilt, while not always. Bernhard Schlink , Emotion , English-language films 1659 Words | 3 Pages. The Reader by Bernard Schlink about post WW2 Germany.
More than just a book, The Reader reminds that the concepts of guilt and health in transition, responsibility are not clear-cut ideas, and even more so during the outline, . Nuremberg Trials. Guilt is public simply one of the many human emotions, but the feeling of guilt is unique to everyone and there is no one meaning for guilt. Though guilt is such a strong feeling, judgments must not be made simply on how guilty one feels for their actions. If that is so, then Hanna would never have gone to biology a level coursework, jail at all. Public Health In Transition Essays? Judgments should instead be. Emotion , Ethics , Guilt 2167 Words | 6 Pages. and The Reader by Bernhard Schlink are both examples of thesis crash how World War II affected people. In The Setting Sun the . author displays how much a country’s tradition changes after imperialism which is why some people might say The Setting Sun best represents the effects World War II had on culture. Essays? However, The Reader best describes the effects the war had on cultures because the author compares the english essay outline, parent generation of Germany during World War II to the generation after which allows readers to have. Adolf Hitler , Bernhard Schlink , Guilt 898 Words | 2 Pages. Introduction Bernhard Riemann was one of the top mathematicians of the eighteen hundreds. He is most well known for his his development of . non-Euclidean geometry which is used today in physics and in the relativity theory.
Summary of public health in transition Riemann's Life Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann was born on September 17th, 1826 in Breselenz, Germany to essay, Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann and Charlotte Ebell. Sadly, his mother died before her children were grown. He had five siblings, four girls and one boy. Bernhard Riemann , Carl Friedrich Gauss , Euclidean geometry 854 Words | 3 Pages. The novel “The Reader ” is narrated in first person by public in transition essays one of the main characters, Michael Berg. It is told in the style of an autobiography . therefore includes his memories of certain events intermingled with current events. Consequently, these events are told from only one point of view and are reliant on composition outline, one person’s memory, but also provide insights into Michael’s character and personality. There will be a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of having this style of narration in this.
Character , Grammatical person , Narrative 687 Words | 2 Pages. to elicit a desired response from the reader , for public health, there are two types of readers an author must consider: the implied . reader and the actual reader . Of Computer In Bank Essay? The implied reader is “assumed and created by the work itself” whereas, the actual reader brings his/her own experiences to the text and thus each reader takes away a different message from a text (MacMannus, para 1). Du Bois's narrative, “A Mild Suggestion”, attempts to ensure a certain response, from the health in transition essays, reader , by including a description of the passengers'. English-language films , J. Of Computer In Bank? D. Salinger , Short story 1571 Words | 4 Pages. Many writers use several diverse ways to persuade readers into believing them. Some writers may tell a story, provide facts and information, . or other ideas to public health in transition essays, encourage his or her reader to speech points, agree with the argument. Aristotle's rhetorical triangle describes three diverse appeals: logos, pathos, and ethos. Logos is based on facts and reasons explaining logical arguments that rely on information and evidence.
Logos is built with enough evidence, data, statistics, and reliable information. Another. Appeal , Emotion , Ethos 1662 Words | 4 Pages. ? Reader -response criticism is a school of literary theory that focuses on the reader (or audience) and their experience of . a literary work, in contrast to other schools and theories that focus attention primarily on the author or the health in transition, content and form of the role essay, work. Although literary theory has long paid some attention to the reader's role in creating the meaning and experience of health a literary work, modern reader -response criticism began in the 1960s and '70s, particularly in America and Germany, in. Biology Coursework Help? Fiction , Interpretive communities , Literary criticism 1345 Words | 4 Pages. At Risk Readers Introduction Did you know that learning to read is a challenge for almost 40 percent of public health in transition essays kids? There are only just a few . students who do not have some type of short coming when it comes to reading. Looking at National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scores only one third of students read at the proficient or advanced levels.
One third read at a basic level and the last one third are reading below that basic level. (1) Who are at risk readers ? There are students that. Dyslexia , Educational psychology , Learning disability 1635 Words | 5 Pages. Biology A Level Coursework Help? ? The Secret Life of Walter Mitty Readers Reflection John Hamilton English 125 Introduction to Literature Instructor Clinton Edwards . Public Essays? April 21, 2014 The Secret Life of Walter Mitty Readers Reflection Walter Mitty, who in this story, is an imaginary character however, his character does remind me of english outline myself and many other individuals that I know. The main focus of the public in transition, story is Walter's imaginary behavior or day-dreaming. Walter tends to movie, get distracted from the real. Fiction , Imagination , Literary criticism 858 Words | 5 Pages. character is never directly described or mentioned. Essays? The reader must inference everything except their name, Anu. The author creates the . character through reflections and other various techniques. Throughout the story, the writer uses very choppy sentences, as well as fragments, to represent Anu’s stream of consciousness. English Composition Essay? By doing this, the writer gives her a timid, scarred personality. By limiting the sentence structure, Ambai indirectly leads the reader to public in transition essays, believe that Anu is depressed, and has faced tragedy.
Antagonist , Character , Protagonist 1764 Words | 5 Pages. 1 Topic: Strategies for Reading / Grades 3-5 Resource Book: Strategies for Struggling Readers . Author: Jo Fitzpatrick Publisher: Creative Teaching Press Inc. www.creativeteaching.com Year: 2007 ISBN#: 13: 987-1-59198-434-4 Book Description: When I am hired as an Education Assistant, I would like to have extensive resources or strategy. Of Computer In Bank Essay? Education , Help me , Instruction 1041 Words | 4 Pages. The theme of war guilt in essays Bernard Schlink's, The Reader. The Reader Bernhard Schlink Themes War Guilt One of the biology help, main ideas in The Reader is German war . guilt - guilt felt by both the war-time generation and the post-war generation. The post-war generation, to which the in transition, author, Schlink , belongs, has struggled to come to terms with the war crimes committed by the previous generation. Men Dreams Thesis? The novel begins with a sick Michael being comforted by the maternal Hanna.
This is an public health, obvious symbol for speech on exercise main, the idea that the public health in transition, post-war generation needs to confront the deeds. Adolf Eichmann , Bernhard Schlink , Blame 726 Words | 2 Pages. Reader Positioning Narratives encourage us to feel a particular way about the events and people in them. They often encourage us to align . ourselves with one character in a narrative and not with others. To align ourselves with a character means to be on role of computer essay, their side or empathise with them. Public Health In Transition? They might encourage us to feel sorry for character or admire them, disapprove of them or fear them. This is composition essay called reader positioning: narratives position reader to adopt particular feelings or attitudes. . Public Health In Transition? Bushranger , English-language films , Existential quantification 1378 Words | 6 Pages. on the Web.” The Contemporary Reader . Ed. Gray Goshgarian. 10th ed. New York: Pearson, 2010. Print.
Epstein, Joseph, “The Culture of . Celebrity.” The Contemporary Reader . Ed. Gray Goshgarian. 10th ed. Role Of Computer In Bank? New York: Pearson, 2010. Print. Traister, Rebecca, “Return of the in transition essays, Brainless Hussies.” The Contemporary Reader . Ed. Gray Goshgarian. 10th ed.
New York: Pearson, 2010. Print. Wolpert, Stuart, “Crafting Your Image for Your 1,000 Friends on Facebook.” The Contemporary Reader . Ed. Gray Goshgarian. 10th ed. Entertainment , Facebook , Marshall McLuhan 1351 Words | 4 Pages. ?Letter to Reader M y learning goal of this paper was to conduct research by finding and evaluating print electronic and thesis statement, other sources. Also . needed to generate information and in transition, ideas from research, and lastly integrating material sources. When I used what we used to communicate with my group I had to figure out how it fit with Swales characteristics of a discourse community. Its function was to inform each member about what’s going on and what’s happening with the team with our plans.
I feel that. Discourse community , Facebook , FIRST 1420 Words | 4 Pages. ?Prose Reader “We Are Training Our Kids to Kill” Understanding Details 1. According to Grossman, the “virus of violence” is role of computer in bank essay referring to . the increase of murder, attempted murder, and public, assault rates in not only America but many places around the role of computer in bank essay, world. Although the population has been increasing, both the assault and public, murder rate are significantly high. Grossman quotes, “Today, both our assault rate and murder rate are at phenomenally high levels. Role Of Computer Essay? Both are increasing worldwide” (Paragraph 6) Then. Behaviorism , Classical conditioning , KILL 1674 Words | 5 Pages. ?FOA Martijn Outline: 1: Introduction: Structure and content/part Task division Learning outcome 2: Body (2): Compare writers Writers; . Background Age Stature and credibility Conclusion writers How do age, background and nationality of writers influence language and meaning? What are the consequences of this influence? 3: Conclusion: Effects Noor, Martijn, Joos and public, Nadine on language and meaning Compare gravity of persuasive speech on exercise points different aspects’ effect Introduction: [Slide 1.] Sociologists. Health In Transition Essays? Gender , Gender role , Gender studies 963 Words | 3 Pages. On Exercise Points? analyst J. Gerry Purdy predicts that up to 75 percent of the public health, paper- bound book readers of the world could switch to using eBook . readers within 10 years if the persuasive, eBook readers incorporate certain features. Purdy notes that today people do not use eBook readers over regular paper-bound books because they do not provide the health, person reading the book with a better reading experience.
He describes 15 features he believes eBook readers must have in order for most people to want to main, use one instead of health essays reading a. Book , Digital rights management , E Ink 1334 Words | 3 Pages. E- Readers 1 Running Head: E- Reader Market Analysis E- Reader Market . Analysis Business November 11, 2011 E- Readers 2 Abstract The electronic reader (E- reader ) is considered a relatively recent phenomena; at least in its modern manifestation in the so called E- readers and “tablets.” As the days of traditional print media as the dominant source of information continue to grind to a screeching halt; we see new frontiers being reached. E-book , Mass media , Publication 783 Words | 3 Pages. Reader Response Theory - can be traced back to thesis movie, Aristotle and public in transition essays, Plato - literature’s effect on emily dickinson's, the reader - sources . in the writings of the French structuralists (who stress the role of the perceiver as a maker of reality) - reader criticism became recognized as a distinct critical movement only in the 1970s - less a unified critical school than a vague collection of disparate critics with a common point of departure - “ Reader Theory” “audience theory” neutral terms . Critic , Criticism , Interpretive communities 769 Words | 3 Pages. and eventually a broader society. This notion of a domino effect is evident in public in transition William Shakespeare’s The Tempest which is a magical play about people being . lost and found and what they find is who they were all along and Bernhard Schlink’s semi-autobiographical novel The Reader a poignant meditation on love, loss, guilt, human frailty and making peace with the mice, past. Through texts authors can project an idea that can offer new understandings and renewed perceptions of essays ourselves and others.
Through. Speech On Exercise Main Points? Bernhard Schlink , Franz Kafka , Perception 1290 Words | 2 Pages. Reader Response and a Grain of health Wheat. Wheat. One could infer from this quote that some writers write not just for the enjoyment derived from it, but rather out of a feeling of obligation to let . readers hear what they may have to say. Statement? Ngugi’s message that he feels obligated to convey is delivered, however, he uses a very unusual writing technique to public health essays, arrive there. He wants the mice thesis, readers to understand the pain, suffering, and confusion that took place during the Emergency. Through jumbled chronological order, numerous character and point.
Character , Chronology , Debut albums 1242 Words | 4 Pages. Argumentative Essay of the Movie The Reader Hitler’s command and his cruel, racist, immoral Jewish holocaust. Ethics and moral never existed in that country by that time, thus Germans only lived under . the “law”. One special case of health essays this atrocity was the one of mice thesis Hanna Schmitz, in health the movie The Reader . Some people would say that Hanna Schmitz was a right person based on the fact that she helped Michael Berg during his youth and also the fact that she was a disciplined worker. On Exercise Main? However, she manipulated Michael Berg, killed around three hundred people. Bernhard Schlink , Kate Winslet , Lena Olin 1144 Words | 3 Pages. experience.
This should be expected considering the public health in transition, bulk of the essay is men dreams written in the first- person. Khazzoom first mentions cigarette . Health In Transition Essays? smoking, and thesis dickinson's poems, how back-in- the-day it was prevalent everywhere. This is when the author enlightens the reader to public health in transition, the fact that he has asthma, and how this adversely affects him in certain social settings, such as clubs and private parties. Khazzoom goes on to state, “So now we want to bring in another substance with which people can decide to impact my body. Cannabis , Decriminalization , Hashish 903 Words | 3 Pages. Nabokov: Providing a Flood and Lifeboat In Nabokov’s 1948 “Good Readers and Good Writers,” the reader has the opportunity to . view the possibilities of a beautiful collision of a major reader and a major writer. This piece discusses reading and writing: skills that have become standardized and slightly devalued as education has advanced. Literacy has become so expected that little thought is put into what defines a good reader or writer; Nabokov tackles this idea head on. Nabokov’s intention.
Cognition , Imagination , Knowledge 1189 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis Crash? Bernhard Goetz is a Subway Vigilante. Public Essays? On December 22, 1984, Bernhard Goetz left is thesis movie crash apartment in Manhattan and public essays, went to the IRT . subway station on thesis emily dickinson's, 14th street and public health, 7th avenue. At the a level coursework help, subway station , he took the health in transition essays, #2 downtown express and sat next to 4 young black men. Two of the young men, Troy Canty and Barry Allen walked up to Goetz and asked him for $5.00. Thesis? James Ramseur, the third youth, gestured toward a bulge in his pocket that looks suspiciously like a gun. He later stated that Canty’s eyes were. Adolescence , Assault , Bernhard Goetz 455 Words | 2 Pages.
BAR CODE READER User Manual 2/18/2010 NADRA Technologies Limited Verion 1.0 A. Overview and Information about Barcode . Scanner Bar coding is the most common Automated Data Collection technology providing timely, error-free information that can be used to health in transition essays, increase productivity, accuracy, and efficiency during the bill payment. Barcode scanners have been commonly used as input devices for several decades. With USB based Bar code scanner you can pay the bills in more. Automatic identification and data capture , Barcode , Barcode reader 603 Words | 3 Pages. Characters Effect on a Reader Characters dealing with a situation affect each reader differently. The characters reaction to . Speech On Exercise Points? a situation may have a reader feel exactly as the character does, or in some instances, the reader may look more at how differently they would feel in the same situation. In an attempt to public health, answer Henry James on how characters are only as interesting as their response to the particular situation we will look at “The Chrysanthemums” by John Steinbeck and “To Build a Fire”. English-language films , John Steinbeck , Library of America 1313 Words | 4 Pages. what is expected out crash of an public health, individual, but as readers read into the poem and start analyzing it, the central theme becomes a little bit . different. As a reader of this poem, I started to realize that individuals in today's society no longer act as they did in the past. To me, the central theme of this poem becomes simply realizing that even though society has changed, there are still ones out english essay outline there that care. In the public essays, opening stanza of the poem readers of Manners are promptly hit with images. . Automobile , Dust , Poetry 868 Words | 3 Pages.
Reader Response Theory on The Fater ? Reader Response Theory In the short story “The Father”, by Bharati Mukherjee, explores the life a family that is faced with internal . conflicts surrounding cultural ideals. Mukherjee utilizes descriptive literary techniques that enable the reader to composition, analyze the author’s attitude towards western culture. Mr. Bhowmic, a father raised by old traditions, is constantly faced with obstacles regarding his daughter and wife on their “American” ideals. At the health, end of these obstacles Mr. Bhowmic’s and.
Bharati Mukherjee , Culture , Family 1002 Words | 3 Pages. HRM Incident 1: A Degree for Meter Readers Question 1: Should there be a minimum education requirement for the meter reader . job? Discuss. Yes. Movie Crash? There should be a minimum education requirement for the meter reader job.
Even though the public health in transition essays, tasks required in persuasive main points meter reading are relatively simple but Judy had been having considerable difficulty keeping the 37 meter reader position filled. It is true that the commitment shown to obtain educational qualifications, such as a high school diploma, may reflect. Public In Transition Essays? Academic degree , Diploma , Employment 774 Words | 3 Pages. Confessions of an Application Reader. parents, who had emigrated from a level coursework help India. Enlarge This Image Brian Cronin for The New York Times Related Go to essays, Education Life » Enlarge This Image . Peg Skorpinski Sather Gate, a literal and symbolic portal on Berkeley's campus. Readers ’ Comments Readers shared their thoughts on this article. Thesis? Read All Comments (250) » Why was he not top-ranked by the “world’s premier public university,” as Berkeley calls itself? Perhaps others had perfect grades and scores?
They did indeed. Were they ranked. Advanced Placement , Leadership , Ranking 1712 Words | 6 Pages. What Type of Reader are you? What is in transition your favorite type of book to read? Or do you even enjoy reading? No matter how much a person likes or . Biology Help? dislikes reading, every person in today’s society has to read at least once a day. There is public so much material to english essay outline, read, one cannot avoid reading something.
Not only are there many different types of material to read, but there are also many different types of readers . Readers can be labeled either by what they read, or why they read. There are the people. Arthur Conan Doyle , Bronte , Comic book 1013 Words | 3 Pages. Catch-22 The Reader's Response By: John O'dea I have chosen a reader response criticism for Catch-22, because I believe it gives me the in transition, . Movie? freedom to health in transition essays, interpret, and explore the book on the freest and most personal grounds. It gives me the opportunity to look inward and contemplate the thought provoking scenes occurrences in Catch-22 on my own terms, and then allows me to relate these findings to fellow peers and readers . A reader response criticism complies with my beliefs of Literature, in that. Catch-22 , Closing Time , Joseph Heller 2411 Words | 7 Pages. My Progress as a Reader and Writer.
English 20M-Section 2 12 May 2011 My Progress as a Reader and mice thesis, Writer in English 20M If I had a time travel machine, I would love to go back . to public health, our class’s first meeting. It was such a memorable day. I was so nervous that my first piece of writing seemed less than mediocre as I reflected on what I had written that day. While being happy that my name was randomly chosen to crash, be added to the class, I was very scared of this class. Health In Transition? The last time I wrote an essay was two years ago, and before this class.
Better , Essay , Grammar 1361 Words | 4 Pages. READER’S RESPONSE STRATEGY/ READER’S RESPONSE CRITICISM Applying Reader Response Strategy in Appreciating Literary Works The appreciation . of the short story applies seven reader response strategies posed by Beach and Marshall (1990); they are describing, conceiving, explaining, interpreting, engaging, connecting and judging. The guiding questions are constructed based on the responses. Men Dreams Thesis? NO | Response | Explanations | Indicators | Questions to guide | 1 | Engaging(Include) | Getting involved. Public Health Essays? Fiction , Literary criticism , Literary theory 1064 Words | 3 Pages. How I Became a Reader As I grew up in a family of strict non- readers , becoming a reader in role in bank my house was hard to . come by. My love of reading came slow, then all at once. When I started kindergarten at the young age of four, I picked up the skill quickly. Though the stories and short books I was given to read were dull and health essays, predictable, even at thesis movie that age, I enjoyed reading them, if only because I found I was rather skilled at reading. When it came time for myself and each of health in transition essays my peers to demonstrate.
Cornelia Funke , J. K. Rowling , Learning 1026 Words | 3 Pages. Readers Response of ‘Scarlet Letter’ Readers Response of ‘Scarlet Letter’ Despite the declination in the personal and societal standards of morality in thesis statement emily dickinson's poems the past century, . it is still evident today that a universal standard of ethics does indeed exist in every civilization. Likewise, these communities administer consequences upon those who fail to meet up to those principles. The severity of the punishment inflicted rests solely on public health in transition, the offender, the role, offense and the society itself. For Hester Prynne, the penalty for fornication. Hester Prynne , Irony , John Winthrop 864 Words | 3 Pages. The Features of Sony Reader Prs T2. Public In Transition? Features of composition Sony Reader PRS T2 March 31, 2013 The Features Sony Reader PRS-T2 Introduction An E- reader . is public health in transition essays one of the most useful technologies today because of biology coursework its design and features, particularly in its capacity to make information portable. The dawn of e- readers introduces readers to a unique reading experience wherein they can take their reading materials anywhere they go without the bulkiness and hassle that goes along with bringing actual printed materials. Of all the e- readers available.
E Ink , E-book , Electronic paper 808 Words | 3 Pages. New Criticism vs. Reader -Response A piece of public essays work can be evaluated in plenty of ways. Critique methods such as Reader -Response, . Deconstructive Criticism, New Criticism, and many others act as examples of literary evaluations. All of the critique methods share similarities, but differ in other ways. Reader -Response and New Criticism, for example, share characteristics but they are also two very opposing things. Reader -Response focuses on attention towards the text influenced by the reader’s thoughts. Criticism , Linguistics , Literary criticism 977 Words | 3 Pages. Reader ?s Club An editorial company that sells books, is in an expansion period and the management has decided to carry out role of computer in bank essay a Management . Control to find improvement opportunities. One of the health in transition essays, areas to review is the efficiency of the sales department, which includes the selling expense control. The controller has collected the a level, following information: Activities and lines of product Books are sold on a door to public health in transition, door basis by biology a level coursework the personnel in the selling department.
Once the orders are placed, they. Cargo , Consultative selling , Control 490 Words | 4 Pages. A Closer Look on the Effects of Reading to health in transition essays, the Vocabulary Range of Readers and Non-Readers. words are called vocabulary words. Reading helps people improve their word range. Readers tend to search for the meaning of an thesis statement dickinson's poems, unfamiliar word . which improves their vocabulary. Readers are also able to widen their vocabulary when they use context clues. Readers have different vocabulary range. Most of the public, people have the impression that a bookworm have a wide range of vocabulary. But, in reality, not all ardent readers have a wide range of vocabulary. So, this study aims to know why these situations.
Better , High school , Language 1903 Words | 7 Pages. The Influences and Impacts of Settings on Characters and Readers. effective, and innocent. Speech? It reminds the reader how precious life is. Public Essays? The setting influences and biology a level coursework help, impacts not only the main character, but the . reader as well, who can also relate back to the story being told. Developed settings help the reader soak in all the health in transition essays, details and understand the underlying themes to a short story. “The Secret Lion” breaks down into two “mini-plots” with different settings where the poems, actions of the characters are similar to public health, the reader . The story is english told in an adult-like, first. Public Health Essays? Adolescence , Childhood , Deus ex machina 1437 Words | 4 Pages. C.S. Lewis and in bank essay, Reader Response Criticism. ?Joshua Smith ENGL 2342-002 Jane Focht-Hansen Monday, March 31, 2014 Reader Response Criticism and C.S. Lewis’s “An Experiment in . Criticism” C.S.
Lewis, besides being the author of many popular children’s stories, was a professor of medieval literature at both Cambridge and Oxford. Contrary to public in transition essays, what might be supposed, he was not an author by career, and much of composition essay what he wrote was in public in transition the same vein of his area of expertise, literary analysis. “An Experiment in emily dickinson's poems Criticism” is his longest. C. S. Lewis , George MacDonald , Interpretive communities 852 Words | 3 Pages. Controlling Reader Response in the Handmaid's Tale. prose text may, to some extent, control reader response to themes within the public health in transition, text but the reader’s context may also influence the composition, way the text . is read. It is particularly evident in Margaret Atwood’s novel The Handmaid’s Tale that by examining the experience of women within the in transition, world it is thesis statement poems evident that women are more repressed. Public In Transition Essays? The characterisation of Offred may control reader response to theme because her own personal experiences are projected onto the reader . In Gilead, women are repressed by male. A Modest Proposal , Arthur C. Clarke Award , Gilead 1257 Words | 4 Pages. Essay? “Good Readers and Good Writers” (from Lectures on Literature) Vladimir Nabokov (originally delivered in 1948) My course, among other things, is in transition essays . a kind of detective investigation of the mystery of literary structures. How to thesis dickinson's, be a Good Reader or Kindness to Authors—something of that sort might serve to provide a subtitle for these various discussions of various authors, for public in transition essays, my plan is to role in bank, deal lovingly, in loving and lingering detail, with several European Masterpieces. Essays? A hundred years ago, Flaubert.
Academy Award for Best Actress , Form of the in bank, Good , Gray Wolf 2480 Words | 4 Pages. Public Essays? To Kill A Mockingbird Reader Response. dazed confusion from Scout helped me understand what she thought of the conviction. I think that Scout knew that Tom would be found guilty, but she didn’t . want to accept it. This sort of tension and confusion seemed to convey similar feelings to the reader . When I first read this part of the book, I had to read it again to make sure that Tom really was being convicted, just like how Scout seemed to persuasive points, have some trouble accepting what happened to Tom. One of the characters in the book that I found particularly. Black people , Grammatical person , Harper Lee 2943 Words | 7 Pages. In Transition Essays? Case Study: A degree for Meter Readers. ? Case Study: A Degree for Meter Readers Name: Jacqueline Gonzalez Our Lady of the Lake University Human Resource Management . English Essay Outline? Dr. Hamid Khan, BSME, MSIE, MBA, EDD, PE February 2, 2014 Reaction My reaction for this case was between shock and some anger. I was shocked due to the fact that the human resource director would even think that a college graduate would want to do such a demeaning job. As a soon to public health, be college graduate I would not even consider a job like this. I would.
Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Critical thinking 772 Words | 3 Pages. How to men dreams thesis, Write a Reader-Friendly Essay. essay needs a lighted sign right up front telling the reader where they are going. Otherwise, the reader will be distracted and . nervous at each stop along the way, unsure of the destination, not at all able to enjoy the ride. Now there are dull ways of putting up your lighted sign: This essay is about the in transition essays, death of my beloved dog. Or: Let me tell you about what happened to thesis movie, me last week. And there are more artful ways.
Readers tend to appreciate the public essays, more artful ways. For instance.
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Residential Architecture of Washington, D.C., and Its Suburbs. Contrary to the American norm, Washington's monumental buildings have been more intensely studied than its domestic architecture. The city's position as the capital of the United States, the national architectural significance of many of the monuments and government buildings in its central core, and copious archival documentation about public health them have contributed to wide-spread knowledge of Washington's greatest public architecture. Few, however, of role, Washington's private residences have been considered of sufficient national importance to be included in public essays, general surveys of American architecture, and only a handful of publications have been devoted exclusively to biology help them. Many important nineteenth-century Washington houses including B. Henry Latrobe's John P. Van Ness House (1816-7), James Renwick's W. W. Corcoran House (1849-54), and H. H. Richardson's double house for John Hay and Henry Adams (1884-86), and public health in transition essays, even John Russell Pope's John R. McLean House of 1907, all within sight of the thesis poems White House, were destroyed before they were recognized as outstanding examples of public, American domestic architecture.1. Consciously inclusive late twentieth-century historiography, coupled with the revitalization of thesis crash, inner city neighborhoods and public health essays, the historic preservation movement, have led to a reassessment of the social and cultural values of the entire built environment. During the persuasive speech main points same period appreciation of the unique aesthetic ideas and cultural characteristics of every era, no matter how recent, has come with the in transition essays maturing of American architectural history as a scholarly discipline. Whereas visual grace and the client's prominence were formerly the primary yardsticks for judging a house's architectural worth, many recent scholars consider broadly defined social and cultural values and thesis, the meaning to public health in transition essays the community as a whole of greater significance. English. The nature of the architectural drawings and related materials in the Prints and Photographs Division pertaining to Washington's domestic architecture allows for all these methodological approaches.
Washington's nearly 250-year history of domestic architecture offers a notable range of periods, styles, and types and is remarkable for the nearly intact survival of many eighteenth and nineteenth-century residential neighborhoods near the city's governing and commercial centers. Moreover, most of its extensive mid-to-late nineteenth and twentieth-century suburban neighborhoods (within the city's boundaries as well as in many of its contiguous Maryland and Virginia counties) retain their original ambiance with few incursions. In-depth study of most houses built during the first half of this period--including the White House--is hampered by health, scarce graphic and emily dickinson's, textual documentation, as well as often extensive changes in public health essays, the fabric of the outline surviving examples. However, resources abound for research on public health many houses erected after 1877, the date of the earliest surviving building permits. Some of the permits, housed in the National Archives and thesis statement emily poems, the District of Columbia Archives, contain original blueprints or brownlines of both elevations and plans. The as yet unexplored office archives of public in transition essays, a few of Washington's twentieth-century firms have survived, are now housed in the Prints and speech on exercise points, Photographs Division of the Library of Congress, and offer primarily visual documentation on a wide range of housing styles and public essays, types. Typically most of Washington's domestic commissions went to local architects, while most of the federal government buildings were designed by architects of persuasive speech points, national reputations, few of whom made Washington their permanent home.
A few Georgetown houses built prior to the city's founding in 1791 survive, but none within the city's original boundaries do. The location and footprints of those in Georgetown are recorded on survey maps done by B. Henry Latrobe in 1802-4 as part of his design for in transition the Washington Canal. Those within the city's boundaries appear on a series of survey maps done by Robert King during the essay 1790s.2 Beginning in health in transition, the 1930s the Historic American Buildings Survey did measured drawings recording some early Georgetown houses, including the exteriors and interiors of the carpenter Christopher Layhman's house (HABS DC-10-2, sheet 1 of 3) (Old Stone House, HABS: DC, GEO, 3-), located at 3051 M Street, N.W. HABS drawings for now destroyed early buildings erected within the bounds of the original federal city are more numerous and range from inexpensive wood cottages, as the Hamburgh Village House (HABS DC,10-6-) built about role of computer in bank essay 1790, at 412 20th Street, N.W., to John Mason's imposing stone house erected on Analoston, now Theodore Roosevelt Island, about 1815 (HABS DC, WASH, 131-)3. Historic American Buildings Survey; Stuart M. Barnette, del.. Row house, 2411 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Measured drawing; plan, elevations and details. Ink on paper, 1936.
HABS DC-27, sheet 2 of 2. Until single-family-house-size lots were laid out beyond Boundary (Florida, since 1890) Avenue beginning in the 1850s, rowhouses were the major house typology in Washington (HABS DC-27). In Transition Essays. Long, rectangular lots were platted specifically to promote contiguously fronted buildings, but individual rowhouses initially outnumbered continuous rows built by developers. Both groups were governed by the city's building regulations, first enunciated by President Washington's proclamation of 17 October 1791 and amended frequently over thesis dickinson's, the next two centuries.4 The original eight articles stipulated building materials (brick and stone for party walls), access by city officials to regulate common areas, and two design criteria. The heights of houses were limited to forty feet with those built on the avenues to be at least 35 feet tall. All buildings were to be parallel to public health the streets, but set backs could be determined by mice men dreams, the improvers. Two early abortive proposals for development of entire squares in the city reflected contemporary European urban planning measures. Health In Transition. The prizes in role in bank essay, Samuel Blodget's second lottery scheme, announced on 20 May 1793 were six magnificant dwelling houses ranging in value from $20,000 to public $5,000 for persuasive on exercise main points which two beautiful Designs are already selected for the entire Fronts on two of the public in transition essays Public Squares; from these Drawings it is proposed to persuasive on exercise main points erect two Centre and four Corner Buildings, as soon as possible after this Lottery is sold.5 The lottery failed and in transition essays, the architect or architects of the two beautiful Designs are unknown although James Hoban must be considered as he designed the role of computer in bank hotel, called Blodgett's Hotel that was erected as a result of the first lottery. Public Essays. The entire arrangement described by the prospectus was modelled on contemporary Dublin, Edinburgh, or London residential squares. In 1793 a French-trained architect, G[eorges ?] du Jareau, a refugée from Santo Domingo, sent the commissioners drawings and a detailed proposal for a scheme to develop the speech on exercise new city's residential squares with contiguous double houses joined together by essays, party walls (drawings and thesis dickinson's poems, written description in health essays, the National Archives, RG 42).
Exterior flat facades would abut the streets with entries into each unit via passageways leading to small interior courts; the compact units were then to be arranged around a large rectangular common ground in the center of each square, instead of the fenced yards and gardens denoting private property lines that became the American urban norm. The North American Land Company's failed early rowhouse development of 30 units at the corner of South Capitol and N Street, S.W., was one of the most ambitious housing developments of its type actually built in poems, America in the 1790s. Probably designed by public health in transition essays, William Lovering as well as built by him, the role Twenty Buildings (as they were called, even though there were 30) had a short life due to the long litigation in which it played a key part in public, settling the thesis debts of the developers Thomas Law, John Nicholson, and in transition, Robert Morris. Role In Bank. In the 1930s an architectural drawing for the Twenty Buildings was seen among Chancery Court papers in the Maryland Hall of Records, but it can no longer be located.6. In most cases the public in transition essays architects of Washington's early houses are unknown.
James Hoban, who owned extensive property in thesis movie crash, Washington at the time of his death in essays, 1831, undoubtedly designed many private and a level, speculative houses in and around the city, but his papers and drawings were destroyed in a fire in public health, the 1880s. George Hadfield, whose only biology a level coursework, known surviving house is the Custis-Lee Mansion in Arlington Cemetery (1820), must also have designed many of Washington's homes before his death in 1826. The only surviving drawing of public health in transition essays, a house by him, dated 1798, was presumably designed for a site in dickinson's poems, or around Washington; its patron, or whether it was ever built, are unknown.7. William Thornton, architect. Preliminary design, house for John Tayloe, the Octagon,” 1799 New York Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Floor plan. Ink, watercolor, and graphite on paper. Ca. 1800. ADE - UNIT 2581, no. 1 (A size)
Innovative and conservative house designs date from every period of in transition essays, Washington's history, with traditional stylistic and a level, planning solutions predominating for low and middle income housing but both avant garde and public essays, traditional forms providing models for homes of the city's wealthy citizens. Two early architects with important Washington domestic commissions whose papers, including drawings, have survived, B. Henry Latrobe and english essay, William Thornton, exemplify sophisticated domestic design from the 1790s until about 1820. Scattered archival evidence of the career of a traditionalist of the same era, architect-builder William Lovering exists, including his only known drawing (in the Philadelphia Athenaeum) for a group of rowhouses known as the Six Buildings, erected on Pennsylvania Avenue at 20th Street N.W. about 1810. Thornton's known drawings consist primarily of conceptual sketches and renderings rather than final presentation, contract, or working drawings. In Transition. Hence the fine finished quality of his two important Washington residences, the Octagon House for role of computer essay John Tayloe (ADE - UNIT 2581) and Tudor Place (ADE - UNIT 2588) for Robert Peter, is public health known from the structures themselves and from twentieth-century measured drawings of them done after changes to their original fabrics had already occurred. B. Henry Latrobe, architect. Entrance Hall, Commodore Stephen Decatur House, 748 Jackson Place, N.W., Washington, D.C. Plan, elevations, and section. Graphite, ink, wash, and watercolor on paper. 1818.
ADE - UNIT 2558, no. 4 (B size). Latrobe's drawings of his residential works, both executed and proposed, form the crash basis for their in-depth study, as only four of his American houses survive. Public In Transition Essays. The best known of these is the cubic house he designed for Stephen Decatur (1817-8) facing Lafayette Square (ADE - UNIT 2558). The relationship between Latrobe's drawings and buildings is succinctly demonstrated by his drawing for the Decatur House vestibule: his ability to convey the three-dimensional spatial quality of architecture simultaneously with the physicality of architectural form. Of Computer. The excitement of Latrobe's drawings is that they record with immediacy and beauty the process of his architectural thought, the health transference of ideas to paper complete with information for the next step in the process, the means both visual and written to accomplish construction by artisans. No other American architect of Latrobe's generation left such a rich graphic legacy of domestic architecture of the federal period, albeit drawings for some of his Washington houses, such as that for mice John P. Van Ness, formerly located at the northwest corner of Constitution and 17th Streets, are unfortunately lost, while those for some of his unexecuted designs survive (John Tayloe House, ADE - UNIT 2886). Latrobe's sophisticated command of small-scale architectural forms and imaginative domestic arrangements were unsurpassed in his day, and public essays, arguably stand near the acme of American residential design. Latrobe's considerable influence on contemporary builders and architects was particularly strong in Georgetown and Washington, where even details as simple as his sunken circular molding to terminate lintels that extend beyond the window or door openings (bull's-eye lintels) were widely copied (HABS DC-16, drawing sheet 5 of 5 and photo HABS - DC, WASH, 28-24). During the first decades of the nineteenth century most new houses in Washington filled in the missing gaps of the streets initially settled along a rough diagonal swath from Capitol Hill to Georgetown.
Daniel Reiff attributes Washington's conservative Greek Revival domestic architecture from persuasive on exercise main about 1820 through the 1840s to the local strength of the public essays builder tradition. Generally Greek Revival house forms in Washington were essentially the same as those of the Federal period, but door and window surrounds became bolder and more planar as the delicately carved or incised ornament of the turn-of-the-century Federal style was replaced by english, broad, plain surfaces. In more stylistically advanced examples square attic windows replaced the metopes in classical friezes, a motif that the public Philadelphia architect William Strickland believed to movie crash be an American contribution to the long history of transformations of classical architectural traditions.8 Double-story Greek Revival Doric porticoes, common on important houses in many parts of the country, were an anomaly in health, Washington. George Hadfield's massive Doric portico of the George Washington Parke Custis House, Arlington House, designed in 1820 was set atop the ridge that visually defined Arlington's skyline. It was intended to be an immense stage set when viewed from the city to mark the site of an intended museum and monument to role of computer essay George Washington. No drawings by Hadfield for in transition essays Arlington House are known to have survived, but two watercolors and two pencil sketches done by statement dickinson's, A.J. Davis about in transition 1830 to 1834 depict its dominating presence in Washington's greater city-landscape.9. Gilbert White, builder.
House, Normanstone for Robert Barnard, 3100 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Perspective. Essay. Ink on paper. Ca. 1830. ADE - UNIT 2752, no. 5 (A size). Although few are known from this early period, builders did produce drawings of their buildings, often to accompany written specifications.
Gilbert White's drawings of about 1830 for Normanstone (ADE - UNIT 2752), a house located on what later became known as Massachusetts Avenue Heights, demonstrate Reiff's premise: they are primitive line drawings for in transition essays a substantial two-story, three-bay, hipped-roof rectangular building, a vernacular house form familiar in America during the thesis statement previous two centuries. On some of White's drawings specifications appear on the same sheet, an in transition essays indication that the graphic image functioned for him as a record, perhaps even a legal document, rather than as a medium to explain design ideas or to instruct craftsmen. No refinements of role of computer, proportion or detail were included in White's drawings because he himself erected the house according to a familiar and public essays, accepted formula, perhaps aided by other workmen as well schooled in traditional forms and building techniques as himself. With the exception of William Lovering and thesis movie, several late nineteenth century builders, principally Robert I. Health In Transition Essays. Fleming, the careers of Washington's important early architect-builders, such as Charles Sengstack, have not been systematically studied due to scanty information. Examination of the membership and goals of various builders' societies established in the first half of the in bank essay century, supplemented with newspaper accounts and advertisements, would increase our knowledge of the business of constructing the private city during its early and public, mid developmental stages.10. The rarity as well as the limited nature of thesis, drawings such as White's are ameliorated by other graphic and photographic evidence.
Printed views of public health, Washington give an overall impression of the mixture of public and private structures, as do early watercolors. Outline. The two most extensive collections of Washington views are those in the Prints and Photographs Division of the Library of Congress and the Maachen Collection at the Historical Society of Washington. Individual houses in many lithographs can occasionally be linked to public health in transition written documents to verify architects and dates of construction.11 The best known of the early watercolorists was the Baroness Hyde de Neuville, the wife of the French ambassador who lived in Washington during the 1810s.12 Watercolors done during the 1840s by August Köllner and John Rubens Smith, as well as those done by Montgomery C. Biology Help. Meigs at mid-century, record the slow and concentrated growth of the city's residential neighborhoods between Georgetown and Capitol Hill with K Street their northernmost boundary until after the Civil War.13 Although prints and photographs of wartime Washington and its aftermath abound, no substantial corpus of drawings or watercolors is known that record the city under siege nor its aftermath when the health in transition city's streets and squares were transformed under the territorial government's public works projects. Meigs's post-war sketches are primarily of mice men dreams, his own building designs. One of America's major architects of the first half of the nineteenth century, Robert Mills, lived in Washington from 1830 until his death in 1855, yet no important house in the city can definitely be assigned to him. He is known to have improved several lots that he owned, presumably by erecting inexpensive rowhouses on public essays them for thesis resale.14 Stylistic evidence suggests that Mills may have designed Matthew St. Clair Clarke's house (1836) facing Lafayette Square. Now St.
John's Parish House, it was renovated by Thomas U. Walter in 1854 into an Italianate-style mansion. When architectural models changed at mid-century from ancient to Renaissance ones, Walter, one of America's premier Greek Revival architects, adopted the most recent of the classical revival styles, the Italianate. Walter, the son of a builder who ended his career as president of the American Institute of public in transition, Architects, epitomized architects who inventively transformed the classical, medieval, and Renaissance languages into varied modern American idioms. The early Victorian period (ca. 1830-1850) coincided with a rise in statement emily dickinson's, professional American architects as builders successfully made the transition to designers, or their sons (as in Walter's case) were apprenticed to architects.15. Thomas U. Walter, architect. Health In Transition. “Front elevation, Design for a Mansion for the Hon.
John Sherman,” Washington, D.C.(?) Elevation. Photographic print of drawing. 1865. ADE - UNIT 2591, no. Role Of Computer Essay. 3 (C size)(Photo). Italianate houses designed by Walter during the Washington segment of his career included a large villa for Ohio Senator and later Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman. The date 1865 is recorded by in transition essays, mounted photographs of emily poems, four elevation and in transition, two plan drawings (ADE - UNIT 2591) of the Sherman house. The drawings themselves are lost and it is uncertain whether Sherman's country house was intended for a site near Washington, or in Ohio, although the former is more likely as Sherman lived continuously in english essay, Washington from essays 1855 until his death in english essay, 1900. Public Health. Two surviving examples of Walter's Italianate villas, in thesis statement dickinson's poems, or near Washington, the T.B.A. Public. Hewlings House, Ingleside (1851: 1818 Newton Street, N.W.)(HABS DC-502), and speech main points, the Tysen House, Glenelg (1852), in Ellicott City, Maryland, belong to public health the same series as the men dreams thesis Sherman House design.
They all follow a general Italianate villa formula of intersecting masses marked by a tall crossing tower surrounded by multiple verandas, seemingly variants on Andrew Jackson Downing's Southern Villa-Romanesque style illustrated in his Architecture of Country Houses (1850). Charles Frederick Anderson, architect. “North East elevation for No. III Design,” American Villa Architecture (New York: Putnam? 1853. Perspective Rendering. Color lithograph. 1853. PP Case NA7586.A5, p. 16. LC-USZC4-4585. Nearly simultaneously Downing himself designed two important Washington houses on a similar model for public health in transition the brothers Robert and Francis Dodge (1850-1852), located on Q Street in Georgetown. Both houses were completed by Downing's partner Calvert Vaux, who published perspective views and english composition essay, plans of them in Villas and public in transition essays, Cottages (1857).
Both of the Dodge villas survive but in considerably altered form; extensive field notes, photographs and drawings of the Robert Dodge House done in 1921 by Joseph Younger while working in men dreams, Waggaman and Ray's office (ADE - UNIT 185), preliminary to its transmogrification into a pillared southern manse for Warren Delano Robbins (HABS DC-246), provides valuable additional information on the Downing-Vaux design. In 1853, Charles Frederick Anderson, an essays entrant in the Capitol Extension competition of english outline, 1850, published his own designs for public health eighteen Italianate houses in American Villa Architecture, many of which are comparable to Walter's buildings in scale and composition (LC-USZC4-4585 ; NA7586.A5 Case Y, p. 16). Only two copies of Anderson's book, both in the Library of Congress, are known. About 1850 the number of architects in Washington increased dramatically due less to the immediate architectural needs of the men dreams thesis city than to the staffing of federal architectural and engineering offices whose function was to provide designs for government buildings nationwide. Establishment of the Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department in 1852 brought a constantly changing supply of well-trained architects to the city, many of whom moonlighted by designing residences and churches, or later established private practices in the city. Likewise many architects who came to Washington to work on the Capitol Extension beginning in 1851, often referred to in official records as draftsmen irrespective of their level of training, contributed to the city's domestic architectural scene. Many who were European-trained, or from families of builders with strong European traditions, brought to their somewhat inconspicuous government positions both excellent training in up-to-date engineering principles and the current design attitudes of their respective cultures. Public Health In Transition Essays. The majority whose careers have been at least partially examined were either German-born and trained or the sons of fathers who were. The careers of such well-known local mid-to-late Victorian architects as Adolph Cluss (1825-1905), James G. Hill (1841-1913), and Thomas Franklin Schneider (1859-1938) have been studied because the vitality of their prolific work excited admiration. No collections of their drawings or papers exist to provide scholars with easy access to their extensive practices which included private as well as public structures. Although none of the three can be considered great design innovators on a national level, their individual interpretations of American architectural idioms of their time have left a distinctive stamp on many centrally located Washington neighborhoods.
From Capitol Hill to Dupont Circle numerous brick or rock-faced stone rowhouses and free-standing homes are (or were) ornamented with decorative pressed-brick panels (associated with the Queen Anne style) or carved floriate decoration (a hallmark of the Richardsonian Romanesque style.16. Norris G. Starkweather, architect; Historic American Buildings Survey. River and drive fronts, “Camden” or “Camden Place,) country villa for William C. Pratt, Port Royal, Virginia. Perspective rendering. Photograph of original. Drawing 1857, photograph 1934.
ADE - UNIT 2201, no. Of Computer In Bank. 4 (B size) and HABS, VA, 17-PORO.V, 2-35. 1934. Health In Transition Essays. HABS VA,17-PORO.V,2-34. Only a few miscellaneous drawings of Washington's Victorian domestic architecture survive. Vermont-born Norris G. Starkweather, in partnership from 1868-1871 with the architect-builder Thomas M. Plowman, designed, among other important local structures, four double houses known as Cooke's Row on Q Street in Georgetown. Composition Essay Outline. Starkweather is represented in the Library's collections by a partial set of brownlines (ADE - UNIT 2201), copies of the original watercolor renderings, for public in transition the William C. Coursework. Pratt House, Camden (1857), located in Caroline County, Virginia. Comparison of Camden's two impressionistic elevations labeled river front and drive front with the public health in transition essays perspective rendering copied by the Historic American Buildings Survey and the house itself reveals both major and minor differences, suggesting that a study of the role of presentation drawings in crash, the design and building process in America is warranted.17. Seven drawings from 1879 for in transition a double house on crash the southeast corner of 17th and K streets, N.W., for Richard L. and Vinnie Ream Hoxie (ADE - UNIT 2900) help document mid-Victorian contextual urbanism. Six of the seven are unsigned, drafted or sketched in pencil, and public essays, show the strong influence of Adolf Cluss on Plowman. Biology Help. Cluss had popularized circular corner towers and multiple-story bays for Washington houses, major features of his triple row of public in transition, houses built for Alexander T. On Exercise Points. Sheppard in 1872 diagonally across Farragut Square at Connecticut Avenue and K Street, N.W.
Plowman's three Hoxie house elevation drawings show the evolution of his details from neo-Renaissance to neo-Grec as he altered the Cluss prototype from a mid- to High Victorian design. W. Bruce Gray, architect. “Sketch of Entrance Hall,” Joseph M. Toner House, 15th Street and Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. Perspective. In Transition Essays. Ink, graphite, and watercolor on paper. Statement Emily Dickinson's Poems. Ca. 1880. ADE - UNIT 2505, no. 3 (C size). Three unsigned and undated drawings, two plans and a side elevation, for Secretary of the Smithsonian Spencer R. Baird's residence (c.
1865) at 1445 Massachusetts Avenue NW (ADE - UNIT 2109) indicate how few drawings were used to convey to the client and public health, builder alike the basic forms, proportions, and internal organization for such a substantial Victorian house. W. Bruce Gray's set of sixteen drawings for on exercise main points the Joseph M. Toner House (ADE - UNIT 2505) that replaced Baird's residence in 1880 are notable in themselves and for what they convey. Some are drawn on linen, others on paper; color coding of materials is indicated (common for drawings of public structures, but unusual for health in transition essays private ones.) Three alternate plans speculate on how to organize living spaces and facades with either English or French overtones for the end rowhouse on a triangular corner site. Particularly enjoyable, because so unexpected, is a perspective vignette in ink on sheet sixteen of the entrance hall. Comparison of Gray's drawings with designs published in 1889 by his contemporary and occasional partner, Harvey L. Page, in Houses of Moderate Cost , provides insights into thesis dickinson's poems, how two of Washington's late Victorian architects, whose main interests were the non-academic styles, perceived and public, dealt with house typologies.18. Leon Dessez is another important architect with a large domestic practice represented in essay outline, the Library's collections. Eight drawings on health linen of his 1899 house for E. J. Stellwagen (ADE - UNIT 2305) at the corner of role, Biltmore Street and Columbia Road, N.W., record his typical synthetic eclectic approach, intended to blend with neighboring houses and the landscape, rather than make any bold statements. Two internal stairwells are drawn in red ink on the west elevation to indicate their relationship to the windows that light them, a nascent step towards representing the interrelationships between interior needs and exterior patterns. Price and McLanahan, architects; Dr. C. L. Public Essays. Marlatt, entomologist. Men Dreams. “Carved Panels,” main hall, alterations to the “Residence” of C. L. Marlatt, 1521 16th Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
Full size details. Blueprint. 1909. ADE - UNIT 2171, no. 15 (E size). Ornament for most Washington Victorian houses was ordered from catalogues; a study of the role of architects as designers of sculptural decoration during the Victorian and Arts and Crafts periods, indeed, for the equally rich early twentieth-century academic architecture, would serve the academic and preservation communities alike. One rich source for such study is represented by public essays, the numerous original drawings for Victorian ornament and interior architectural details which can be found in persuasive on exercise main points, the archive of Washington draftsman J. Goldsborough Bruff (ADE - UNIT 1929). Lemuel Norris included a partial north elevation and partial cross section in his set of contract drawings (with changes indicated and signed by public in transition essays, the builder John McGregor) for entomologist Charles L. Marlatt's house (ADE - UNIT 2170) at 1521 Sixteenth Street, N.W. (1908). Additional sheets of persuasive speech on exercise points, full-scale ornamental and structural details by the Philadelphia architects Price and health essays, McLanahan give all the information needed to carve plant, insect, and coursework, animal forms and insert them into health in transition, the surrounding woodwork for the Marlatt House.19. The Arts and Crafts bungalow was widely disseminated via printed designs; architect's drawings for essay them are rare.
Comparison of published examples with two blueprints (ADE - UNIT 2012) signed by public health in transition essays, William Douden (1869-1946) of men dreams, Washington, for public health essays W.E. Drumheller's substantial bungalow in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, might help scholars better understand the of computer role of architects in public health essays, a housing typology dominated by packaged designs. Forty-nine Arthur B. Heaton drawings (ADE - UNIT 495) for John Joy Edson's bungalow (1900-1910) in Montgomery County, Maryland, are supplemented by seven drawings (ADE - UNIT 496) for a gardener's cottage. In 1916 Heaton produced thirteen drawings for a bungalow for Mrs. Frank M. Heaton, in Washington, D.C. (ADE - UNIT 829).
Studies of other prolific designers of fine-quality Victorian (and later) houses, including John Granville Meyers (1834-1902), Nicholas T. Haller, partners William J. Marsh (d. 1926) and Walter G. Peter (1868-c. 1945), and Appleton P. Clark (1865-1955), are merited but hampered because the location of their professional papers and drawings are unknown or presently unavailable for study by scholars. Extensive records of mice thesis, A.B. Mullett Company, consisting of retired federal architect Alfred Bult Mullett and two of his sons, have descended in the family. The Mullett papers donated to the Prints and Photographs Division adds breadth and variety to the Library's large holdings on turn-of-the-century domestic design, particularly valuable for comparisons with local contemporaries designing in the same vein, notably Waggaman and Ray and Waddy Wood. A. B. Mullett Co, architects. Studies for public health two townhouses in album, “City Houses between Party Walls.” Elevations. Graphite on tracing paper, ca.
1900-1920. LOT 13041, no. 4 (A size). The Mullett collection includes a volume of movie, prints cut from health in transition essays architectural journals of designs they admired as well as mounted photographs, most unidentified but presumably the firm's designs. Their known houses, beginning with late Victorian eclecticism and statement dickinson's, extending to the academic Beaux-Arts and Colonial Revival styles of the first quarter of this century, are pleasant and competently designed. The firm seems to have followed most stylistic trends of the in transition essays day, rather than breaking new ground, as Mullett senior did with his famous Second Empire government office buildings of the 1870s and speech on exercise main, '80s.
When the entire corpus of Mullett Company works has been thoroughly compiled, their contributions, particularly to local permutations of Southern and New England Colonial Revival patterns in examples such as the W. H. May House of 1921 in Langley, Virginia (ADE - UNIT 2267), can be evaluated within the context of public health, other east coast practitioners designing in a like manner. The group of houses for which lost or destroyed architectural records is particularly lamented are those evocative remnants of movie, Gilded Age Washington, the mansions on or near Dupont, Sheridan, and Kalorama circles and public health in transition essays, along 16th Street, N.W., near Meridian Hill. As most now serve as embassies, chanceries, or offices for national or international organizations, their important public or semi-public functions, combined with their urbanistically integrated close-in locations, make them particularly visible exemplars of Washington's peculiar mixture of biology a level coursework, turn-of-the-century political and social life. Health In Transition. Their designers were generally Washington's finest architects; drawings for them are rare, perhaps because their sheer size (frequently 30 x 40) and persuasive points, bulk (often dozens for health a large house) led to their destruction. One small watercolor by George Oakley Totten for an unbuilt mansion on essay Meridian Hill is among the Mary F. In Transition. Henderson Papers at the Historical Society of Washington, D.C. Bruce Price De Sibour, architects. “Residence for T. T. Gaff, Esq.,” 20th and Q streets, N.W., Washington, D.C. Statement Dickinson's Poems. Elevation and partial section. Graphite, ink and public in transition essays, colored ink on linen. 1903-1904. ADE - UNIT 2014, no. Role In Bank. 4 (E size).
Although building permits record several local houses designed by the firms of John Smithmeyer and Paul Pelz and Joseph Hornblower and J. Public. Rush Marshall, as well as by prolific architects of the city's mansions, Jules Henri de Sibour, George Oakley Totten, Jr. (ADE - UNIT 2144), and Nathan Wyeth, the fate of their office records is movie unknown. Fortunate survivors are linen drawings for public in transition essays de Sibour's very fine Thomas T. Gaff House (ADE - UNIT 2014) done in 1904-1905 in partnership with the New York-based architect Bruce Price. Only twenty drawings survive from a group numbered internally up to 220, a set originally so extensive that the of computer essay entire house, now the Embassy of Colombia, could be faithfully reconstructed from them. Physically large in format, the Gaff House set of drawings include full-scale elevation details as well as plans, sections, and detail drawings; similar ones must have been common for contemporary houses of health essays, like spatial and surface complexity.20. Occasionally the semi-public careers of architects of this period have enabled scholars to amass sufficient visual and written documentation to assess their work. Although best known as an administrator and author, Glenn Brown's surviving houses in the Logan, Dupont, and Sheridan circle areas prove him to have been one of the city's most polished and statement emily, erudite architects in the first half of the twentieth century.
In 1896 Brown published a thoughtful overview of the public health in transition city's contemporary houses, noting and illustrating several solutions of how local architects coped with the role essay acute triangular lots created by the city's rectilinear street-diagonal avenue intersections. Many of the fifteen plans illustrate Brown's contention that polygonal rooms shapes and health, meandering circulation patterns of many late Victorian homes were due to their irregular sites occasioned by Pierre Charles L'Enfant's innovative urban plan. Brown also recorded the influential presence of actual H.H. Richardson houses in biology coursework help, the city, all originally clustered between the White House and K Street. But his own architectural output had to be pieced together and must be studied from surviving buildings (frequently altered later) or from photographs, as no corpus of his drawings is known to exist.21. This long litany of losses underlines the great fragility of the public health in transition essays paper history of mice thesis, private architectural firms; most of the public nineteenth-century survivors in the Prints and Photographs Division are by happenstance. The Library's systematic collecting of large holdings of twentieth-century architectural drawings affords scholars multiple opportunities to help examine in detail Washington's suburbanization. The city's twentieth-century growth has been primarily suburban in character, as tract developments of free-standing homes proliferated around the old city core and extended well into Maryland and public health, Virginia.
The anti-urban nature of much of Washington's domestic architecture, beginning with the men dreams White House (combining the public health in transition essays sumptuousness of a palace with the convenience of a house and the agreeableness of a country seat, opined L'Enfant), suggests a suburban ideal before this concept was actually given formal expression in the 1840s. Washington clients of single family homes who could afford them, from John Tayloe's city house to millionaires who erected mansions on or near Dupont and Sheridan Circles, chose urban villas rather than city palaces, in a level coursework, order to capture and privately enjoy part of the city's renowned natural beauty. As soon as the city outgrew its original boundaries with its rectilinear street and small lot configurations intended for rowhouses, the middle class also opted for separate houses set within their own grounds. In many areas new irregular street patterns conformed to or enhanced natural topological features. Certainly the extent and typological variety of public health essays, suburban houses within or contiguous to Washington, including large numbers of catalogue houses, those erected by builders, those designed by architects for developers, and a large number designed for specific clients, offer a local laboratory with which to study local versions of America's most representative housing type. Each of the early twentieth century architects whose important drawings of main, houses are preserved in the Prints and Photographs Division is paradigmatic of some variant on the academic historicism of the public era, ranging from the ultra conservative formality of Waggaman and Ray to the cosiness of Arthur B. Heaton. A few representative examples of drawings of residences by crash, a few nationally known architects, such as John Russell Pope's superb houses for public health in transition essays Henry White of 1910-11(ADE - UNIT 1946) and for Edwin Laughlin of 1920-1924 (ADE - UNIT 1945) on biology coursework help Meridian Hill, both now serving the cultural organization, Meridian House International, have survived.
Two blueprints (ADE - UNIT 2173) by public health essays, the New York firm Delano Aldrich record neo-classical interior alterations made for client Gifford Pinchot to Washington's finest Arts and Crafts House (now the Democratic Women's Club) designed by Harvey Page in 1894. Interior alterations to existing houses, frequently quite extensive, is a particularly important aspect of Washington's twentieth-century design history that is not well represented in the Library's collections. Three of the Library's four large collections of men dreams, twentieth-century domestic drawings were by architects whose eclectic designs were basically anti-academic in nature. The stylistically diverse work of Waddy Wood, working alone as well as in partnership with Edmund Donn, Jr. and William I. In Transition. Deming, seems remarkable today but was a common achievement of turn-of-the-century American architects. Such versatility exhibited their wide-ranging knowledge and mastery of mice, many architectural traditions as they strove to design contextually for the heterogeneous American scene or for health clients whose varied backgrounds or aspirations demanded different domestic ambiances. In Wood's case, his modern renditions of historical styles did not stop with exterior clothing and decorative details, but extended to the shapes and essay, arrangements of his rooms where he also sought historical verisimilitude. Whether reinterpreting British, Spanish, or Dutch American colonial traditions (ADE - UNIT 1042, no. 1 (A size)), or that of the Italian Renaissance or English Baroque, Wood consciously chose prototypes that differed from aristocratic French and in transition essays, continental models favored by his academically trained contemporaries. One exception is of computer in bank his Henry Fairbanks House (1915), later owned by Woodrow Wilson and now a National Trust property. Wood's model for the Fairbanks house facade was Robert Adam's very formal Society of Arts (1772-1776) in public health in transition, London, yet its interior was decidedly more informal, even picturesque, in its room arrangements. The Fairbanks-Wilson House (HABS DC-133) is recorded in the Library's collections by HABS field notes, measured drawings, and of computer essay, the original blueprints showing alterations to Wood's original design.
Thus Wood's houses, even those of a formal nature, have an intimacy associated with smaller scale American and public essays, European houses from the sixteenth through the role of computer in bank essay nineteenth centuries. His drawings, often crayon or graphite sketches, with their small scale and informal landscape settings, conjure up a typical image of an American house. Wood's exterior elevations are particularly well proportioned and detailed, often establishing a modest scale for in transition streetscapes, as his houses on or contiguous to Sheridan Circle, that mitigate larger, more aggressive neighbors. Wood also experimented with a variety of exterior cladding materials, particularly how different brick colors and textures might be used to promote an authentic feel of the coursework historical styles he was evoking. Whether Wood was designing multiple rowhouses or development units, single townhouses (ADE - UNIT 1106), country guest houses (ADE - UNIT 1118), or suburban single family residences (ADE - UNIT 1685), he formed each to reflect subtly its different urban, suburban, or rural context. Therefore Wood's houses almost invariably fit comfortably with their surroundings, whether natural or manmade. Residential architecture ranging from large scale townhouses to public essays modestly scaled and priced suburban development houses comprised a significant part of Arthur B. Heaton's large and varied practice. In his houses he followed national trends in developer versions of the Arts and Crafts and Colonial Revival styles without contributing any significant innovative ideas. Although not the mice same caliber a designer as Wood, Heaton aspired to essays similar scenic and homey effects as Wood achieved in his more informal dwellings.
Heaton's larger commissions, seen in his early additions from 1900-1910 to the John Joy Edson House in Maryland (ADE - UNIT 495), the Charles F. Denley House of 1927 (ADE - UNIT 515), and his own house in Spring Valley, Wendover, done in 1929 (ADE - UNIT 1040), demonstrate his long-term interest in mice men dreams, reconciling formal and informal planning. Edward W. Donn, Jr., designer and delineator. “Wakefield, Birthplace of George Washington, Developed from lately acquired evidence,” Wakefield, Virginia. Perspective rendering. Photographic print. 1927. ADE - UNIT 2161, no. 1 (Photo size) Within the local context Heaton responded to a moderate income clientele whose preferences were for traditional images of American home life. His small Colonial Revival houses were drawn primarily from mid-Atlantic brick models, Gunston Hall understandingly being a favorite prototype.
Heaton was not alone among local architects in his interest in the region's Colonial buildings as objects of health in transition essays, study, of projected restorations and rebuilding, and as source material for their own works. Between 1912 and 1914 Glenn Brown and Bedford Brown IV renovated Gunston Hall for its new owner Louis Hertle (ADE - UNIT 2475). In 1927 Waddy Wood's one-time architectural partner Edward W. Donn, Jr., produced a conjectural restoration of Wakefield, in Westmoreland County, Virginia, the birthplace of George Washington, followed in 1930 by a set of biology help, working drawings for public in transition essays the Wakefield National Memorial Association for the rebuilding of an early 18th century Virginia country house typifying the house in which George Washington was born in 1732. Copies of the statement emily latter, now lost, have made their way into the Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS VA-393 and VA 393-B), and provided the public basis for the reconstruction of thesis, Wakefield, 1931-32, by public health essays, the Association, assisted by the federal government, as a National Park Service site. Other observances of biology help, bicentennial of the birth of George Washington in 1932 included an large exhibition in health in transition, Washington, D.C., of measured drawings and topographic surveys of Mount Vernon, Woodlawn Plantation, and emily, Gunston Hall, which apparently included a conjectural restoration of Belvoir on public health essays the Potomac (ADE - UNIT 2007) by men dreams thesis, architect H. Health. Brooks Price.22. For his Arts and Crafts models, Arthur B. Heaton favored the contemporary English half-timbered cottage revival intermingled with American colonial elements rather than strict adherence to the native Stickley school of thought. Essay. His well-constructed houses combined clear, logical, and often clever internal space planning with tame and tasteful details chosen from catalogues to produce good building quality and proven design formulas for people of public health, moderate means. Heaton's houses are neither intellectually nor emotionally exciting, but they are comfortable as well as functionally serviceable. Clarke Waggaman, architect. “Wrought Iron Gates in Entrance Arch, Residence for Mrs. Helen Meserve,” 1825 R Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.
Sketch elevation. Ink on linen. 1914. ADE - UNIT 41, no. 68 (C size). The cosmopolitan sophistication of crash, Clarke Waggaman and George N. Ray's architecture appealed especially to Washington's socially and health essays, politically prominent early twentieth-century citizens. Men Dreams Thesis. The architects' imposing rows or individual town houses, as well as their quietly elegant mansions, imparted to the Dupont, Sheridan, and Massachusetts Avenue Heights neighborhoods a decidedly European-capital flavor, an environment admired and desired by much of the public in transition wealthier segment of America's East-Coast population at the time.
Waggaman and english composition essay outline, Ray houses tended to be large in scale, often filling to capacity their urban lots, as in the Louis Lehr House of 1911-14 (ADE - UNIT 332) or sharply defining the edges of suburban ones, as in Waggaman's own house of 1917 (ADE - UNIT 363). The firm's penchant for public self-contained cubic and rectilinear masses, even when building on men dreams irregular sites, extended to interior volumes which rarely have curved surfaces unlike many other contemporary Beaux Arts houses in Washington. Interior decoration and details are a notable aspect of the corpus of their drawings. Waggaman Ray's Mrs. Helen Meserve House (ADE - UNIT 41 and ADE - UNIT 42) was particularly notable for its interior detail drawings. The elevation drawing for the iron gate set into an arched wall of the health in transition Meserve house includes specifications and written information on thesis movie its historical source, and the plan shows the placement of the gate in a passageway leading from the drive to a box garden and private lawn (ADE - UNIT 41, no. Public. 6 C size). Collectively their beautifully-proportioned facades follow formulas derived mainly from mice Italian Renaissance models, evident in the firm's 1912 commissions for large townhouses for the Honorable A. B. Butler (ADE - UNIT 179) and Captain Anthony F. Lucas (ADE - UNIT 357), rather than French, or other north European countries favored by their contemporaries. George N. Ray, architect. Entrance and stair hall elevations, “Residence for Edward S. Health In Transition Essays. Perot,” 29th Street and statement emily, Woodland Drive, N.W. (lot 808, square 2200), Washington, D.C. Sectional elevations.
Graphite and colored pencil on tracing paper. 1925-1926. Health Essays. ADE - UNIT 339, no. 51 (E size). Waggaman Ray's greatest contribution to Washington's architectural scene was to main create a hybrid Beaux Arts-Georgian Revival style in which they very successfully merged the two, probably in an attempt to define a new American house that fused traditional eighteenth-century formal English colonial elements with contemporary academic ideas and health, ideals, as in speech on exercise main, their houses Colonel J. R. Essays. Williams (ADE - UNIT 180)(now the Embassy of South Africa), Mrs. Sidney Appleton House (ADE - UNIT 45), or that for Mr. and Mrs. William A. Hill (ADE - UNIT 79). Essay. The extensiveness of their domestic commissions attests to their popularity among many wealthy Washingtonians; their houses were quieter, more reserved, less ostentatious than the public health exuberant, frequently French or Baroque-inspired houses designed by thesis emily, Jules Henri de Sibour or George Oakley Totten, and perhaps for these reasons considered more desirable for clients with behind-the-scenes-power-brokering lifestyles. Waggaman and Ray's occasional forays into exotic or currently stylish historicism, such as the Moorish-medieval style house for Edward S. Public Health. Perot of 1925 (ADE - UNIT 339), with an elaborate stairhall, still retain the firm's distinctive flat and restrained treatment of volumetric masses. The Waggaman and Ray collection has an additional valuable dimension as the repository of copies of other architects drawings that are otherwise unknown.
Blueprints (ADE - UNIT 424) of a house by Hornblower and Marshall at the corner of 18th and N streets, N.W. On Exercise Main Points. dated 6 May 1896, of Frederic B. Public In Transition Essays. Pyle's S.W. Woodward House (ADE - UNIT 398) on role in bank LeRoy Place, N.W., of a stable dated 1901 by Marsh and Peter for Rudolph Kauffmann (ADE - UNIT 488) on Military Road, and health, Atkinson and White's design (ADE - UNIT 288) for the L. Victor Froment House (1922-1923) in on exercise, Warrenton, Virginia, and J. Lakin Baldridge's drawings for health in transition essays a Washington, D. C., residence for essay outline Herbert Adair (ADE - UNIT 340) indicate the range of public health in transition, talent and varying importance of commissions found in coursework, this vast collection of drawings. The Donald H. Drayer Archive complements both the Heaton and Wood Archives in that it provides continuity for public health in transition essays detailed study of informal middle class housing from the first through the third quarter of this century. Drayer with many contemporaries educated during the tumultuous shift from the historicism of the biology a level coursework help Beaux-Arts system to modernism gave birth to a new version of American historical eclecticism. Their sense of architectural proportions, spatial relations, and decorative elements were a composite, or compromise, between traditional canons and contemporary ones. Probably in response to a common desire among Americans to live in colonial houses, many of Drayer's residences were generic neo-Colonial, but filtered through the anti-historical bias of modernism.
He responded to the stylistically conservative but increasingly opulent tastes of Washington developers as well as its individual clients, wrapping large, fairly expensive, historically reminiscent exterior envelopes around spatially varied and ornamentally stripped interiors. Drayer included historicizing elements to traditional compact house shapes, as Mr. Mrs. Nathan Landow's house (ADE - UNIT 1484) erected in Bradley Hills in 1969, or the Senator Albert Gore House (ADE - UNIT 1358), where the essays echoes of America's honorable past mask its present-day amenities. Historical fragments appeared in details such as rug, marble, and marquetry designs for the Lawrence N. Brandt House of 1972, in Washington ( ADE - UNIT 1632), or even bookcases, in additions to two Lyndon B. Movie Crash. Johnson houses in Washington (ADE - UNIT 1414 and ADE - UNIT 1415). The Brandt house plan--three rectangles around a circular central hall--was derived from William Thornton's Octagon House. In general, fine proportions and elegant architectural detail gave way during the public health essays 1940s, '50s, and '60s to new kinds of communal space.
Costly new appliances and heating and air conditioning systems offering physical amenities and comforts gave more pleasure to role of computer essay more people than did finely tuned design elements. Drayer's drawings while recording in detail the taste of mid-twentieth century America through design features such as raised flag stone hearths of the J. A. Mathews House in health, Montgomery County, Maryland, of 1952 also are of great value in composition essay, documenting emerging technological innovations that changed American home life. The Mr. Mrs. Nathan Landow Residence (ADE - UNIT 1484) in Bradley Hills, Maryland, had a three-car garage appended to an elaborate stone and stucco, hipped roof mansion; its historicizing decorative details (as a carved keystone) attest to the vitality of Colonial Revival tradition in 1969. The J. A. Public In Transition. Mathews House in Bannockburn Heights, Maryland, (ADE - UNIT 1225) has all of the new communal spaces--family room, TV room, and role of computer in bank, rec room--associated with mid-to late twentieth-century life in America, as well as expanded storage areas (work shops as well as purpose-built closets), efficient modern kitchens, and multiple bathrooms that are now part of standard house designs. The role of property developers in Washington's architectural history needs thorough scholarly examination.
Most Washington houses, whether rowhouse or single family residence, were built as part of real estate developments. James Hoban, often working in partnership with the house builder Pierce Purcell, was actively involved in designing and erecting speculative housing judging from his property transactions. Robert Mills also bought city lots, improved them and public essays, then sold them for a profit, presumably financing as well as designing pedestrian brick rowhouses. Several prolific Victorian era architects either served as their own developers--as did Thomas Franklin Schneider--or worked for businessmen who financed large house building ventures; Adolf Cluss designed many rows of houses for Alexander R. Shepherd, prominent Washington developer as well as political figure. Many of the city's current firms of real estate brokers, as Shannon and Luchs, began as developers, acting as financial intermediaries between contractors, architects, and clients. Washington neighborhoods as desireable and diverse as Kalorama, Cleveland Park, Spring Valley, and thesis movie, American University Park were largely developed as real estate ventures. The Prints and Photographs Washingtoniana architectural collections contain the public essays most comprehensive materials for study of the english composition essay outline role local architects played in the real estate industry, particularly its twentieth-century growth.
Questions as diverse as overall development objectives to contemporary building materials and methods can be examined in detail using the Waggaman and Ray, Wood, Heaton, and Drayer archives. Two aspects of the city's domestic architectural history greatly facilitated by public in transition essays, the existence of such extensive drawing collections are the speech main evolution of designs due to architect-client consultations and public health in transition, the study of interiors. When architects maintain excellent records, as Waggaman and Ray did, surviving drawings of alternate designs presented to clients allow scholars to thesis dickinson's ask and perhaps answer questions about public in transition taste, the role of computer arrival and acceptance of new domestic amenities, and even attitudes about how to shelter automobiles. Twentieth-century societal and technological changes have effected housing design to public health in transition essays a greater or lesser degree. Garages, TV and media rooms, swimming pools and related structures, increasingly sybaritic bathrooms, solariums and persuasive speech, spas, modern kitchen appliances, even rug and fur coolers (ADE - UNIT 42, no. 39 E size), have had to be accommodated in houses of traditional as well as contemporary design. Essays. Access to most Washington interiors is difficult for scholars and many have been radically changed with original planning and decoration obliterated. As photographs present a limited perspective, surviving drawings offer the best vehicle to examine many aspects (color excluded) of their historical development. Washington was a local proving ground for persuasive speech main government-sponsored low-to-median-income suburban housing developments.
Those modelled on socially and architecturally progressive prototypes that began in Europe, as the town of in transition, Greenbelt, Maryland, have been frequently studied, while the ones like Arthur B. Role Of Computer Essay. Heaton's traditionally-inspired Union Homes, also for Greenbelt, have been of less interest to scholars until recently. Heaton designed the Union Homes in the 1940s for the Office of War Information as temporary houses, but their forms, details, and amenities are similar to much of the public health inexpensive catalogue and factory-built housing of the thesis statement emily poems era. Comparisons within the typology between those inspired by European and those by American prototypes is in transition a worthwhile study that could be undertaken utilizing the Library's collections alone. Thesis Emily. Which have endured the health longest with the least amount of change and why? The outward appearance of lower, and even medium, cost houses undertaken by men dreams thesis, private developers is often not markedly different from public housing units; the differences lie within (see for example, Mihran Mesrobian's designs in 1932 for the D.C. Developing Company (ADE - UNIT 2216), where architects consciously provided better creature comforts. Arthur B. Heaton, architect.
Night study, house for the Misses McEwen, 3324 Newark Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. In Transition Essays. Perspective rendering. Graphite and watercolor on paper. 1906. ADE - UNIT 1050, no. 1 (A size). Heaton's picturesquely composed Charles F. Emily Poems. Denley House of 1927 has Colonial Revival clothing (ADE - UNIT 515), but a free-flowing, open interior comparable to a Frank Lloyd Wright house. His McEwen House of public health in transition, 1906 (ADE UNIT - 1050), located at 3324 Newark Street in Washington's Cleveland Park neighborhood, is recorded by a rare nighttime watercolor view (pl. Biology A Level Coursework. 10.12). For the Clay Coss House of 1936 (ADE - UNIT 1039) in the Spring Valley neighborhood, Heaton attached the garage directly to the kitchen, a portent of future accommodations for the automobile.
Heaton's Corby House (ADE - UNITS 528 to 538), Ishpiming, erected in an exclusive part of Chevy Chase, Maryland, offered him an opportunity to design a formal informal house on a grand scale (ADE - UNIT 536, no. 30 E size). Pattern-book houses are one of health in transition essays, America's most venerable architectural traditions, apparently beginning in the early eighteenth-century with imported illustrated treatises but still viable today. Fundamental to this practice was the very real possiblity of designing (and perhaps building) one's own home. In 1921 the Own a Home Exposition Company with offices in Chicago and thesis crash, New York sponsored a competition entitled Own Your Home Competition, in which architects were invited to provide designs for modest suburban homes in four categories established according to materials. Washington architect Louis Justement won first prizes for his four-room frame Colonial cottage as well as his house constructed with metal lath, back plaster and public, stucco (ADE - UNIT 2879, no 17 A size).
His entry for a six-room stucco cottage earned a mention, but his brick house did not place. Justement's designs as well as many other competitors were copyrighted and seem to have formed the basis for a series of catalogue or factory-built houses destined for middle-class developments. Washington had at least one mail-order house design business. Standard Homes Company published a series of books of designs from the 1920s through the 1950s, including editions of the Plan Book of mice men dreams thesis, Modern American Homes (1921; NA7127.S777), 101 American Homes (1921: NA7127.S755), Better Homes at public health in transition, Lower Cost (1926-30, NA7127.S775), Homes of Comfort at Low Cost, Homes of Today (ca. 1929, NA7127.S777), Homes of of computer in bank essay, Brick and Stucco (ca. 1929; NA7127.S7764), and Standard Construction Details for Home Builders (ca. 1950, TH151.S66). Daniel Theodor Morgan (b. 1901) began working for Standard Homes in November 1921 and seems to have spent his entire career there.
Morgan, with a formal education through the ninth grade, and a few classes in structural design at in transition, George Washington University in 1943 a job requirement for the war effort, was registered an an architect in Washington in 1951. Standard Home Company's low to medium cost house designs fit into the comfortable genre of standardized designs offering a variety of period houses, most of which were variants of the popular Colonial Revival. By 1930 they began offering customized designs. (LC TH151.S66 and english composition outline, NA7127.S766 n. 7). Hugh Newell Jacobsen, architect. Residence for Dr. and Mrs. James L. Kahn,” Lima, Ohio. Axonometric projection. Ink and graphite on acetate drafting film. 1981-1982. ADE - UNIT 2613, no.
21 (F size). Public In Transition. . The Prints and Photograph Division's twentieth-century architectural drawings are predominantly of historicist house designs because the role of computer vast majority of health, Washington and thesis, Washington-area houses are traditional. Not surprisingly the work of the city's premier modernist architect of the late 20th century, Hugh Newell Jacobsen, is fundamentally conservative in public health, its essential tastefulness. Jacobsen's international reputation rests perhaps more on his series of beautiful houses, many in thesis movie crash, and near Washington, as on public health essays his public commissions. He approached each of outline, his residential designs as an individual problem of site conditions, client lifestyle, and appropriate historical precedent; each is an example of consummate artistry where sensitive and health in transition, sensible design are realized through superb building craftsmanship. Jacobsen's definition of houses as series of interconnected rooms with clear external volumetric expressions--a unit approach which he terms pavilions--also includes historical contextualism, as each is a fresh contemporary expression of an composition outline earlier American house type. Mansard roofs and public health essays, bay windows of the James Newmyer House (ADE - UNIT 2609) of 1966 reflect not just forms associated with Victorian styles in Washington, but also their materials, high basements, and ordered asymmetry. At the same time, while Jacobsen's contemporaneous Trentman House (ADE - UNIT 2608) responds sensitively to its Georgetown streetscape, it is avowedly and unashamedly modern.
By retaining but reordering and emily dickinson's, abstracting their essential geometries, Jacobsen's transformations of American rural farm house, updated in the Bryan House of 1987 in health in transition, the Worthington Valley, Maryland (ADE - UNIT 2607) and vernacular forms such as the Cape Cod house redux in the John Drier House of 1977 in thesis emily dickinson's, northwest Washington (ADE - UNIT 2602), or the modified board-and-batten vocabulary of his Kahn House in public health in transition, Lima, Ohio, of 1982, has transferred, without sentimental claptrap, their essential hominess into thesis statement emily poems, exciting contemporary idioms.23. While Jacobsen's work exemplifies a basically sensual approach to contemporary house design, a cerebral strategy is represented in the Library's collections by drawings of educator-architect Cesar Pelli. Health In Transition. Tracking the gradual transformation of Pelli's conceptual sketches of mice, suburban house projects exhibited at the Venice Biennale (ADE - UNIT 2370) in 1976, through their intermediate stage as the Long Gallery House design (ADE - UNIT 2373) offered for sale in 1980, to public its concrete realization as the Maryland House (ADE - UNIT 2374) erected in 1985-1989 in suburban Montgomery County, is to undertake with the architect a journey of self-conscious historical inquiry. The recent interest among architects and men dreams, the public at large in architectural history has led many contemporary architects to realize that their own place in history can only be correctly understood if drawings recording their complete design cycle are preserved intact. If published, as in Pelli's case, these drawings participate in public health, the profession's ongoing theoretical-historical dialogue, influencing as well as having been influenced.24. In 1976 Pelli's interest was axial primacy in architecture and the intersection of solid and transparent, of rectilinear (manmade, or architecture) and curvilinear (nature-made). By 1980 a long glazed gallery as a central spine supporting alternating house units and landscape segments had emerged. The idea of a house's circulation route becoming its central public space is an ancient one with echos in the American Georgian or Anglo-Palladian central hall plan house. Persuasive Speech On Exercise Points. It is entirely appropriate that the Gewirz House with its simple geometric forms and strong colors was built in suburban Washington, a fitting accompaniment to the area's long tradition of historically connected houses in concert with nature. The essentially conservative nature of the majority of Washington houses is rooted in public health in transition, the strong sense of American history that has always pervaded the emily dickinson's city.
The predominant style remains that of the city's founding era, permutations on public in transition the so-called American Colonial house. Statement Emily Poems. For at least the last two centuries a recurring theme for many American architects has been how to transform European historical prototypes to convey images that bespoke America. The issue was not just how to public in transition respond to different climatic and social conditions, but how to express contemporary perceptions of thesis movie, what the public in transition American house should look like. Although seventeenth and eighteenth century America was dotted with buildings representative of the colonists differing national traditions, from French Mississippi Valley poteaux-en-terre houses to Dutch stepped-gable brick rows in New York, Georgian houses from the English colonies emerged in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries as the image of the generic American house. The strength of the English Colonial tradition in Washington can partially be linked to the city's function as the national capital and partially to its location in the mid-Atlantic region. Role. Sentimental or patriotic nostalgia about the Revolutionary era, the crucial roles played by George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and James Madison (all owners of near-by English Colonial houses) in the city's founding, identification by many local residents (particularly government employees) with American values, near-by sites of important Colonial houses, including Williamsburg and Annapolis: all have contributed to health in transition the sense among many twentieth-century Washingtonians that the archtypal Washington house should express American more strongly than elsewhere. Holdings Outside the thesis statement poems Library of Congress. Many institutions have individual drawings or small collections relating to Washington houses. Nicholas King's 1798 drawing for Edward Langley's house on South Capitol Street is in the Joseph Downs Manuscript Collection of the Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum. R. Public Health In Transition. Snowdon Andrew's perspective watercolor of the thesis statement dickinson's poems George Riggs House (1856) at 1617 I Street near Farragut Square is in the John Beverly Riggs Collection in Wilmington, Delaware.
William Lovering's drawing for public in transition essays the Six Buildings on thesis emily poems Pennsylvania Avenue, Thomas U. Walter's drawings for his own house and that for Alexander Ray, and Paul Cret's drawings for the Mary Stewart residence are in the Athenaeum of Philadelphia. The records of the Franklin Fire Insurance Company and the Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company, both preserved in the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, frequently include plans, and occasionally elevation drawings, of Washington houses insured with them between the 1820s and 1890s.25. The Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University, has a George Hadfield drawing dated 1798 for an unidentified house, Carrère and in transition essays, Hastings drawings for the William R. Men Dreams Thesis. Castle (1929-1931) and David A. Reed (1929-1930) houses, Charles A. Platt's drawings for health in transition the James Parmelee House (1912-1914), Ogden Codman's drawings for the Martha Codman House (1908-1910), Hoppin Koen's George B. McClellan House (1922), and an unidentified house at 34th and O Streets NW (1939) by William Muschenheim. Montgomery C. Meigs's drawings for his own house on K Street and those by McKim, Mead, and White for several Washington houses are in thesis movie, the New York Historical Society; Meigs' sketches for many Washington houses are among his papers in the Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. The Berla Abel, Edward W. Donn, Jr., Hugh Newell Jacobsen, Keyes, Condon Florence, and Chloethiel Woodward Smith collections in public in transition, the Archives of the American Institute of Architects Archive all contain substantial materials relating to Washington's domestic architecture. 1 . Significant early books on statement emily dickinson's Washington's domestic architecture include Mary S. Lockwood, Historic Homes of Washington (New York: Belford Co., 1889); Deering Davis, et. al., Georgetown Houses of the Federal Period (New York: Architectural Book Publishing Co., 1944); and Harold D. Eberlein and public in transition, Cortlandt V. D. Hubbard, Historic Houses of Georgetown and Washington City (Richmond: Dietz Press, 1958). Recent scholarship includes Georgetown Residential Architecture-Northeast (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts and Historic American Buildings Survey, ; Commission of Fine Arts, Massachusetts Avenue Architecture . 2 vols. (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1973-1975); Sue A. Kohler and english outline, Jeffrey R. Carson. Sixteenth Street Architecture . 2 vols. Public Health In Transition. (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts, 1978-88); and Kathryn Schneider Smith, ed. Washington at a level coursework help, Home (Washington: Columbia Historical Society, 1988).
Numerous destroyed Washington houses are illustrated and discussed by James M. Goode, Capital Losses. Public In Transition Essays. A Cultural History of Washington's Destroyed Buildings (Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979) 3-158. Thesis. back to text. 2 Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, Plans and Sections of the Proposed Continuation of the public health in transition essays Washington Canal from Rock Creek to the Little Falls of the Potomac, Washington, D. C., G3852 .W28 .G45 s07 .L3 Vault. Robert King's drawings are in the Cartographic and Architectural Archives, National Archives. back to text. 3 Nancy B. Persuasive On Exercise Main. Schwartz, comp. Historic American Buildings Survey. District of Columbia Catalog . (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1974).
Several Washington houses have been documented by HABS since 1974; consult records in the Prints and Photographs Division. back to text. 4 Alison K. Hoagland. Nineteenth-Century Building Regulations in Washington, D.C. Records of the Columbia Historical Society 52 (1989) 57-77. back to text. 5 Maryland Journal and Baltimore Advertiser , 21 May 1793: 3. back to text. 6 Allen C. Clark, Daniel Carroll of Duddington, Records of the public in transition essays Columbia Historical Society 39 (1938): 22-3; the 1796 drawing for the Seven Buildings, rowhouses erected by a level coursework, a consortium of developers, is in the Athenaeum of Philadelpia. back to text. 7 Hadfield's drawing located at the Avery Architectural Library, Columbia University, was identified by its cataloger as Commodore Porter's House on health essays Meridian Hill on no internal evidence. In Bank Essay. Hadfield's former student William Parker Eliot bought his drawings at an Orphan's Court auction of Hadfield's property on public health in transition 16 February 1826; the thesis statement dickinson's location of Eliot's papers is unknown. National Archives, R.G.
21. back to text. 8 Daniel Reiff, Washington Architecture 1791-1861 (Washington: Commission of public health essays, Fine Arts, 1971): 70. William Strickland, H.R. 267, 28th Congress, 1st Session. [T]he American plan of putting windows in the blank space of the frieze. . . . is purely an American improvement in the art of building, to get rid of a blank space which has always given a heavy appearance to the attic. Strickland was mistaken; the window metope was used during the Italian Renaissance, one example being the persuasive on exercise Villa Madama.
Eighteenth century English and public health essays, French examples abound. back to text. 9 A.J. Davis Collection, Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University. On Exercise Main Points. back to public text. 10 Orlando Rideout V., Building the Octagon (Washington: American Institute of Architects Press, 1989); Melissa McLoud, Craftsmen and thesis crash, Entrepreneurs. Builders in Late Nineteenth-Century Washington, D. C., Ph. D. thesis, George Washington University, 1988; District of Columbia Building permits began to be issued in 1877; those for essays houses (the vast majority of permits) sometimes include blueprints, plans, or especially plans for projections (which were technically over public land); Paul Kelsey Williams' house histories, done for private clients, are on deposit in the library of the Historical Society of Washington, D. C. Statement Poems. back to text. 11 See John W. Public Health In Transition. Reps, Views and Viewmakers of Urban America (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1984) and Reps, Washington on statement View. Essays. The Nation's Capital Since 1790 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991). back to text. 12 The Hyde de Neuville collection of statement emily dickinson's, watercolors are in the New York Historical Society. back to text. 13 The Köllner and public essays, Smith collections are in the Prints and Photographs Division; Meigs's drawings and sketches are scattered between the National Archives, Library of Congress, and Historical Society of Washington. back to text. 15 Jeffrey A. Cohen, Building a Discipline: Early Institutional Settings for Architectural Education in Philadelphia, 1804-1890, Journal of the emily Society of Architectural Historians , 53 (June 1994): 139-183. back to text.
16 See Tanya Beauchamp, Adolph Cluss and the Building of the U. S. National Museum. An Architecture of Perfect Adaptability. M.A. thesis, University of Virginia, 1972; Margaret Gordon Davis, James G. Hill, Victorian Architect, Washington, D.C. M.A. thesis, University of public in transition essays, Virginia, 1981. Statement Dickinson's Poems. Candace Reed's extensive research on Schneider is unpublished. Public In Transition. [Thomas Franklin Schneider], Selections from the mice thesis Work of T. Public Health. F. Schneider, Architect, Washington, D.C. (Washington: Privately Printed, 1894). back to text.
17 Starkweather's corpus of drawings are in a private collection in men dreams, Philadelphia. Camden is public health in transition discussed and illustrated in english composition outline, Mills Lane, Architecture of the Old South. Virginia (New York: Abbeville Press, 1984): 223-5. A full set of elevations and a perspective, in the possession of Camden's owners, Mr. Mrs. Richard T. Pratt, are illustrated in William B. O'Neal, Architectural Drawing in Virginia, 1819-1969 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia School of Architecture, 1969): 76-9. back to text. 18 Harvey L. Public. Page, Houses of Moderate Cost (Washington: Gibson Bros., 1889). back to biology help text.
19 The Marlatt house drawings are discussed and public in transition essays, illustrated in Sue A. Mice. Kohler and Jeffrey R. Carson, Sixteenth Street Architecture (Washington: Commission of Fine Arts, 1988) II: 332-363; George E. Thomas, William L. Price: Arts and Crafts to Modern Modern Design (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2000). back to text. 20 Anne E. Peterson, Hornblower Marshall, Architects (Washington: Preservation Press, 1978) includes a catalogue of the firm's works. Much of the work of de Sibour, Totten, and Wyeth is presented in the four volumes on Massachusetts Avenue and Sixteenth Street compiled by the Commission of Fine Arts ( see note 1) . back to text. 21 William Brian Bushong, Glenn Brown, the American Institute of Architects, and the Development of the Civic Core of Washington, D.C. Ph.D. diss., George Washington University, 1988; Glenn Brown, Domestic Architecture in Washington City, Engineering Magazine (January 1896): 434-460. Richardson's drawings for his Washington houses are located at Harvard University. Health Essays. James F. O'Gorman, Selected Drawings. H.H. Richardson and His Office (Cambridge: Harvard College Library, 1974). back to text. 22 Charles Moore to Senator Simeon D. English Composition Essay. Fess, Vice Chairman, George Washington Bicentennial Commission, Report of the Commission of Fine Arts (1936), 74th Congress, 2d sess., S. Document No.
214, 70-71. back to text. 23 Kevin W. Green, ed., Hugh Newell Jacobsen, Architect (Washington: American Institute of Architects Press, 1988). back to text. 24 Mario Gandelsonas and John Pastier, Cesar Pelli. Buildings and Projects, 1965-1990 (New York: Rizzoli, 1990): 252-63. back to text. 25 A detailed finding aid to the Franklin Fire Insurance Company and in transition, Pennsylvania Fire Insurance Company records is currently being prepared. back to men dreams thesis text.
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resume uuid grub It's getting late and tomorrow you have a busy day. Health In Transition! So you save your work and shut down your computer. The following day, you power up your computer and your heart sinks when you see the message kernel panic … or grub error xx and your machine will not start. What to help do? Well the public health essays, good news is that the fact that you got one of those messages suggests that it is emily poems no more than a software problem, and you may just need to fix up a configuration file or re-install the boot loading program. Health In Transition! This is not difficult to do, but it helps if you understand what you are trying to achieve. So first of outline, all, we need a little background information. I'll try to keep this simple.
When you apply power to a computer, the public, processor needs to be told what to do. The motherboard stores a list of drives that the computer can boot from, and thesis, knows the order in which these should be tried, and so points the public health essays, processor to the first drive on the list. The processor goes to the very beginning of the storage area of the drive to look for men dreams, more information. This storage area is divided up into smaller areas, known as sectors, and the processor looks at the first sector on the drive, which is known as the Master Boot Record or MBR. The first sector of health in transition, any other partition is also reserved, and is known as the boot sector.
There isn't sufficient space in persuasive speech on exercise here to store all of the public health, information the processor needs, so it shows the processor where to find the mice men dreams thesis, code that will complete the rest of the public essays, boot loading process, so that the processor can continue to a full system boot. The boot loading program used by PCLinuxOS is called grub (GRand Unified Bootloader), and the code stored in the MBR is known as 'grub stage1.' The final bit of code loaded into memory is crash 'grub stage2.' Stage 2 starts the kernel and will set up a temporary file system in memory, which contains things like modules and drivers that the kernel may need to complete a successful system boot. In Transition! It does this using a file system image known as the movie crash, 'initial ram disk,' or initrd.img. Unfortunately, we have a problem here. On the one hand we have stage2, which knows where the kernel and health, initrd are stored on the file system, but stage1 knows nothing about file systems. Enter stage1_5. There are several of these and essay, each one is file system specific having names such as e2fs_stage1_5 and public health, reiserfs_stage1_5. The stage1_5 code in these files is the essay outline, bridge between the two, but needs to be able to be found by stage1. Fortunately, due to the way that partitions are laid out on health essays, a drive, there are always some free sectors after the movie, first reserved sector, and this is where the extra code goes.
Stage1 knows to public health always look in the second sector of thesis emily dickinson's, its root partition, and public, after executing the code there, grub will be able to find things in essay the file system. When sufficient work has been done setting things up so that the kernel can manage physical files systems, control is handed to public health the kernel. That's roughly how things work in PCLinuxOS, but there is a whole lot more to the grub system than described here, and this is not the only way to boot the thesis emily dickinson's poems, system. What follows is applicable to PCLinuxOS distributions and has always worked for me, but may need some modification for other systems. Health In Transition! Ubuntu, and all Ubuntu-based versions, now uses grub2, so this will definitely not work there. From the above, we can see that grub needs to of computer in bank be told three things that it needs to boot your operating system: Where is the kernel Where is the initrd Which drive or partition holds grubs stage1_5 and stage2. This information is most commonly passed to public grub in its configuration file, which in PCLinuxOS is /boot/grub/menu.lst. Some systems call this file grub.conf. If the thesis statement, information passed in this file is incorrect, then a missing kernel or initrd will give a grub error, and a wrongly defined root file system will cause the health in transition essays, kernel to panic.
The information can also be supplied on the command line at boot time, although this requires a little more effort to master. To repair the system, you can boot from the Live CD that you used to install PCLinuxOS. This will get an operating system running in memory, and mice men dreams, then you can repair any damaged files on your hard drive. The first thing you need to know is the drive and partition on which PCLinuxOS is installed, and grub can help here. Health In Transition Essays! After booting from thesis movie crash, a Live CD, open up a terminal and get administrative powers by typing: You will be prompted for a password. This is the administrative or root password, and not your own user password. Please remember that now you have administration rights you should be extra careful about health essays, what you enter on thesis statement dickinson's, the command line. You will get a message about probing, and then you will enter the grub command shell, where you can enter commands and even reinstall the resident part of grub: At the public health in transition essays, new prompt, enter the mice men dreams thesis, following: You will get a list of partitions that contain the grub stage2 file.
For most people this will be just one partition, but if you multi-boot several Linux systems, then they will all be represented. All the partitions will be listed as (hd0,0) or similar, as grub doesn't understand hda1 or sda1. Public Health In Transition! It sees them only as drives. English Composition! Grub counts starting at zero, not one. The first number is the public health, drive number, and the second number the partition number. Type quit enter to leave grub. Now we know the drive and partition that our operating system is installed on, we can mount it and have a look around. I'm going to main assume now that the partition is (hd0,0), the first partition on public health essays, the first drive. In the terminal, still as root, type: You will have to change sda to hda if your drive is IDE. If you don't know, try typing fdisk -l enter to get a list of recognized drives.
The drive is in bank essay now mounted at /a, and in transition, so the kernel and initrd should be in /a/boot. The name of the kernel and the initrd are quite long and complex, so there are usually easy to type links (shortcuts) to refer to them. The kernels name begins with vmlinuz and english essay, initrds name begins with initrd. To see them, type the following and make a note of the names. The name that ends in an '@' is the link, and you can use this in your grub configuration file. I now have two links named vmlinuz and initrd.img. I also know that the root device is (hd0,0), but I find using labels makes life easier. So, typing tune2fs -L kde4 /dev/sda1 gives my partition a label of kde4.
I label all of my partitions in this manner. If you prefer, you can use the public essays, graphical PCLinuxOS Control Center, by going to Local disks Manage disk partitions Expert Mode to label your partitions. Now I can try and fix up the persuasive on exercise main, menu.lst file. I'll use nano, a command line text editor that is really easy to use to edit the file, but you can use any text editor you like that can save a file as pure text with no formatting. Open the menu.lst file from your installed system: The original file looks like this:
It really isn't as complicated as it looks. The first four lines set up the menu, and each block of three lines is an entry in the menu, known as a stanza. Each of the above stanzas contains only three lines, although the essays, magazine typesetting will probably break these up. The formatting in the menu.lst file is important. The three lines begin with 'title', 'kernel' and 'initrd.' Each should be exactly one line long, even though the biology help, 'kernel' line often becomes a rather long line. There can be additional lines in the stanza, but these lines must each be on one line. I'm going to add a new stanza (menu item) at the beginning, i.e. Essays! between the in bank essay, line that reads 'default 0' and the one that reads 'title linux:' Make sure that you leave a blank line before, and after, each stanza or grub will not know where each stanza starts or ends.
After typing that in, hold down the Control key and press X, you will be prompted to save the file. Just say yes. That should be enough to get you booted, although you will want to health in transition pretty it up once you are satisfied. You could, in fact, have just those three lines in menu.lst. I didn't attempt to repair the file. In Bank Essay! Rather, I wrote my own set of instructions that I knew to be correct to the grub configuration file, menu.lst, and in essays that way, I am in control. I also left the original set of crash, instructions for grub intact. Later, when I am sure that I have a bootable system, I can go back and edit the essays, file, but I still have the original file contents. The four lines at the beginning of the menu.lst file perform the following functions.
Timeout=10 sets the length of in bank essay, time in seconds that grub will wait before booting the default menu item or, if none is defined, the public health in transition essays, first menu item. Pressing any key before that time cancels the countdown. color white/blue yellow/blue sets the colors for the text menu (which you can get to by pressing the escape key whilst at the graphical menu. There are times when you may need to do this). Biology A Level! The first pair of numbers sets the foreground/background colors for the bulk of the menu, and the second pair serve to highlight the selected line.
gfxmenu (hd0,0)/boot/gfxmenu tells grub where to find the public in transition, graphical menu. default 0 sets the default menu item to boot, counting from on exercise, 0. To improve on public health essays, the simple 'no frills' stanza we can start adding things to the 'kernel' line. Adding splash=silent vga=788 at the end of this line will allow the installed plymouth graphics theme to hide the scrolling text. The number 788 is optimal for most users' displays. If you intend to use hibernation to shut down your machine, you will have to tell grub where to find the data to a level coursework help resume the session. This is stored on your swap partition, and for that reason, this partition should be slightly larger than the public health, installed memory if hibernation is to succeed.
If your swap partition is /dev/sdb1, then add resume=/dev/sdb1 to the kernel line. We can specify the partition in biology help this manner, as grub will understand file systems and drive notation by the time it gets here. A default installation of PCLinuxos supplies three stanzas. The first one will provide a full graphical boot to the login screen. The next one is named 'linux-nonfb,' or similar, and allows booting without a graphical boot splash, which allows you to see system messges as the system boots. This is useful for troubleshooting. You can pause the scrolling text with the Scroll Lock key on your keyboard.
The last one, named 'failsafe,' will boot to a limited shell in public health single user mode, where you can perform some administrative tasks, such as file system checks and root password recovery. When all is well, typing init 5 should get you back up to the login screen. These three modes are accomplished by adding one of the following to the 'kernel' line, between the kernel and root partition declarations. When you know that your new menu item(s) boot the system successfully, you can delete the old ones, but make a backup of the men dreams thesis, file somewhere you can always get to it. Health Essays! If you precede each line with a '#' then that item will not appear on the menu. Any line starting with a '#' is treated as a comment, and is not executed. If the speech points, grub set up itself has become corrupted, then it is a relatively easy task to reset it. As before, open a terminal, use the command su to health in transition essays get root privileges, and start the grub command shell with the command. Use grub's find command to crash discover which partitions have grub's files on them. If there are more than one, then choose the partition where you have your repaired menu.lst file. Tell grub about public health, it by typing.
Use the partition you chose here. Now tell root where to thesis put its stage one file. This is the drive that your motherboard BIOS will try to public health in transition essays boot from. Note that no partition number is required, as we are specifying a device. That's it, we're done.
Type quit enter to leave grub. If you want to be able to boot into one of several distributions, then this is is most easily achieved in this manner. At the end of the installation process you are asked where you would like to install grub, and the default is the MBR of the drive you have installed to. Instead, select the installation partition . You will then be prompted for the drive to boot from. This is the crash, same as the root - setup sequence we performed manually in grub at health in transition, the terminal. You will now have two menu.lst files, one in the /boot/grub folder of the new installation and the original one. I am using /dev/sda5, which grub knows as (hd0,4), for a new installation of Zen-Mini. Add the a level coursework, following lines to the original menu.lst. When I select this menu item, I will be taken to new screen showing the public health, menu items and the graphics of the new installation.
I can now have the menu.lst file in the new installation identical to my default menu.lst, with the only change being that every occurrence of thesis statement emily dickinson's, (hd0,0) becomes (hd0,4), which makes system maintenance so much easier. A stanza in the zen menu.lst might look like this: Here's part of my default menu.lst: I find this much easier to follow. To boot an operating system such as Windows, that doesn't use grub but has its own boot loader, you can proceed in a similar manner. Health In Transition Essays! You have to add a stanza to movie menu.lst like this: Note: Change (hd0,2) to the partition that windows is public health in transition installed on.
rootnoverify works like the outline, root command, informing grub of the location of the next part of the boot code, but no attempt is in transition essays made at this stage to mice thesis mount the partition, as this could be problematic for grub. makeactive sets this root partition active. chainloader +1 tells grub to look in the second sector of the partition for health essays, the boot code (the first sector is always reserved by mice thesis the file system). Using the grub commands at boot time. If booting fails, then it is health in transition essays still possible to get to a working system by biology coursework help using the grub command shell. If you get the graphical menu, then pressing the escape key will drop to the text mode menu after displaying a confirmation dialog. It is possible that you have made a typing error in your configuation file, or that your editor broke a long line into health in transition, two and grub can make no sense of it.
From here, you can edit the line. Select the biology help, menu entry that doesn't boot with the arrow keys and press 'E' then enter. Pressing 'E' again will place the selected line in public in transition essays the grub shell, where it may be edited. The cursor will be at the end of the line, but you can move with the mice men dreams thesis, arrow keys, as well as the home and in transition, end keys. Coursework! Press Enter to accept any changes, or the essays, escape key to return to the previous screen without saving.
Press 'D' on a highlighted line to delete it which you may need to do if your editor has broken the line and you have a half line of garbage. Press 'B' to attempt to boot with the modified lines. The changes exist only in memory and thesis movie, are not made to the menu.lst file. If this is the public health in transition, case, this should be modified when you get a successful boot. If you can find no errors in english composition outline the lines, then all is not lost.
Press 'C' to get a command line, and this puts you in a similar same environment to that we used from a terminal to reinstall the boot loader. will locate partitions on all installed drives which are candidates to become the grub root. Use the root command to point grub at that partition. To find the kernel on this partition, which should reside in the /boot directory, we can use grub's command completion feature. Public In Transition Essays! The kernel will be named vmlinuz … something. Pressing the tab key here tells grub to fill in mice men dreams as much as it can and list all possibiltes. We know that vmlinuz is a link, so the other file must be the actual kernel, which we will use as the link may be broken. We don't have to type in the full name, just add the hyphen and press tab to in transition essays let grub fill in the rest. This also avoids typing errors. That seems to have worked so now we can do the same for persuasive main, the initrd.
Ok! grub has all the public essays, information it needs so now we can try booting the system. All of the above grub session was taken from an actual installation, so I know that it works. The safest way to try our some of these techniques is to persuasive practice on a virtual box installation. It is easy to set one up, and there is an excellent article on this in the October 2008 issue of the magazine written by parnote, the current editor. The article installs windows, but the principles are the same for a PCLinuxOS installation.
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A Marcus Garvey Biography That Defines His Radical Views. Public In Transition Essays! No Marcus Garvey biography would be complete without defining the radical views that made him a threat to the status quo. The life story of the role in bank Jamaican-born activist starts well before he came to the United States following World War I, when Harlem was an public health essays, exciting place for African-American culture. Poets like Langston Hughes and Countee Cullen as well as novelists like Nella Larsen and Zora Neale Hurston created a vibrant literature that captured the black experience. Thesis! Musicians such as Duke Ellington and Billie Holiday, playing and singing in Harlem nightclubs, invented what has been called #34;America#39;s classical music#34; -- jazz. In the midst of this renaissance of African-American culture in New York (known as the Harlem Renaissance), Garvey, seized the attention of public health essays both white and black Americans with his powerful oratory and ideas about separatism. During the 1920s, the essay UNIA, the foundation of public in transition essays Garvey#39;s movement, became what historian Lawrence Levine has called #34;the broadest mass movement#34; in thesis, African-American history. Garvey was born in Jamaica in 1887, which was then part of the British West Indies. As a teenager, Garvey moved from his small coastal village to Kingston, where political speakers and preachers entranced him with their public speaking skills. He began studying oratory and practicing on his own. Garvey became a foreman for a large printing business, but a strike in 1907 during which he sided with the workers instead of public health in transition essays management, derailed his career.
The realization that politics was his true passion prompted Garvey to begin organizing and writing on behalf of workers. He traveled to Central and South America, where he spoke out on behalf of West Indian expatriate workers. Composition Essay! Garvey went to London in 1912 where he met a group of black intellectuals who gathered to discuss ideas like anti-colonialism and African unity. Returning to public health, Jamaica in 1914, Garvey founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association, or UNIA. Among the UNIA#39;s goals were the founding of colleges for general and vocational education, the promotion of business ownership and mice the encouragement of a sense of brotherhood among the African diaspora. Garvey encountered difficulties organizing Jamaicans; the public essays more affluent tended to oppose his teachings as a threat to their position. In 1916, Garvey decided to emily, travel to health, the United States to learn more about America#39;s black population.
He discovered the mice thesis time was ripe for the UNIA in the United States. Health Essays! As African-American soldiers began serving in World War I, there was widespread belief that being loyal and of computer in bank essay performing their duty for the United States would result in white Americans addressing the terrible racial inequalities that existed in the nation. In reality, African-American soldiers, after having experienced a more tolerant culture in France, returned home after the war to find racism as deeply entrenched as ever. Garvey#39;s teachings spoke to those who had been so disappointed to discover the in transition essays status quo still in place after the war. Garvey established a branch of the UNIA in New York City, where he held meetings, putting into speech on exercise points, practice the oratorical style he had honed in Jamaica. He preached racial pride, for instance, encouraging parents to give their daughters black dolls to play with. He told African-Americans they had the same opportunities and public health in transition essays potential as any other group of people in the world. #34;Up, you mighty race,#34; he exhorted the attendees. Garvey aimed his message at all African-Americans.
To that end, he not only established the biology a level coursework newspaper Negro World but also held parades in which he marched, wearing a lively dark suit with gold stripes and sporting a white hat with a plume. Garvey clashed with prominent African-American leaders of the day, including W.E.B. Du Bois. Among his criticisms, Du Bois denounced Garvey for meeting with Ku Klux Klan (KKK) members in Atlanta. At this meeting, Garvey told the KKK that their goals were compatible. Like the public health in transition essays KKK, Garvey said, he rejected miscegenation and the idea of social equality. Blacks in America needed to forge their own destiny, according to persuasive speech points, Garvey. Ideas like these horrified Du Bois, who called Garvey #34;the most dangerous enemy of the Negro Race in America and in the world#34; in a May 1924 issue of The Crisis . Garvey is public health in transition sometimes said to have headed a #34;back-to-Africa#34; movement.
He did not call for a widespread exodus of blacks out of the Americas and into Africa but did see the continent as a source of heritage, culture and pride. Garvey believed in thesis crash, founding a nation to serve as a central homeland, as Palestine was for Jews. In 1919, Garvey and public health the UNIA established the help Black Star Line for the dual purposes of carrying blacks to in transition, Africa and promoting the idea of black enterprise. The Black Star Line was poorly managed and role in bank fell victim to unscrupulous businessmen who sold damaged ships to the shipping line. Garvey also chose poor associates to go into business with, some of whom apparently stole money from the business. Garvey and the UNIA sold stock in the business by mail, and the inability of the company to deliver on public health in transition, its promises resulted in the federal government prosecuting Garvey and four others for mail fraud. Though Garvey was only guilty of inexperience and bad choices, he was convicted in 1923. He spent two years in jail; President Calvin Coolidge ended his sentence early, but Garvey was deported in 1927.
He continued to work for the UNIA#39;s goals after his exile from the United States, but he was never able to main, return. Essays! The UNIA struggled on but never reached the heights it had under Garvey. Levine, Lawrence W. #34;Marcus Garvey and the Politics of Revitalization.#34; In The Unpredictable Past: Explorations in American Cultural History . New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
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Public Health in Transition - Scientific American
SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and public health in transition Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to in bank, excelling on health essays the SAT essay is to pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isn’t the point of the essay that you’re supposed to be using information from the thesis, passage in your answer, which you don’t know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and no. While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to public in transition, discuss (and the way you explain each example builds the author’s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples you’ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the biology coursework, SAT throws at you.
By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to walk into in transition, every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you haven’t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common: They’re all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the author’s claim They’re all around the movie, same length (650-750 words) They’re all meant to be analyzed and written about in in transition, a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of time of men dreams what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. In Transition Essays! The main techniques the men dreams, author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just don’t have the time to analyze and write about public health in transition essays, complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples that’ll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues —we've provided some ideas below.
We've chosen two examples of evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage – if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to support your thesis across a range of movie prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of public health essays multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to points, discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to public health in transition, build an argument. This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to movie crash, the topic at hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to public health in transition essays, communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard:
Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an thesis dickinson's average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from public health in transition, Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is often used as an alternative to actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of movie evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader. An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . Public Health In Transition! When an english essay outline author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an health example of (part of) an a level coursework anecdote from an official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter:
One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on in transition essays the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of tens of thousands of of computer in bank essay caribou with their newborn calves. Public Essays! In a matter of a few minutes, the movie, sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air. The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as “America’s Serengeti.” Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because it’s more relatable/interesting to the reader to read an health in transition anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to mice men dreams, be true).
In the example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to health in transition essays, illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the movie, reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important. All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for in transition essays a claim – an author may choose to use reasoning to explain how the evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims.
One way in of computer essay, which an author might use reasoning to essays, persuade the reader to of computer in bank essay, accept the claim being put forward is to public health in transition essays, discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the author's own argument. When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and speech on exercise phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: “You could say some computer games develop creativity,” says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. “But I don’t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and paint—a lot of really practical and creative endeavors.” But it’s not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument?
It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the health essays, main argument. However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of view serves to make it seem as if the discussion’s going to be more “fair.” This is composition still true whether the author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the essays, article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the a level coursework, author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the health in transition, reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite role point of view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the public in transition, opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of role in bank essay Evidence.
In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says, Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. It’s the “thinking” — the logic, the analysis — that develops the argument and public in transition essays ties the claim and evidence together. This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to essay, the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to health in transition essays, the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Dockterman passage): And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports.
Unfortunately, the explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for how to discuss an author's reasoning is a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to english outline, use) clear, logical reasoning to health essays, draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to a level coursework, clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an health author explains the movie, logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the public health in transition, author’s argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the mice thesis, reader will agree with the author). In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out data ( Civilization leads to improvements in history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the game and thus the subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to public in transition, a larger concept (actively browsing pages on a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the mice thesis, TV). This clear pattern of public health essays data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points.
It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and composition having to take it on faith, the reader is public essays forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the top layer of argument building. Thesis! The foundation of health in transition essays a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is biology often the addition of stylistic or persuasive elements like an ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is truly the icing on in transition the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at speech, you that don’t seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the first is Paul Bogard again: …show that what was a very dark country as recently as the health, 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of light. This example is role of computer relatively restrained, using the public health in transition essays, metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence:
Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and essay money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the health in transition essays, reader in the author’s shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the thesis statement emily, excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and health waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the movie, second part of the public health in transition, sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to role of computer in bank, draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader.
The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of health different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on biology a level coursework facts or logic. Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to health, die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. Thesis Emily Dickinson's! does in his speech, is an alternate route to persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for the poor. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the readers to step into the author's world.
By reading and public thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the mice men dreams, reader were just given a statement of in transition what the author thinks . In the case of the biology a level coursework help, Bogard example above, the in transition essays, rhetorical question draws the reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for mice men dreams thesis whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants). As you can see, these examples of public health in transition different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of emily different article types for public in transition essays a wide range of topics . This is because the in bank, examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the prompt to develop an health essays arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how you’ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and anxiety when the test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on thesis the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the health essays, new essay compares to the old? Start with our article about what’s changed with the new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score?
Check out our guide on how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an poems extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out our guide to how you should study to health in transition essays, improve your SAT score by english composition 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in public, Composition from the Longy School of Music of english Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on public how to excel in mice thesis, high school. You should definitely follow us on public in transition social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!
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Public Health Classics Population health in transition - World Health
essayist lived E. B. White, the essayist and stylist who was one of the nation's most precious literary resources, died yesterday at his home in North Brooklin, Me., where he had lived for half a century. He had Alzheimer's disease and public essays, was 86 years old. Mr. White's writing was appreciated by generations of readers of essay outline, every age. His classic children's books, ''Stuart Little,'' ''Charlotte's Web'' and ''The Trumpet of the Swan,'' continue to sell in the hundreds of public in transition, thousands every year. His importance to students is immeasurable because of ''The Elements of Style,'' the slim work on English usage he revised and expanded, based on Prof. William Strunk Jr.'s textbook. The book is used today in high schools and persuasive main, colleges across the country. His comments, pieces and poems in The New Yorker helped to set the public health essays, tone of sophisticated wit, irreverence and necessary candor almost since the role essay, magazine's beginnings in the 1920's.
And his independent stands in the ''Talk of the Town'' column of The New Yorker and public health essays, elsewhere brooked no nonsense about points, excesses in public essays American corporate and thesis, political life. 'His Writing Was Timeless' William Shawn, editor of The New Yorker, said yesterday: ''E. In Transition Essays! B. Mice! White was a great essayist, a supreme stylist. Public In Transition! His literary style was as pure as any in our language. It was singular, colloquial, clear, unforced, thoroughly American and utterly beautiful. Because of biology help, his quiet influence, several generations of this country's writers write better than they might have done. In Transition! He never wrote a mean or careless sentence. Coursework Help! He was impervious to literary, intellectual and political fashion.
He was ageless, and his writing was timeless. ''Watched over and inspirited by The New Yorker's founding editor, Harold Ross, he and James Thurber were the writers who did most to determine the magazine's shape, tone and direction. Public Health In Transition Essays! Even though White lived much of role of computer, his life on a farm in Maine, remote from the clatter of health essays, publicity and celebrity, fame overtook him, fortunately leaving him untouched. His connections with nature were intimate and on exercise main points, ardent. He loved his farm, his farm animals, his neighbors, his family and words.'' Mr. White's score of books - essays, poems, sketches, letters - include ''The Points of My Compass,'' ''The Second Tree From the Corner,'' ''Here Is New York,'' ''One Man's Meat'' and (with James Thurber) ''Is Sex Necessary?'' He could be outspoken and passionate on subjects that were especially close to his heart - the freedom and integrity of the press, personal privacy and liberty, the in transition essays, intrusion of advertising, market surveys and commercialism into everyday living, the conservation of nature, the need for some form of world government. His opponents often succumbed before the force of his purity, ridicule, regret and common sense. Respect for Audiences. Mr.
White's strength as a writer was rooted in his respect for his audiences - children, adolescents and adults -regardless of what the pollsters and market surveys declared as scientific truth. ''No one can write decently who is distrustful of the reader's intelligence,'' he said. ''Television has taken a big bite out of the written word. But words still count with me.'' His ''Elements of Style,'' which he updated from the privately printed notes made in 1918 by Mr. Strunk, his former professor at Cornell, and revised several times since for new editions, has sold millions of points, copies. The White-Strunk book was ignored at peril by students ever since it first appeared some three decades ago. It is considered one of the most enduring and most readable books on American English usage. The wisdom in the book is both analytical and public health in transition, practical. In it he says: ''Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary part.
This requires not that the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in outline, but that every word tell.'' Clarity and persuasive speech main, Grace. In the health essays, latest edition, more than before, words tell. For example, Mr. White called ''offputting'' and ''ongoing'' newfound adjectives to be avoided because they are inexact and clumsy: ''Ongoing is english essay outline, a mix of continuing and active and is usually superfluous, and offputting might mean objectionable, disconcerting or distasteful. Instead, select a word whose meaning is clear. As a simple test, transform the participles to verbs. It is possible to upset something. In Transition Essays! But to offput? To ongo?''
Some of the memorable advice in his ''Approach to Style'' section goes: ''Place yourself in english outline the background; write in in transition essays a way that comes naturally; work from a suitable design; write with nouns and role essay, verbs; do not overwrite; do not overstate; avoid the use of qualifiers; do not affect a breezy style; use orthodox spelling; do not explain too much; avoid fancy words; do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity; prefer the standard to in transition essays the offbeat; make sure the reader knows who is speaking; do not use dialect; revise and rewrite.'' Talking about the role essay, surprising acceptance of ''The Elements of Style,'' he said: ''It's a funny little book, and essays, it keeps going on. Occasionally I get irate letters from people who find a boo-boo in on exercise main it, but many more from people who find it useful. The book is used not only in public in transition institutions of learning, but also in english composition essay business places. Bosses give it to their secretaries. I guess someone in the office has to know how to write English.'' About the only one who had the ability to public health in transition essays uphold that good advice was E(lwyn) B(rooks) White himself. 'She'd Run Out of Names' Of his name, Mr.
White said: ''I never liked Elwyn. My mother just hung it on me because she'd run out of names. I was her sixth child.'' From college on, to his relief, he was called Andy. He acquired the name at Cornell, after its first president, Andrew D. White. The nickname was bestowed there on students named White. Mr. Emily Dickinson's! White was born in Mount Vernon, N.Y., on health in transition July 11, 1899.
His parents had moved there from Brooklyn, he later surmised, ''because Mount Vernon sounded tonier.'' After serving as editor in chief of The Cornell Sun, he worked for the United Press in New York for a year, became a reporter for The Seattle Times for two years, tried his hand in an advertising agency as a production assistant and copywriter, and then found his niche as a contributor to The New Yorker in 1927. Recalling his early tenure at the magazine, he said, ''The cast of characters in those days was as shifty as the characters in role essay a floating poker game. Every week the magazine teetered on the edge of financial ruin. In Transition Essays! It was chaos but it was enjoyable. James Thurber and I shared a sort of elongated closet. Harold Ross fought with Raoul Fleischmann and erected an persuasive speech points impenetrable barrier between the advertising department and the editorial department. It was known as the Ross Barrier.'' Disguising North Brooklin.
A friend who visited Mr. White at home in Maine several years ago found him in public essays good spirits. He looked like his sentences: straightforward, yet elegant. ''Don't say I live exactly in North Brooklin or buses will show up - a few have already - loaded with schoolchildren and their teachers looking for 'Stuart Little,' 'Charlotte's Web' and 'The Trumpet of the Swan,' '' he said. Persuasive Main Points! ''Maybe you can say 'somewhere on the Atlantic Coast.' If you must, make the location the public, way the property appears on nautical maps - Allen Cove. That way no one will be able to find it except by sailboat and using a chart.'' So many letters from children are addressed to Mr. White (as well as to Stuart Little and Charlotte, his fictional creations) that Harper Row, his publisher, has a printed reply of thanks and explanation from Mr. Composition Outline! White. Part of in transition, his form letter goes: ''Are my stories true, you ask?
No, they are imaginary tales, containing fantastic characters and events. Movie Crash! In real life, a family doesn't have a child who looks like a mouse; in real life, a spider doesn't spin words in her web. In real life, a swan doesn't blow a trumpet. But real life is public health essays, only one kind of life -there is also the life of the imagination. And although my stories are imaginary, I like to think that there is some truth in them, too - truth about the way people and animals feel and think and thesis crash, act.'' Sought Privacy in Maine.
After having lived in Manhattan in the 1920's and 1930's, Mr. White and his wife, Katharine, sought privacy in public health in transition Maine. They bought the roomy old farmhouse in men dreams 1933 and lived in it almost continuously beginning in public in transition essays 1938. Their lives were linked with The New Yorker, where they first met in 1926. He said that Katharine Sergeant Angell was considered ''the intellectual soul'' of the magazine, serving as fiction editor and encouraging many gifted writers. They were married in mice men dreams thesis 1929.
Mr. Public Health! White later said, ''I soon realized that I had made no mistake in my choice of a wife. I was helping her pack an overnight bag one afternoon when she said, 'Put in some tooth twine.' I knew then that a girl who called dental floss tooth twine was the girl for english essay me.'' They were married for 48 years, and Mr. White never quite got over her death in 1977. When her book, ''Onward and Upward in health in transition essays the Garden,'' based on her New Yorker pieces, came out in 1978, with an introduction by him, he wrote, ''Life without Katharine is no good for me.'' Until illness slowed him down, Mr. White usually rose at 6 in the morning, started the wood fire in the black four-lidded kitchen stove, checked the action in the birdfeeder dangling outside the of computer in bank, living-room window of the 19th-century farmhouse and peered with a Maineman's eyes at the broken clouds. Prose Produced by Hand. When the public in transition essays, sun broke through without advance notice, the pencils, pens and men dreams thesis, typewriters (the portable one down at public health essays, the boathouse, the movie, upright Underwood in the workroom) went into action.
Mr. White turned out some of the most moral, living prose produced by hand in the country. Even in speaking, Mr. White seemed to have the right phrase at hand. Fiddling with a thick log in the fireplace, he made it flare up quickly - more a countryman's than an author's fire. Mr. Public In Transition Essays! White liked to sip a vermouth cassis before lunch. ''It's a French taxi-driver's drink,'' he said. Walking with a visitor over to the general store, he took a bottle of movie, orange juice to the counter. ''Hi, Al,'' he said to the proprietor. Public In Transition! ''Hi, Andy,'' the proprietor replied, and at the same time handed him a copy of the local paper, The Ellsworth American, published by his longtime friend J. Russell Wiggins. Now and then, he would contribute a letter or essay to the paper. Driving on a few miles, he stopped at statement emily poems, the boatyard run by his son, Joel, a naval architect from M.I.T., and health in transition, studied the small boats jiggling on the windy waters. English Composition Essay! In a cavernous boatshed, he climbed aboard the 19-foot sloop Martha, named after his granddaughter, which his son built for him.
He sailed these waters, with friends and family, most of his life. He pointed to the carved dolphins, four on each side of the bow, that he designed and decorated in gold. Like Louis the trumpeter swan in public health essays his book ''who thought how lucky he was to inhabit such a beautiful earth,'' E. Outline! B. White was on the side of good luck and health essays, the angels. Fondness for Geese. Back at Allen Cove, he spotted the geese on the pond below the farmhouse and barn. He picked up some apples and in bank essay, waved them aloft, inviting the geese to in transition have a snack before dinner. Thesis Movie! ''Geese are the greatest clowns in the world,'' he said. ''I wouldn't be without them.'' To followers of public, Mr. White's work, his Maine home was historic literary territory. The barn inspired many of the characters in his stories for children. In a corner of a cellar window a spider spun a web but, he said, it was a different species from the men dreams thesis, large gray spider that lived here with Wilbur the pig in ''Charlotte's Web.'' In his small gray boathouse facing the cove, he wrote ''One Man's Meat,'' most of ''Charlotte's Web'' and, he said, ''10,000 newsbreaks.''
These are the satirical and health, humorous observations that round off the columns in almost every issue of The New Yorker. Although uncredited, they bore the White imprint for many years. Their headings became part of the dickinson's, language: ''Neatest Trick of the Week''; ''Go Climb a Tree Department''; ''Letters We Never Finished Reading''; ''Our Forgetful Authors''; ''Funny Coincidence Department''; ''Wind on Capitol Hill.'' 'Holding Down a Job' Until recently, The New Yorker sent him a package of news items every week. Public In Transition! ''I like doing the men dreams thesis, breaks because it gives me a feeling of holding down a job and public health, affords me a glimpse of newspapers all over the country,'' Mr. White said. English Essay! ''I turned in my first one 50 years ago.
Everybody in the shop used to do them. One day I got a call from Harold Ross asking where I was. I said I was home with the chicken pox. And he said, 'I finally get someone who can do these breaks, and essays, he gets the chicken pox.' '' For his contribution to American letters, Mr.
White was awarded the National Medal for Literature in 1971. In 1963, President Kennedy presented him with a Presidential Medal of Freedom. A Level Coursework! He was elected to the 50-member American Academy of public health, Arts and Letters and, in mice men dreams thesis 1973, received its gold medal for health essays essays and criticism. In 1978, he received a special Pulitzer Prize for the body of thesis emily dickinson's, his work. Two years ago, after he had begun to slow down, he typed, with his usual good humor, a long letter to a friend: ''I have a first degree heart block, have lost the sight in essays my right eye because of a degenerated retina, can't wind my wrist watch because my fingers have knuckled under to arthritis, can't tie my shoelaces, am dependent on seven different pills to stay alive, can't remember whether I took the pills or didn't. ''On the other hand, I am camped alone, here at Bert Mosher's Camps on the shore of Great Pond which I first visited in 1904; I have my 15-foot green Old Town canoe with me, which I brought over on the top of my car; I sat out a New England boiled dinner this noon by anticipating it with martinis and cheese-and-crackers before walking up to the farmhouse, and after dinner (or lack of mice men dreams thesis, same) went fishing for in transition essays bass in my canoe. ''There is a certain serenity here that heals my spirit, and I can still buy Moxie in a tiny supermarket six miles away. Moxie contains gentian root, which is the path to the good life. This was known in men dreams the second century before Christ, and it is a boon to me today.''
In addition to his son, Joel, of Brooklin, Me., Mr. Health In Transition Essays! White is survived by of computer, two stepchildren, Roger Angell of Manhattan and Nancy Stableford of Easton, Pa.; nine grandchildren, and 12 great-grandchildren.