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Ateneo Law Entrance Exam Reviewer. Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 29 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM 2 Implementation of Effective Compliance and Ethics Programs and the Federal Sentencing Guidelines Steven D. Gordon* How should a company go about designing and implementing a compliance program? While other chapters address the specifics of compliance programs in particular industries, this chapter considers issues relating to designing and implementing compliance and an essay, ethics programs generally. Between Persuasive Paper? The biggest influence on the design and implementation of a compliance program is guidance from the U. We will write a custom essay sample. on Ateneo Law Entrance Exam Reviewer or any similar. topic specifically for you. S. Sentencing Commission contained in an essay on population the Federal Sentencing Guidelines that apply to companies convicted of sample term paper format pdf federal criminal offenses. The Sentencing Guidelines set standards that have become the * The author wishes to acknowledge Jennifer Dure, Michael Manthei, Christopher A. Myers, and Jonathan Strouse for their contributions to this chapter. 29 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 30 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM Q 2. 1 CORPORATE COMPLIANCE ANSWER BOOK norm for an essay on population, virtually all companies, even though relatively few will ever be prosecuted or convicted. In fact, the most useful benefit from using the Guidelines to design and implement a compliance and ethics program is that it can help companies avoid investigations and convictions in the first place. In addition to complying with the Sentencing Guidelines, if the company is difference persuasive and research, publicly held, it must comply with the SarbanesOxley Act of 2002. And if the company is a federal government contractor or subcontractor, the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) comes into play. An Essay Problem? Other compliance requirements apply to other industries.

Since 1991, the difference between essay sentencing of corporations and other business entities convicted of federal criminal offenses has been. Page 2 Ateneo Law Entrance Exam Reviewer Essay. Problem? governed by the Federal Sentencing Guidelines (“Sentencing Guidelines”), established by the U. S. Sentencing Commission. These Sentencing Guidelines were mandatory, but in 2005, the Supreme Court ruled that it is 30 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 31 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM Compliance Programs U. Darden Analysis? S. Sentencing Guidelines Q 2. Problem? 2. Sample Term Format? 1 unconstitutional to apply them in mandatory form. On Population Problem? The Court left them intact as voluntary guideposts that federal courts should consult but are not bound to follow. 1 In addition to paper plates for wedding, providing guidance on how convicted companies should be sentenced, the Sentencing Guidelines also contain detailed guidance from the Sentencing Commission on what it means to have an an essay on population problem, “effective” compliance and ethics program. This guidance, contained in chapter eight of the Guidelines Manual, 2 is used by hundreds of companies to design and implement their compliance programs and is also the standard used by many government agencies to evaluate company compliance and coursework, ethics programs. On Population Problem? Q 2. 2 How do the Sentencing Guidelines relate to an effective compliance program? A company convicted of a federal offense is eligible for design coursework, a reduced sentence under the an essay on population problem Sentencing Guidelines if it has an effective compliance and ethics program and the offense occurred despite the program. 3 The Sentencing Guidelines spell out the basic elements of an effective compliance program.

4 Additionally, a prosecutor might exercise his or her discretion not to bring criminal charges if the company has a compliance program that meets the Sentencing Guidelines’ requirements. Q 2. 2. 1 Why should my company care about the Sentencing Guidelines if it conducts business. honestly and design, is unlikely ever to face criminal prosecution? If the business is a corporation, its management probably has a duty to ensure that the business has an adequate compliance program. An Essay Problem? The Delaware Chancery Court, in the leading Caremark decision,5 held that corporate management has such a duty under Delaware law in light of the Sentencing Guidelines. Also, having an effective compliance program can show that the corporation was not at fault if an graham greene, employee does engage in criminal or unethical conduct. Even ethical companies get investigated. In the event of an investigation, enforcement authorities will look at a variety of factors to determine whether there has been wrongdoing, who is at fault, and whether to bring criminal, civil, administrative, or no claims against an essay, 31 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 32 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM CORPORATE COMPLIANCE ANSWER BOOK Q 2. 3 the difference persuasive paper company.

Among the most significant factors influencing these decisions is whether the company has a compliance program that meets the on population Sentencing Guidelines’ requirements. Components of an Effective Compliance Program Q 2. 3 What policies and procedures should my. company implement to meet the Sentencing Guidelines’ requirements? You are required to have written standards and procedures. After performing a thorough assessment of your company’s legal, compliance, and reputational risks, you should create policies addressing those risk areas. The number and types of standards and procedures a company requires depend on a number of factors, including the industry in virginia darden essay which the an essay on population problem company operates. Q 2. 3. 1 What are the elements of an effective compliance program that will satisfy the Sentencing Guidelines?

The Sentencing Guidelines state that the graham two fundamental. elements of an effective compliance and ethics program are: (1) (2) exercising due diligence to prevent and detect criminal conduct; and otherwise promoting an organizational culture that encourages ethical conduct and a commitment to compliance with the law. 6 Q 2. 3. 2 What specific steps must our company take to create an effective compliance program? The Sentencing Guidelines provide that, at a minimum, a company must do the following in order to have an effective compliance and ethics program: (1) (2) Establish standards and procedures to prevent and an essay on population problem, detect criminal conduct. Virginia Analysis? Ensure that the company’s governing authority (board of. directors, etc. ) understands the content and on population, operation of 32 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 33 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM Compliance Programs U. S. Sentencing Guidelines (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Q 2. 3. 2 the program and exercises reasonable oversight with respect to its implementation and greene, effectiveness. Problem? Specific senior manager(s) shall have overall responsibility to and development, ensure the implementation and effectiveness of the program.

Specific individuals shall be delegated day-to-day operational responsibility for the program and shall be given adequate resources and authority. They shall report periodically to on population, senior management and shall have direct access to the board of design coursework directors or a subgroup thereof. On Population Problem? Keep bad actors out of greene managerial ranks (or other key positions). Reasonable steps should be taken to on population problem, screen out virginia darden essay analysis, persons whom the company knows, or should know through the exercise of due diligence, to have a history of problem engaging in case illegal activity or other misconduct. Take reasonable steps to communicate periodically and in a practical manner its standards and procedures to its officers, employees, and, as appropriate, its agents, by conducting effective training programs and otherwise. disseminating information. Take reasonable steps to (a) ensure that the program is followed, including using monitoring and on population, auditing to and development case, detect criminal conduct; (b) evaluate periodically the program’s effectiveness; and (c) have a system whereby employees and agents may report or seek guidance regarding potential or actual criminal conduct without fear of retaliation (although a mechanism for anonymous reporting is not required). Promote and on population, enforce the program through appropriate incentives and disciplinary measures for engaging in criminal conduct and for failing to take reasonable steps to prevent or detect criminal conduct. Take reasonable steps to respond appropriately to criminal conduct and to paper format, prevent further similar criminal conduct, including making any necessary modifications to an essay on population, the compliance and custom plates, ethics program. 7 33 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 34 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM CORPORATE COMPLIANCE ANSWER BOOK Q 2. 3. 3 Q 2. 3. 3 Is there a standard compliance program that most companies can use? No.

There is problem, no “one-size-fits-all” solution. Greene Essay? The Sentencing Guidelines recognize that an effective program must be tailored to the particular company. An Essay Problem? The Sentencing Guidelines require a company to engage in periodic risk assessments in designing, implementing, and modifying its compliance and ethics program. 8 Each company must examine the nature of its business and its own prior history to determine what sorts of criminal conduct pose the greatest risk, and then take steps designed to prevent and detect such misconduct. For example, if your company employs sales personnel who have flexibility in setting prices, you must have established standards and procedures designed to prevent and detect price-fixing.

If you employ sales personnel who have flexibility to represent the material characteristics of a product, you must have established standards and procedures designed to prevent fraud. Your company should prioritize the risks that you face in terms of the design coursework severity of the criminal conduct and its likelihood of occurring, and tailor your compliance and ethics program accordingly. 9 Designing and Implementing a Compliance Program Relevant Factors and an essay problem, Considerations Q 2. 4 Are industry practice and standards considered in assessing the effectiveness of a compliance program? Yes. The Sentencing Guidelines recognize that the particulars of an for wedding, effective compliance and ethics program are likely to be affected by applicable industry practice or the an essay on population standards called for by any applicable governmental regulation. For publicly traded corporations, applicable governmental regulations would include the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. A company’s failure to incorporate and graham, follow applicable industry practice or to comply with applicable government regulations will weigh against a finding 34 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 35 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM. An Essay Problem? Compliance Programs U. S. Sentencing Guidelines Q 2. 5 that its compliance program is an effective one. And Development Studies? 10 For healthcare companies the Department of an essay problem Health and Human Services, through its Office of Inspector General, has issued a number of very specific compliance program guidances targeting specific business sectors such as hospitals and design, pharmaceutical manufacturers. Problem? Q 2. Paper Plates For Wedding? 4. 1 Does the company size matter?

Size is a relevant factor in structuring a compliance and ethics program. A large company generally should devote more formal operations and an essay problem, greater resources to its program than a small company. Q 2. 4. 2 • • • What are the greene essay differences between compliance programs for large companies and small companies? The governing authority in a small company may directly manage the compliance and an essay on population problem, ethics efforts. A small company may train employees through informal staff meetings and monitor them through regular “walkarounds” or continuous observation during normal management. A small company may use available personnel, rather than separate staff, to carry out the compliance and ethics program. 11 Requirements; Risk Areas Q 2. 5 When it comes to putting a compliance program together, where do we start? A first step is to determine whether the compliance program must satisfy the mandates of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act12 in addition to the Sentencing Guidelines.

Sarbanes-Oxley, if applicable, imposes fairly detailed requirements that focus on the company’s internal control over financial reporting and its disclosure controls and procedures. A good compliance program should also address the prevention of other employee misconduct that may impose civil liability on the company or that may victimize the company itself. The foundation for designing a good compliance program is to identify the principal risks of misconduct that must be safeguarded 35. Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 36 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM CORPORATE COMPLIANCE ANSWER BOOK Q 2. 5. 1 against. This is a task that requires input from graham essay, counsel and senior management. The effectiveness of the compliance program likely will be directly proportional to the time and effort invested in designing it. Q 2. 5. 1 What are the most common risk areas that we may need to address in our compliance program? Consider the following fifteen areas: 1. Accounting practices. An Essay On Population? Sarbanes-Oxley has made internal control over financial reporting and disclosure controls and procedures the foremost risk area for every public company. It also spells out in detail the procedures that must be used to persuasive essay paper, address this risk area.

Private companies must also protect against the risk that an officer or employee may “cook” or alter the books in order to boost performance or hide problems. On Population? Common examples include improper revenue recognition, intentional overstatement of assets, or understatement of liabilities, as well as false entries to cover up employee embezzlement and theft, or expenditures for improper or illegal purposes such as bribes. Darden Analysis? 2. USA PATRIOT Act. An Essay? The PATRIOT Act aims to cut off sources of greene essay financing for terrorists by strengthening anti-money laundering laws. An Essay? The PATRIOT Act greatly expanded the definition of “financial institutions” covered by anti-money laundering laws to include not only banks, savings associations, and credit unions, but also securities broker-dealers; investment companies; hedge funds; commodities brokers; mutual funds; issuers or redeemers of travelers checks; operators of credit card systems; insurance companies; telegraph companies; loan or finance companies; automobile, airplane, and greene essay, boat dealers; real estate brokers; persons or companies involved in real estate closings and settlements; currency exchanges; money transmitters; pawn brokers; travel agencies; dealers in precious metals, stones, or jewels; and casinos. 13 36 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 37 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM Compliance Programs U. S. Sentencing Guidelines Q 2. 5. 1 The PATRIOT Act requires that “each financial institution shall establish anti-money laundering programs” unless the Treasury Department issues a specific exemption. These programs must include written policies and procedures; a designated compliance officer; employee training; and periodic auditing and monitoring.

14 Further, financial institutions must implement special account opening procedures and “Know Your Customer” due diligence. 15 In addition, banks, securities broker-dealers, money services businesses, and casinos are required to file reports of suspicious transactions with the Treasury Department’s Financial Crimes Enforcement Network. 16 Finally, all persons (not only financial institutions) who receive in excess of $10,000 in cash in one transaction, or two or more related transactions, in the course of their trade or business are required to file a currency transaction report. 17 3. Conducting business with suspected terrorists. Following the September 11 attacks, Executive Order 13224 mandated creation of an essay on population a list of persons, entities, and groups believed to be connected with terrorism.

This order bans anyone in the United States from conducting any business with any person, entity, or group on the list, which is maintained by between essay and research paper, the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). 18 The OFAC list is constantly updated and now is quite lengthy, consisting of thousands of names, aliases, and “doing business as” designations. Businesses, particularly those with some international component, must ensure that they are complying with the provisions of the Executive Order. Specifically, before entering into or continuing any financial relationship, businesses should check the an essay on population problem identities of existing and potential clients and customers against the latest OFAC List. Design Coursework? 4. Conflicts of an essay interest; corporate opportunities. Conflicts of interest are an darden, issue for every company. The code of ethics mandated by Sarbanes-Oxley specifically requires a company to promote the ethical handling of on population problem actual or apparent conflicts of interest between personal and professional relationships. 19 Common breeding grounds for conflicts of interest include employee relationships with the company’s suppliers and outside employment. Custom For Wedding? 37 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 38 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM Q 2. 5. 1 CORPORATE COMPLIANCE ANSWER BOOK The corporate opportunity doctrine forbids employees, officers, and directors of on population problem a company from (i) taking for themselves personally opportunities that are discovered through the use of corporate property, information, or position; (ii) using corporate property, information, or position for personal gain; and. (iii) competing with the company.

Analytically, this doctrine is essay, a subset of conflicts of interest. The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), however, has proposed to on population, amend its rules so that each issuer listed on the Exchange would be required to adopt a code of conduct that addresses, under separate headings, both conflicts of design coursework interest and corporate opportunities. 20 Further, Sarbanes-Oxley, in order to on population problem, strengthen protections against conflicts of and research paper interest, prohibits public companies from making personal loans to any director or executive officer. 21 5. Bribes, kickbacks, improper payments, inappropriate gifts. Improper payments to government officials are a potential issue for many companies, especially if the an essay government is a customer or if the difference persuasive and research paper business is subject to significant government regulation. An Essay On Population? Giving bribes or gratuities to sample term paper format, U. S. government officials is prohibited by federal law,22 and bribery of foreign government officials is prohibited by on population problem, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

23 Kickbacks are explicitly prohibited, both at the prime contractor and subcontractor levels, in connection with any federal government contract. 24 Kickbacks also are prohibited in exchange for the referral of business for which payment is made under federal healthcare programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid. 25 In addition, a number of states have criminal commercial bribery statutes that prohibit payments to influence the conduct of an agent or employee with respect to the affairs of the studies agent’s employer. 26 6. Antitrust issues. Antitrust issues such as price fixing, collusive bidding, and market allocation are a concern in many industries. 38 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 39 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM. Compliance Programs U. Problem? S. Sentencing Guidelines 7. Q 2. Design Coursework? 5. 1 Confidential information and trade secrets. For many companies, protection of confidential information and trade secrets is a significant issue. In the healthcare industry, protection of individual health information is critical. An Essay On Population Problem? Often such information may be a key company asset and, under Sarbanes-Oxley, the safeguarding of company assets is one of the elements of internal control over sample term format, financial reporting.

27 In order to protect its proprietary data and trade secrets, a company must take the requisite steps to preserve confidentiality. At a minimum, this includes reminding employees, during the course of their employment and upon an essay on population their departure, of their continuing duty to safeguard such information. In addition, written confidentiality agreements may be desirable. Further, companies must ensure that they do not become liable for misappropriating trade secrets belonging to their competitors or third parties. Employees should be warned against acquiring a competitor’s confidential or trade secret information—and against bringing such information with them from darden, a prior employer when they join the company. 8. Product safety. If the company manufactures or processes tangible products, especially consumer goods, then product safety may well be a key risk area. Indeed, in highly regulated industries that implicate public health and safety, such as food and drugs, product safety is likely to be the single most important risk issue. Where public health and safety are implicated, defective products may trigger strict criminal liability for the company as well as its senior managers.

28 9. Workplace safety. In industries such as manufacturing, construction, or extraction of natural resources, workplace safety may be a significant issue. 10. Environmental issues. For many businesses, compliance with environmental laws is a significant concern. Some environmental statutes are drafted in such sweeping terms as to create something approaching strict criminal liability in the event of an essay a violation. For Wedding? 29 39 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. Problem? book Page 40 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM Q 2. 5. Custom Paper Plates? 1 CORPORATE COMPLIANCE ANSWER BOOK 11. Government contracts issues.

As detailed in chapter 15 on government contractors, new mandatory compliance and ethics program requirements went into effect on December 12, 2008, for many government contractors and subcontractors. The new requirements amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) and are modeled to an essay problem, a large extent on the Federal Sentencing Guidelines criteria for effective compliance and ethics programs. 30 In addition to the specific elements of a compliance and ethics program that must be implemented, the new FAR provisions also require mandatory reporting of violations of federal criminal law, violations of the civil False Claims Act, and “significant” overpayments. Companies engaged in contracting with the federal government are especially vulnerable to and research paper, liability for business misconduct. A number of an essay problem statutes impose civil liability upon government contractors for sample term format pdf, engaging in fraudulent conduct or failing to comply with applicable procurement and contracting rules. 31 Further, an array of criminal statutes may be applied to contractors who engage in fraud or other misconduct. 32 The most common types of problem fraud encountered in government contracting include defective pricing, cost mischarging, product substitution, progress payment fraud, antitrust violations, kickbacks, bribery, gratuities, and conflicts of interest.

33 12. Insider trading. Between Persuasive? Another risk for on population problem, publicly held companies is that directors, officers, or employees may engage in insider trading in the company’s shares. The NYSE considers this risk so significant that it identifies insider trading as one of the issues to sample term paper format, be addressed by the code of conduct it has proposed for listed companies. 34 13. An Essay On Population? International business practices.

U. Plates? S. laws that may create significant risks for companies engaged in international business include export control laws and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). Export control laws and an essay on population problem, regulations prohibit the export of certain commercial products, strategic goods, defense articles and their related technologies, and the furnishing of 40 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 41 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM Compliance Programs U. S. Sentencing Guidelines Q 2. 6 defense ser vices, unless licensed by the appropriate federal agency—either the Department of Commerce or the Department of State. Note that an “export” can occur anywhere when equipment or technical data is released or made available to a foreign person, whether within the darden analysis United States or abroad. The FCPA prohibits bribery in the conduct of an essay on population business abroad. In general, the paper format pdf FCPA prohibits corrupt payments to foreign officials or political parties (whether made directly or through intermediaries) for the purpose of obtaining or keeping business. 35 14. An Essay On Population Problem? Employee relations. Discrimination and harassment issues are a concern for difference persuasive essay, virtually all employers. Federal statutes and regulations forbid discrimination in the workplace based on an essay on population problem, race, color, sex, religion, national origin, marital status, age, or disability. 36 Discrimination or harassment can subject a company to civil liability for greene essay, compensatory damages and, in cases involving malice or reckless indifference, to punitive damages as well.

37 15. Other issues. An Essay On Population? There are a number of additional issues that are less common but very significant to particular businesses or industries. Certain highly regulated industries, such as banking and graham greene, healthcare, face numerous compliance risks that derive from the an essay on population problem specialized laws and regulations that govern their conduct. Other businesses, though not highly regulated, may have particular attributes that create significant compliance risks. For example, marketing organizations are vulnerable to charges of fraudulent sales techniques. Compliance programs must be designed to paper plates for wedding, combat these risks. Code of Conduct Q 2. 6 Is a code of an essay conduct a required part of a compliance program?

A code of ethical conduct is virginia darden analysis, a centerpiece of a compliance program. The Sentencing Guidelines and Sarbanes-Oxley now make a 41 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 42 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM. An Essay? CORPORATE COMPLIANCE ANSWER BOOK Q 2. 6. 1 code of ethics virtually mandatory for all companies. Furthermore, both the sample pdf NYSE and NASDAQ have proposed rules that would mandate that listed companies adopt codes of business conduct and ethics. 38 Sarbanes-Oxley effectively requires every publicly traded corporation to adopt a code of ethics that applies to its principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller, or persons performing similar functions. 39 Q 2. 6. 1 What are the legal requirements for a code of conduct? Sarbanes-Oxley mandates that the code consist of written standards that are reasonably designed to deter wrongdoing and to promote: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) honest and ethical conduct, including the ethical handling of actual or apparent conflicts of an essay on population problem interest between personal and professional relationships; full, fair, accurate, timely, and understandable disclosure in reports and documents that a registrant files with, or submits to, the SEC and in other public communications made by the registrant; compliance with applicable governmental laws, rules, and regulations; the prompt internal reporting of violations of the design code to an appropriate person or persons identified in the code; and accountability for adherence to the code. 40 The Sentencing Guidelines impose more general requirements for a code of conduct. They require that the company establish standards and procedures to prevent and detect criminal conduct, and take reasonable steps to on population problem, communicate periodically and in a practical manner its standards and procedures to all employees and agents by conducting training programs and analysis, otherwise disseminating information. Q 2. 6. An Essay On Population Problem? 2. What are the elements of a good code of conduct?

A corporate code of ethical conduct should accomplish several distinct, but related, objectives: 42 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 43 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM Compliance Programs U. S. Sentencing Guidelines Q 2. 6. Coursework? 2 1. An Essay Problem? Address, in a direct, practical manner, the compliance risk issues that are relevant to the particular company. The code should alert employees to the principal risks and spell out their duty to design, avoid them. Some of the most effective codes follow up their discussion of the relevant standards with. sample questions and an essay on population problem, answers applying the standard(s) to greene essay, common situations that employees are likely to encounter. An Essay? 2. Paper? Identify the an essay personnel who administer the company’s compliance program, from the and development studies senior executive(s) in charge of the program down through any lower-level contact personnel. In addition, the an essay code should outline the system for custom, reporting suspected misconduct. Employees and agents must be able to on population problem, report or seek guidance regarding potential or actual criminal conduct without fear of retaliation. Furthermore, it is desirable (and sometimes required) that the case system permit confidential, anonymous reporting. An Essay On Population Problem? 41 The code should state unequivocally that any employee may contact compliance personnel to discuss potential violations of the code without fear of graham greene retribution and, if applicable, that anonymous reporting is an option. The code should encourage employees to contact compliance personnel whenever an ethical issue arises and they are uncertain about whether or how the code applies.

3. Announce that employees who violate code provisions will be sanctioned for their misconduct, indicating the range of sanctions that may be applied. The sanctions may range from a reprimand for minor or unintentional violations up to an essay problem, termination for cause for difference between, serious violations. The Sentencing Guidelines note that disciplinary actions sometimes may need to be taken not only against the actual offender but also against individuals who fail to take reasonable steps to an essay on population problem, prevent or detect the misconduct. 42 Thus, the code should also state that an employee who witnesses a violation and fails to report it may be subject to discipline, as may a supervisor or manager to the extent that the paper plates violation reflects inadequate supervision or lack of an essay on population diligence. 4. Be distributed to all company employees and agents in writing and/or by making it available on the company’s website. Many companies require that employees certify that they have received and read the code of conduct. Training Case Studies? Some companies make this an annual 43 Corporate Compliance Answer Book. book Page 44 Thursday, June 17, 2010 4:20 PM CORPORATE COMPLIANCE ANSWER BOOK Q 2. 6. Problem? 3 ritual. Such certifications can provide useful evidence of the virginia essay analysis company’s good faith and diligence if an issue ever arises. However, the certifications can end up undercutting the company’s position if they are incomplete or out of date. Thus, if a company decides to utilize employee certifications, it must diligently monitor them to ensure that they are complete and up to on population problem, date.

Q 2. 6. 3 How many codes of conduct should a company have? Sarbanes-Oxley mandates a code of ethics only for a select group of senior corporate officials: a company’s principal executive officer, principal financial officer, principal accounting officer or controller, or persons performing similar functions. In contrast, the Sentencing Guidelines and the proposed NYSE and NASDAQ rules require a code that is broadly applicable to a company’s officers, employees, and (as appropriate) agents. Custom Paper? For most companies, it would seem simplest to have only one code of conduct that applies to all officers, employees, and agents, and that either applies the Sarbanes-Oxley standards to all such persons, or else “adds on” the specific Sarbanes-Oxley requirements for the specified senior officers who are subject to them. An Essay On Population? Multiple codes of darden analysis conduct applicable to different groups of officers and/or employees are likely to breed problems for the company.

Compliance Program Administration Q 2. 7 How do we administer and enforce a compliance program? 1. Establish comprehensive written policies and procedures that implement the an essay on population Code of Conduct and training and development studies, that address the an essay specific risk areas you have identified. 2. Paper? Conduct effective training programs and otherwise disseminate information about the an essay compliance program to officers and pdf, employees. 3. On Population? Establish and publicize a system for reporting violations. Virginia Darden? 44 Corporate Compliance Answer.

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Post-Hurricane Irma Update #7: Classes to resume Monday, Sept. 18, 2017. Recovery is well under way at an essay problem, FIU following Hurricane Irma. Check this post regularly for the latest updates on university operations: Post-Hurricane Irma Update #7 – Sept. 15, 2017.

We continue to make progress toward resuming normal operations on Monday. The FIU family is busy getting the campus ready for classes, while we continue to assist those who have been more severely impacted by Hurricane Irma. On Saturday, the Green Library at difference between essay paper, MMC will be open from an essay problem 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Only FIU students, faculty and staff can enter, with a valid university identification. The Green Library and the Hubert Library at BBC will resume normal hours on Sunday, 10 a.m. to graham greene essay, 1 a.m. For the full weekly schedule, please visit the problem libraries website. The disruption caused by Hurricane Irma resulted in darden essay analysis more than a week of class cancellations.

In collaboration with the Faculty Senate, United Faculty of Florida-FIU and the Student Government Association, we have added a week to the end of the semester to help make up for lost classroom time. We recommend that faculty members update their syllabi so that this coming week is a makeup week. New official academic calendars will be published next week. Finals week will begin on Dec. 11 and an essay commencement ceremonies will now take place starting on Friday, Dec.

15, through Sunday, Dec. 17. The university is virginia darden analysis making every effort to be responsive to the needs of students, faculty and an essay problem staff. The university and Bayview Management are working around the clock with external contractors to restore the building for move-in as quickly as possible. This work will continue all day Saturday and Sunday morning, Sept. 16-17. We will be able to get almost all of our students back into their rooms beginning at training case studies, 2 p.m. on Sunday.

Once we have completed our final inspection on Sunday morning, any student who has a room still under restoration will be notified and provided accommodations at an essay problem, either the Biscayne Bay Campus or Bayview study lounges. Students who are temporarily displaced will still have limited access to their rooms for showers and to retrieve personal items, and it is anticipated that these temporary accommodations will only be necessary for one or two days. Paper Format Pdf! FIU and Bayview Management will communicate an update to all residents again on Saturday. Students may send inquiries to update@BayviewFIU.com. The main Bayview telephone – 305-998-3777 – will be operational starting at on population problem, noon on Sunday. There have been some changes to the schedule of many of our athletic teams. Please check the persuasive essay and research paper Athletics website for details. FIU employees please be on the lookout for separate communications on how to on population problem, navigate through the purchase and sample term pdf procurement process related to the hurricane as well as guidance from Human Resources on an essay, how to report time. The call center is now closed.

Today the volunteers fielded more than 350 phone calls about hurricane recovery and campus operations. You can continue to call 305-348-HELP (4357) for pre-recorded updates. Many of you are eager to donate and design coursework volunteer your time to help our neighbors who have been severely impacted by an essay problem, the hurricane. Please note that FIU is not a drop-off site for donations. Here are some ways you can help: Please remember that cash donations are always best. Financial help is critically needed and provides assistance to the most people in the fastest and most efficient manner. Goodwill Industries is partnering with the Red Cross to accept, manage, sort and make goods available where needed. Here are some drop off points:

9760 SW 8 St, Miami, FL 33174. 10201 Hammocks Blvd, Miami, FL 33196. 2050 71 St., Miami Beach, FL 33141. Please remember that official information about FIU is being communicated through email, FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on the university’s news site and through local media. You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for updates. This is the last post-Irma update. Thank you for your attention to these messages. See you back on essay, campus on Monday! Together we rise. #FIUStrong. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #6 – Sept. 14, 2017.

Today has been another good day on our way back to an essay on population problem, normalcy in the aftermath of Hurricane Irma. This trying time has brought out the best in our FIU family and together we are getting a lot done. FIU will resume classes on Monday, Sept. 18. Faculty and staff have made their way back to campus, the Green Library is paper for wedding open, services such as the on population problem Recreation Center and Student Health Center will resume operations on Friday, Sept. 15, and food vendorsat MMC have started to reopen. BBC services have started to reopen as well but the campus remains under a boil water order. The Barnes and Noble at studies, BBC is distributing three bottles of water per person while supplies last.

Please be sure not to drink from the water fountains until further notice. Bayview remains closed. Problem! The property manager is working hard to get it ready. Graham Greene Essay! Many rooms had water intrusion – some significant – and several of the air conditioning units were damaged. Remediation contractors are now extracting moisture and making repairs. Please look for an announcement this weekend on when Bayview will open. The disruption caused by Hurricane Irma resulted in more than a week of class cancellations. An Essay! In collaboration with the Faculty Senate, United Faculty of Florida and the Student Government Association, we have added a week to term paper format pdf, the end of the an essay semester to help make up for lost classroom time. We recommend that faculty members update their syllabi so that this coming week is custom paper for wedding a makeup week. New official academic calendars will be published next week. Finals week will be Dec.

11 to 16. Commencement ceremonies will now take place starting on Sunday, Dec. 17, through Wednesday, Dec. 20, 2017. We apologize for any inconveniences this schedule change may cause some families. Panthers making a difference. Today a group of voice students under the direction of Vindhya Khare performed for evacuees at an essay, the Fuchs Pavilion at Tamiami Park.

The students led singalongs of Disney tunes with the children. Members of the FIU Marching Band followed with an outdoor performance. FIU performers then went to the special needs shelter at PG 6 for a second presentation. Members of the FIU-FAST team spent the day again at West Kendall Baptist Hospital and Jackson South helping treat emergency room patients, who have flocked to hospitals since so many urgent care centers and other providers are closed. Countless other Panthers have stepped forward to fill so many needs in our community. In the training and development process, we have met many other selfless people who have come to our campus to do good work. The call center will continue to be open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. to answer questions related to an essay on population, hurricane recovery and campus operations. Today the volunteers fielded more than 450 phone calls from members of the FIU community who had questions ranging from the academic schedule to classes resuming on Monday. The call center number is 305-348-HELP (4357). You can also call this number outside of the call center hours for recorded updates regarding university operations. Members of the university community who have been personally impacted by Hurricane Irma and do not have insurance may register with FEMA online or by calling1-800-621-FEMA.

Many of you are eager to donate and volunteer your time to help our neighbors who have been severely impacted by difference persuasive essay, the hurricane. Please note that FIU is not a drop-off site for an essay donations. Here are some ways you can help: The American Red Cross is looking for help. There is a particular need for bilingual (Spanish/English or Creole/English) volunteers in the Greater Miami/Keys area, LaBelle-Clewiston, as well as in and around Naples and plates Ft Myers. There is some need, as well, in Tampa/ St. Pete and Jacksonville. There are two steps to join as a volunteer:

First, you will need to sign up officially as a Red Cross volunteer. You can do this online at this link: http://www.redcross.org/hurricane-irma-volunteer-application . An Essay On Population! You will be asked to fill out contact information and a couple of release forms—including one for a criminal background check. Second, we invite you to persuasive essay and research, click on this link http://bit.ly/2xipr8d and provide information about your preferred part of Florida to volunteer, and the type of work you would like to support. There is problem a variety of opportunities to choose from, including in shelters, distributing goods and food, and enrolling affected persons in financial assistance. Please remember that cash donations are always best. Financial help is critically needed and provides assistance to the most people in the fastest and most efficient manner. The Florida Disaster Fund has been activated and studies is approved by an essay, the State of Florida.

It is administered by the Volunteer Florida Foundation. The American Red Cross and Salvation Army are both widely recognizable relief organizations and plates for wedding welcome support. On Population Problem! Contributions can be made specifically for graham Hurricane Irma relief through each organization’s website: Goodwill Industries is partnering with the Red Cross to accept, manage, sort and make goods available where needed. In addition to being a processing center, Goodwill Industries has also developed its own program focused on people who lost possessions due to storm damage or flooding, or who remain without power and need dry clothing to wear as well as housewares. While Goodwill Industries can accept almost anything, the on population current focus is on clothing, shoes, towels, linens and household goods. Sample Pdf! No perishable food, please. On Population Problem! Goodwill Industries prefers, where possible, that all packaging be shrink-wrapped and palletized. Please remember that official information about campus reopening and other conditions is being communicated through email, FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on theuniversity’s news site and design through local media. You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for an essay on population problem updates. At this time last week we were preparing for a storm.

Today we are looking forward to welcoming our students, faculty and and development case staff back to a great semester, grateful we could help so many who were more severely impacted than us. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #5 – Sept. 13, 2017. Today has crystallized the complexity of recovery for our FIU and the community. We have had a great day of an essay on population problem real progress thanks to many selfless people who are working long hours in order to help others and get FIU operating normally.

Recovery and cleanup work is going well, and we expect to resume regular operations on Monday, Sept. 18. Please stay alert for a definitive announcement on when classes will begin. Most FIU facilities are accessible and persuasive have power. Faculty and staff are able to report to work beginning at noon on Thursday to an essay on population problem, ensure that their specific areas are ready so that the university is fully operational on custom for wedding, Monday . Some areas need to an essay on population problem, be fully staffed Thursday afternoon and plates Friday , while others may not need to bring in all employees.

Please contact your supervisor to discuss the needs of an essay your individual department and your particular circumstances. FIU Human Resources will send a separate communication outlining guidelines for handling special circumstances and time reporting. Please note that on Thursday , the university is open for faculty and staff only. Classes are still canceled until further notice. Once you arrive on campus, please report any storm damage, including water intrusion, to FIU Facilities Management right away at coursework, 305-348-4600. The IT help desk will be available to assist with computer issues.

Please call 305-348-2284. Green Library is an essay problem open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Essay! through the weekend. The library has limited services but electricity, Wi-Fi and some computers are available. The Student Health Center, the problem on-campus pharmacy and Miami Children’s Hospital Ambulatory Care Center located at MMC will open on Friday at for wedding, 9 a.m. Please use extreme caution when driving to campus as there still is debris on the roads and many traffic lights are not yet working. Bayview is not yet able to receive residents. Please look for an announcement on this soon. Problem! While BBC is open to faculty and staff, please be mindful that there is format a boil water advisory for the area.

A call center is now operational from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. to on population, answer questions related to hurricane recovery and campus operations. The call center number is 305-348-HELP (4357). Virginia Darden! You can also call this number outside of the call center hours for recorded updates regarding university operations. Some of the food vendors on campus are open during limited hours. An Essay Problem! For information on virginia darden essay analysis, what is open, please consult https://shop.fiu.edu/. The disruption caused by Hurricane Irma resulted in an essay on population more than a week of class cancellations. In collaboration with the Faculty Senate, United Faculty of custom paper Florida and the Student Government Association, we have added a week to the end of the semester to help make up for lost classroom time. We recommend that faculty members update their syllabus so that this coming week is an essay a makeup week.

New official academic calendars will be published next week. Finals week will be Dec. 11 to 16 . Commencement ceremonies will now take place starting on Sunday, Dec. 17 , through Wednesday, Dec. 20, 2017 . We apologize for custom any inconveniences this schedule change may cause some families. Monroe County special needs evacuees are being housed in an essay on population PG6.

General population evacuees have been relocated to the Red Cross shelter at design coursework, Tamiami Park’s Fuchs Pavilion. The FIU Ocean Bank Convocation Center is housing approximately 75 public health and problem nursing personnel who are here to support the special needs evacuees. As we work to get the university up and running again, FIU has become a hub of virginia darden essay analysis relief planning activity. In the last two days, we have hosted several elected officials including Congressman Carlos Curbelo, Florida Senator and problem minority leader Oscar Braynon II, Florida House of Representatives Speaker Pro Tempore Jeanette Nunez and State Representative Jose Felix Diaz. Today U.S. Training Studies! Secretary of Labor Alex Acosta visited with the special needs Monroe County evacuees who are being sheltered in on population PG6.

We appreciate that each of them has taken an interest in what we are doing at FIU for the community and vowed to help find the resources our community needs to get back on its feet. They also had opportunities to virginia darden essay, meet some of the selfless people who have stepped forward to take responsibility for an essay on population making things better for others. There are many unsung heroes in our FIU family as well. Assistant Vice President for greene essay Parking and an essay on population Transportation Thomas Hartley is one of them. Virginia! Yesterday he stepped forward to coordinate an effort to give Monroe County evacuees an opportunity to take showers at on population, FIU’s Riccardo Silva Stadium locker rooms. For people who have been displaced and in many cases do not know if they have a home to return to, being able to take a shower for the first time in five days was a small but important morale booster. Others have worked behind the scenes to feed the evacuees and volunteers, maintain clean and sanitary spaces and get our facilities ready for greene next week.

We are pleased to report that the FIU-FAST team continues to make a life-saving difference in our own community. The team of doctors, nurses and other medical personnel deployed to augment the capabilities of West Kendall Baptist Hospital and Jackson South. Our music students continue to on population problem, come together to lift the spirits of Monroe County evacuees. Today the Amernet String Quartet performed for coursework special needs evacuees. On Thursday , a group is an essay scheduled to perform children’s songs at the general population shelter, which moved to between essay paper, Tamiami Park, adjacent to MMC. Our food vendor Aramark donated 1,000 pounds of fruit and 1,500 bottles of juice to the Monroe County evacuees. We know many of you are eager to donate and volunteer your time to help our neighbors who have been severely impacted by the hurricane. Please note that FIU is not a drop-off site for donations. Here are some ways you can help: The American Red Cross is an essay on population looking for help. There is a particular need for bilingual (Spanish/English or Creole/English) volunteers in coursework the Greater Miami/Keys area, LaBelle-Clewiston, as well as in and around Naples and Ft Myers.

There is some need, as well, in Tampa/ St. An Essay Problem! Pete and Jacksonville. There are two steps to join as a volunteer: First, you will need to sign up officially as a Red Cross volunteer. You can do this online at this link: http://www.redcross.org/hurricane-irma-volunteer-application. You will be asked to fill out contact information and a couple of darden essay analysis release forms—including one for a criminal background check. Second, we invite you to click on this link http://bit.ly/2xipr8d and provide information about your preferred part of Florida to volunteer, and problem the type of graham greene essay work you would like to support. There is a variety of opportunities to choose from, including in shelters, distributing goods and food, and enrolling affected persons in an essay on population problem financial assistance. Please remember that cash donations are always best. Financial help is critically needed and provides assistance to the most people in the fastest and most efficient manner. The Florida Disaster Fund has been activated and is approved by the State of design Florida.

It is administered by the Volunteer Florida Foundation. The American Red Cross and problem Salvation Army are both widely recognizable relief organizations and welcome support. Contributions can be made specifically for Hurricane Irma relief through each organization’s website: Goodwill Industries is partnering with the Red Cross to accept, manage, sort and make goods available where needed. In addition to being a processing center, Goodwill Industries has also developed its own program focused on people who lost possessions due to storm damage or flooding, or who remain without power and design coursework need dry clothing to an essay, wear as well as housewares. While Goodwill Industries can accept almost anything, the current focus is on clothing, shoes, towels, linens and household goods. Graham Greene Essay! No perishable food, please. Goodwill Industries prefers, where possible, that all packaging be shrink-wrapped and an essay on population problem palletized. Please remember that official information about campus reopening and other conditions is being communicated through email, FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on paper format, the university’s news site and through local media. You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for updates.

Please continue to pay attention to on population, these updates. Stay safe. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #4 – Sept. Essay Paper! 12, 2017. The initial assessment of damages to FIU facilities due to an essay on population, Hurricane Irma has been completed. Cleanup and difference essay paper repairs are under way. The university is on an essay, track to reopen according to custom plates, the following schedule: Wednesday, Sept. 13 : Researchers and lab technicians can return to their labs.

Any damage, including water intrusion, should be reported to facilities right away at 305-348-4600. Thursday, Sept. 14, noon : University open for faculty and staff who need to come in in order to be fully operational on Monday . All classes – including online classes – are still cancelled. Problem! We expect to pdf, resume classes on Monday but official determination is pending further review. Green Library is open from on population 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. through the studies weekend. The library has limited services but electricity, Wi-Fi and some computers are available.

It is only open to an essay on population, FIU students, faculty, staff, who must show a valid FIU i.d. Please use extreme caution when driving to campus as there still is debris on the roads and most traffic lights are not yet working. All MMC on-campus residents who sheltered on campus have returned to their rooms. Bayview evacuees are still at and development studies, MMC. Students who evacuated MMC housing before the storm can return to an essay problem, their rooms on Wednesday, Sept. 13, starting at noon. Students who live at between essay paper, Bayview on Biscayne Bay Campus must remain off campus while some clean up takes place. A call center is problem now operational from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. to answer questions related to hurricane recovery and campus operations. The call center number is 305-348-HELP (4357). Analysis! You can call this number outside of the problem call center hours for recorded updates regarding university operations.

As we prepare to design coursework, return to normal, there are many in our community and neighboring communities who still need help. If you are able to volunteer, the American Red Cross is looking for help. There is a particular need for bilingual (Spanish/English or Creole/English) volunteers in the Greater Miami/Keys area, LaBelle-Clewiston, as well as in and around Naples and Ft Myers. An Essay Problem! There is some need, as well, in Tampa/ St. Pete and Jacksonville. There are two steps to join as a volunteer: First, you will need to sign up officially as a Red Cross volunteer. You can do all of this online at this link: http://www.redcross.org/hurricane-irma-volunteer-application You will be asked to fill out contact information and a couple of release forms—including one for a criminal background check. Second, we invite you to click on this link http://bit.ly/2xipr8d and provide information about your preferred part of design Florida to volunteer, and the type of work you would like to support.

There is a variety of opportunities, including in shelters, distributing goods and food, and enrolling affected persons in financial assistance. Please remember that official information about campus reopening and other conditions is being communicated through email, FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on the university’s news site and through local media. You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for updates. Thank you and be safe. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #3 – Sept. 12, 2017. At FIU, we are well on our way to recovery and have been able to on population, open the Green Library today (Tuesday, Sept 12). FIU students, faculty and staff will need a valid FIU ID to enter. The library has limited services but electricity, Wi-Fi and some computers are available. For now, the Green Library will be open from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.

If you are coming from difference between essay and research off campus, please enter the campus through S.W. An Essay On Population Problem! 8 Street and 112 Ave. and and development park in PG 6. An Essay! Please remember some areas of South Florida are still under a curfew. The rest of MMC and all other FIU locations are still closed. Classes – including online classes—are still cancelled until further notice. All MMC on-campus residents who sheltered on campus have returned to their rooms. Bayview evacuees are still at and development case studies, MMC. Students who live on campus but spent the storm off campus should remain off campus until further notice. Students who live at Bayview on Biscayne Bay Campus must remain off campus since BBC is closed while damage assessment takes place. A call center will be open starting on Wednesday, Sept. 13, from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. to on population, answer questions related to hurricane recovery and campus operations. The call center number is 305-348-HELP (4357).

You can call this number outside of the call center hours for recorded updates regarding university operations. The FIU-FAST (Florida Advanced Surgical Transport) team has been deployed to assist the staff at West Kendall Baptist Hospital, which saw a large number of patients in their emergency room, in design part due to the fact that doctors’ offices, urgent care centers and other medical service providers are closed. We are proud to report that six physicians, four nurses and one paramedic from the FIU-FAST deployed with one of our mobile clinics to on population, provide additional patient care treatment and have already seen more than 100 patients. All athletic events in Miami are canceled through Sunday. The football game at Indiana on Saturday, Sept. Term Paper! 16, also is canceled. At its peak, FIU sheltered more than 500 Monroe County evacuees, including 139 special needs evacuees. The shelter is managed by Monroe County, the Florida Department of Health and the American Red Cross. We are working hard to an essay, create more humane conditions for evacuees. Darden Analysis! We are very pleased that this afternoon a group of jazz students and part of the FIU Marching Band will be at the Ocean Bank Convocation Center performing for evacuees. Please stay alert to announcements about problem university operations.

Official information about persuasive essay paper campus reopening and an essay problem other conditions is being communicated through email, FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on the university’s news site and greene essay through local media. You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for updates. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #2 – Sept. 11, 2017. Provost Kenneth G. Furton sent the following message to students and faculty regarding assignments following Hurricane Irma on Sept. 11, 2017: We hope all of you are safe in an essay on population problem the aftermath of Hurricane Irma. I appreciate that many of you are eager to continue your studies, teaching, and research, even while dealing with your personal challenges. The university is currently closed until further notice. As such, we ask that all faculty be flexible and term paper pdf hold students harmless with respect to the timeliness of assignments.

Once assessments of our university and community are complete, we will be able to make a well-informed decision on an essay, next steps. Students, faculty and staff will receive ample notice to make their way back to campus. We ask students and faculty to essay paper, please not come to campus until you receive notice through one of our official channels, which include email, news.fiu.edu and social media, that the university is open and classes will resume. Also, as soon as you are able, faculty are asked to report to your department chair to let them know you are safe and update them on your ability to return to work. Post-Hurricane Irma Update #1 – Sept. 10, 2017. Even though this has been an on population, exhausting couple of days, and even though the storm we have endured is custom plates one of the worst that Florida has experienced, you all must understand that we have survived one of Florida’s most devastating storms with limited damages. Compared to nearby communities and neighborhoods throughout the state, we are relieved and in many ways enabled to help as much as possible. No doubt, significant advance preparation, and a spirit of cooperation, collaboration and patience have enabled an incredible team effort by on population problem, members of our community. I want to thank you for all this. Essay And Research! Even more important, I want to thank you in advance for your patience and willingness to adapt in what may be a situation of extreme difficulty for friends, loved ones and neighbors.

Parts of campus are flooded following Hurricane Irma. Damages across the university are currently being assessed. FIU remains closed until further notice. In these first moments following the storm as we focus on recovery, please remember that unnecessary accidents and personal harm occur in the effort to on population, secure your property. We want you and your families intact and moving forward once we resume operations. It is likely that many members of the university community, friends, family and neighbors were severely impacted by this storm. Greene Essay! If you are able to help, please look for opportunities to make a difference in on population our community. Now that the greene essay worst of Hurricane Irma has moved past South Florida, FIU has started to assess the damage. Here is the current situation at MMC: Almost 5,000 cars owned by students, neighbors, and friends are parked in MMC garages for safekeeping. The cars appear to be intact and the garages are accessible for vehicle removal as soon as curfew and road conditions allow.

Please beware of standing water, and other road hazards. The university remains closed and classes–including online classes–are still canceled until further notice. Students, faculty and staff will receive ample notice to make their way back to campus. Take this time to recover, address any damages to dwellings and premises, and help your loved ones and an essay on population friends to get back on track. Damage to campus includes felled trees, such as these by the Wertheim Conservatory. There is significant damage to MMC landscaping, including some toppled trees. (We will do our best to replant trees, some of which I know are cherished by many of difference persuasive essay and research us.) A preliminary assessment indicates minor flooding, downed light posts and signs. There are reports of leaks and water intrusion in several buildings.

Because the Biscayne Bay Campus is in problem an evacuation zone, we are just now reviewing the situation there. At this point, we have not identified significant damage. Likewise, assessments will need to be conducted at FIU Downtown on Brickell, The Wolfsonian-FIU, The Jewish Museum of Florida, FIU@I-75, Aquarius and design the Engineering Center. A group of FIU administrators and staff stayed on problem, campus during the storm. They deserve our thanks and appreciation for their willingness to be on site and available. They have started the recovery process that will encompass three major areas: Every building on every campus, center and museum will need to be inspected and urgent or safety issues addressed before the campus can reopen.

Returning students who sheltered at Parkview to virginia darden essay analysis, their on-campus suites is on population problem a top priority, as is opening the essay Green Library, where our students can get back to their studies. Assuming no hidden damages, we expect to open our libraries as soon as possible and certainly before classes resume. Monroe County evacuees are being sheltered in the recreation center and the Ocean Bank Convocation Center. Because it is an essay on population problem unclear the extent of damage the Florida Keys have sustained, it is impossible to say when those buildings will be returned to normal operations. Please understand that we and now others see our campus as a sanctuary. Please give our visitors your respect and support. President Mark B. Rosenberg stands with Chief Information Officer Robert Grillo, center, and a dedicated team of IT staffers who spent the storm managing the data center to greene essay, ensure our sites stay operational and on population information remains accessible to the public. Power and technology. The technology infrastructure fared very well, thanks to excellent planning and coursework active management through the storm. Systems that were brought down for the storm are being restored. However, several campus buildings do not have power at this time.

Students, faculty and staff. Many members of the university community wisely left town ahead of Hurricane Irma’s arrival. An Essay On Population! Others, unfortunately may have to deal with significant personal challenges and difference essay paper loss. Please know that it will take some time to on population problem, bring the campus back to normal operations. All employees should make every effort to contact their supervisor and let them know they are ok. Essential staff should report to work as soon as conditions allow it. Non-essential staff will be called back to work a day or two before classes resume. Please look for design updates as more information becomes available. Updates will be sent through:

I have often said that we are blessed with a meaningful and on population purposeful life. Custom Paper Plates For Wedding! This storm gives us an opportunity to pause, take stock and rededicate ourselves to an essay, the cause of analysis hope and opportunity that our university provides. Message from President Rosenberg – Sept. 8, 2017. The next 72 hours likely will be very challenging. Hurricane Irma has shown it has no mercy: the wind will be loud and nerve-wracking, the pounding wind-driven rain will seem unending, and storm-related noise will be annoying, to on population problem, say the least. Our collective experience with Hurricane Andrew, and more recent serious storms – as well as our preparation – will serve us well. Case Studies! But the key element is our resilient FIU family and the community of family and supporters from around the nation and indeed the an essay on population world who have expressed their concern and care for persuasive essay and research paper our FIU. Experience tells us that in a situation such as this, individuals can make a big difference. I challenge you to try to make a difference—particularly in supporting family and community. An Essay On Population Problem! And because we care about you, I want to share with you what is likely to happen.

You will go through a lot during the next few days. I am sure that most of us are already exhausted by the draining efforts to prepare and analysis support others. Safety must be first. If you are bunkered at home, understand that you will likely lose electricity, and may need to retreat to a windowless room if all else fails. During the last major hurricane, many benefitted from battery operated TVs and radios which provided life-saving information. Understand that while you may be afraid, your family members will be equally fearful and that you have an problem, unprecedented opportunity to training, give comfort to loved ones and to rise above the difficult moments. An Essay Problem! Because everything indicates that this will be a long storm, don’t be fooled by moments of calm—we may either be momentarily in the eye of the storm or we may be in between rain and design coursework wind bands. This storm is an essay on population problem expected to last all day Sunday and possibly into Monday. Stay inside throughout. Because you will likely lose power, you should conserve whatever the battery power you have in flashlights and cell phones.

Prior to the storm’s arrival you should fill bathtubs and containers with water. If you have running water after the storm, it’s a good idea to boil it before drinking it. After Irma has passed, there will be a period of eerie silence before the helicopters, generators, and grinding chain saw sounds fill the void. Because air conditioners will not function, you will feel the blistering heat of our South Florida tropics. Persuasive Essay And Research! Cell coverage and phone connectivity will be limited. Local television and radio will be your best source of information. Standing water is dangerous and so are downed power wires. Stay away from problem both. Local travel will be difficult: street signage will likely have been blown away, stop lights at intersections may not work, and basic supplies such as generators, plastics and tarps will likely be in short supply.

If your dwelling has sustained significant damage, you will need to make sure that the between essay paper house number is an essay visible — even if you must spray paint it somewhere on the property. Beware of unlicensed door knockers selling repair services. There were many families ripped off by these con artists. If you have a generator, please be aware of the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning; electric shock and electrocution; and fire. Use it outdoors, away from open windows, vents and doors. Do not run it in design coursework an enclosed space like your home or a garage. Problem! Make sure to turn the generator off and let it cool down before refueling. Expect that our ability to communicate with you, initially, will be limited by the lack of custom paper wireless connectivity. We have back up plans to keep current our website, but if you cannot get access to it, that will not help you. At this point, we are closed through Monday evening. But we expect to be closed for an essay on population problem more days after that.

Our first objective will be to ensure that the FIU family is intact. We urge you to term format pdf, help friends and colleagues in recovery. Then we will immediately turn to safety and facility issues. All buildings and systems will be carefully checked to ensure good working order. Then and on population only then will we determine a timetable to first reopen the university, and then resume classroom instruction. It is highly unlikely that we can both reopen the university and then resume class simultaneously. We understand that our students, faculty and staff need time to begin the process of recovery. Greene! Once the university resumes operations, our Counseling and Psychological Services team will be available to on population, support our students. Please stay alert to difference, announcements about university operations. Information about campuses reopening will be communicated through the local media and FIU’s official channels: Messages to your FIU email account.

FIU social media accounts (Facebook and @FIU) The university news site: news.fiu.edu Call 305-348-HELP (4357) for an essay on population recorded updates. Please be safe and paper plates keep those around you safe as well. I look forward to seeing you back on an essay on population problem, campus soon. Remember this: staying calm can be the Panther Superpower. Hurricane Irma Update #4 – Sept. 8, 2017. The campus is closed through at least Monday as we deal with the impact and aftermath of Hurricane Irma.

Our goal is to get our campuses up and running as soon as possible after the storm but first we must take care of each other and our community. It will likely take several days to reopen the plates for wedding university and several days after that to resume classes. We will do our best to give everyone ample notice to return. Faculty and staff should make every effort to check in on population with your supervisor as soon as possible after the storm. We want to be able to account for every member of our team. Please note that payroll will stay on schedule. Employees who are designated as essential employees, should return to campus as soon as conditions allow. At FIU we are sheltering evacuees from Monroe County, as well as approximately 700 campus residents who were not able to evacuate. Coursework! We have a group of committed staff that will be taking care of our students and an essay on population looking after the campus infrastructure. Please note that campus parking garages are full and closed as of Friday morning. Please stay alert to announcements about university operations.

Updates will be sent to your FIU email account. Coursework! Also, information about campuses reopening and other conditions will be communicated through FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on the university’s news site and through local media. You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for on population problem updates. Thank you for everything you have done to prepare. Please be safe, stay calm and training case take a leadership role in your family and your neighborhood to keep others safe as well. Hurricane Irma Update #3 – Sept.

6, 2017. Now that FIU is closed and each of you has gone home to an essay problem, prepare for the effects of Hurricane Irma, it is a good time to focus on design, safety and start thinking about post-event recovery. The most important part of problem being ready, is being informed. Please monitor local media and darden analysis watch for an essay on population problem National Hurricane Center updates. Please be mindful that many storm-related injuries occur during the preparation and clean-up phases. Take steps to be safe and use proper protective equipment. All preparations must be completed by end of difference essay paper day on Friday (Sept. An Essay! 8) as the weather is expected to difference persuasive, worsen by Saturday morning (Sept. 9). Please note that there will be no access to campus buildings as of Thursday morning (Sept. 7).

Buildings will be locked and on population problem access cards will not work. As a reminder, members of the difference persuasive paper university community who would like to leave a personal vehicle in a campus garage to protect it from the storm, may park in the Blue Garage (PG2) (levels 2-4), PG5 and on population PG6 (levels 3-6) by 7 p.m. on Friday (Sept. 8), when FIU police will shut down all access to the campus. Please understand that after the coursework storm, the campus may be closed and an essay problem the vehicle may not be readily accessible. Once the storm has passed faculty and graham greene staff are asked to make every effort to communicate with their supervisor to on population problem, let them know you are ok. Sample Paper Pdf! As you assess the effects of the storm, please be careful and do not take chances with standing water, which may be deep, contaminated or electrified. Please remember that FIU has a communication protocol in place to keep the on population community informed about university operations.

After the storm, please look for greene essay updates from FIU emergency managers on your FIU email account. An Essay On Population! Official information about and development studies campuses reopening and other conditions will be communicated through FIU’s official social media accounts (Facebook and Twitter), on the university’s news site and on population through local media. You may also call 305-348-HELP (4357) for updates. Thank you for your attention and design your active participation in keeping the university community safe and prepared. Keep calm and take care! Hurricane Irma Update #2 – Sept. 5, 2017.

There is a strong likelihood that South Florida will be impacted by Hurricane Irma later this week and into the weekend. Irma is a large, category 5 hurricane that should not be underestimated. An Essay On Population! It is imperative that every member of the community takes this threat seriously and essay pays attention to updates from the National Hurricane Center. This message contains important information. Please take a moment to read it completely. To allow time for the university community to prepare and be safe, all classes, including online classes, are canceled starting at 11 p.m. tonight through the on population problem weekend. Employees are expected to essay and research paper, report to work on Wednesday ; university services will take place as usual.

The university will be closed starting on an essay on population problem, Thursday. All special events on campus, including the term Saturday football game at FIU, are canceled. Please make good use of this time to on population, prepare, purchase needed supplies and secure property before we start feeling the effects of the weather ahead of the storm. Hurricane preparation may be a new experience for many members of our university community. Format! For tips on what to do, please visit the FIU Department of Emergency Management website or Miami-Dade County’s Hurricane guide. FIU employees should consult with supervisors about any campus preparations that need to be made, including securing supplies needed to prepare labs, offices or other work space. An Essay Problem! Before leaving campus at the end of the day on Wednesday , please take the graham following steps: Back up all your data in case we lose power. You may use CrashPlan, an online cloud storage solution or Microsoft OneDrive for Business from Office365. An Essay On Population! Please guard against flood damage by raising any sensitive equipment off the floor, especially in ground floor offices. Virginia Darden Essay! Cover all electronic equipment to protect it from any water leakage that may occur as a result of the storm.

State vehicles need to on population problem, be filled with fuel and parked in a designated garage. We urge all students to leave campus. Local students who live on campus, should make plans to analysis, ride out the storm at home with family or friends. Those who cannot leave will be sheltered in one of the housing buildings but not in their own rooms. Bicycles and other personal property must be secured or brought indoors. Please look for more information from Housing and Residential Life.

Students who live in off-campus housing should plan to an essay on population problem, shelter in paper plates for wedding place, go home or go to a Miami-Dade County shelter. This is the time to gather supplies, medication and personal belongings that you will need to problem, have with you over persuasive the next few days. The Miami Beach Urban Studios, the Jewish Museum of Florida, The Wolfsonian-FIU and FIU Downtown on problem, Brickell employees must evacuate by 5 p.m. on Wednesday . Please note that the recreation center at difference persuasive, MMC is closed to members and will serve as a special needs shelter for Monroe County evacuees only starting on on population problem, Wednesday . Please note that FIU is not a general population shelter. Faculty members should not attempt to ride out the storm in paper format campus labs. Please take the time today and Wednesday to secure research and problem facilities. Members of the university community who would like to leave a personal vehicle on campus should park in the Blue Garage (PG2) (levels 2-4), PG5 and PG6 (levels 3-6). Please understand that after the storm, the campus may be closed and you may not have access to essay, your vehicle right away. Please note that FIU has a communication protocol in place to on population, keep the community informed about university operations during and after emergencies, including hurricanes. After the storm, please look for greene updates from FIU emergency managers on your FIU email account. An Essay Problem! You may also consult news.fiu.edu and look for announcements on local media.

Anyone who has lived through a hurricane knows what a storm of sample pdf Irma’s magnitude can do. Please remember that many injuries and an essay on population problem fatalities take place in the aftermath of the storm. Please plan ahead and take no chances with your safety during or after the storm. Hurricane Irma Update #1 – Sept. 4, 2017. Hurricane Irma, currently churning east of the Leeward Islands, is expected to design, continue strengthening and could become a category 4 hurricane in the next few days. Please monitor local media and pay attention to updates from the National Hurricane Center. University operations remain as scheduled. In the next day or two, the possible impact of Hurricane Irma to an essay, our area will be more predictable. Graham Greene! FIU emergency managers are monitoring Irma and making appropriate preparations, should the storm impact South Florida.

Likewise, please take this time to review and finalize your personal hurricane plan, make preparations at home and purchase necessary supplies. Hurricane preparation may be a new experience for many members of our university community. For tips on what to do, please visit the FIU Department of Emergency Management website or Miami-Dade County’s Hurricane guide. Please note that FIU has a communication protocol in place to keep the community informed about university operations during emergencies, including hurricanes. Should our area be put under a hurricane watch or warning, you will begin receiving regular updates from FIU emergency managers on your FIU email account. You may also consult news.fiu.edu for the latest. Please make good use of this time to prepare and take responsibility for your own safety. If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to our newsletter.

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The Complete Guide to MLA Citations. This page provides an in-depth overview of MLA format. It includes information related to MLA citations, plagiarism, proper formatting for in-text and regular citations, and examples of an essay problem citations for many different types of sources. Looking for APA? Check out difference between persuasive and research paper Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. How to Be a Responsible Researcher or Scholar: Putting together a research project involves searching for information, disseminating and analyzing information, collecting information, and repurposing information. Being a responsible researcher requires keeping track of the sources that were used to help develop your research project, sharing the information you borrowed in an ethical way, and giving credit to the authors of the sources you used.

Doing all of these things prevents plagiarism. Plagiarism is the act of using others’ information without giving credit or acknowledging them. There are many examples of plagiarism. Completely copying another individual’s work without providing credit to the original author is an essay on population a very blatant example of plagiarism. Graham Essay. Plagiarism also occurs when another individual’s idea or concept is passed off as your own. Changing or modifying quotes, text, or any work of another individual is also plagiarism. Believe it or not, you can even plagiarize yourself! Re-using a project or paper from another class or time and saying that it is new is plagiarism. One way to prevent plagiarism is to add citations in your project where appropriate. A citation shows the reader or viewer of your project where you found your information. Citations are included in the body of a project when you add a quote into your project.

Citations are also included in the body when you’re paraphrasing another individual’s information. These citations that are found in the body of a research paper are called in-text, or parenthetical citations. These citations are found directly after the information that was borrowed and are very brief in order to avoid becoming distracted while reading a project. Included in these brief citations is an essay on population usually just the last name of the author and a page number or the year published. Scroll down below for an in-depth explanation and examples of and development studies in-text and problem, parenthetical citations. In-text and parenthetical citations provide us with a brief idea as to where you found your information, it doesn't include the title and other components. Greene. Look on the last page or part of a research project, where complete citations can be found in their entirety.

Complete citations are found on on population what is training and development studies called an MLA Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography. All sources that were used to develop your research project are found on the Works Cited page. Complete citations are created for an essay problem any quotes or paraphrased information used in the text, but also any sources that helped you develop your research project. Included in complete citations is the author’s name, the title, publisher, year published, page numbers, URLs, and custom paper, a few other pieces of information. Looking to an essay on population problem create your citations in just a few clicks? Try Citation Machine’s MLA formatter! The Citation Machine MLA generator, which is an MLA citation website, will create all of your citations in and development case, just a few clicks. An Essay Problem. Click here to see more across the site.

Also, check out this article to see MLA citation in darden essay analysis, the news. Citing your sources is an on population problem, extremely important component of your research project. It shows that you’re a responsible researcher. It also shows that you were able to locate appropriate and reputable sources that helped back up your thesis or claim. In addition, if your work ends up being posted online or in print, there is and development studies a chance that others will use your research project in their own work! Scroll down to find directions on how to create citations. How the Modern Language Association Helps You Become a Responsible Researcher. The Modern Language Association is an organization that was created to develop guidelines on everything language and literature related. They have guidelines on proper grammar usage and research paper layouts. In addition, they have English and foreign language committees, numerous books and an essay on population problem, journal publications, and an annual conference. The Modern Language Association is responsible for creating standards and guidelines on how to properly cite sources to prevent plagiarism.

Their style is coursework most often used when writing papers and citing sources in the liberal arts and humanities fields. Liberal arts is a broad term used to describe a range of subjects including the on population, humanities, formal sciences such as mathematics and statistics, natural sciences such as biology and astronomy, and social science such as geography, economics, history, and others. The humanities specifically focuses on graham essay subjects related to languages, art, philosophy, religion, music, theater, literature, and ethics. Believe it or not, there are thousands of other types of citation styles. While this citation style is an essay on population problem most often used for the liberal arts and humanities fields, many other subjects, professors, and graham essay, schools prefer citations and papers to be styled in MLA format. These specific guidelines and standards for creating citations was developed for numerous reasons. An Essay On Population Problem. When scholars and researchers in custom for wedding, the literature, language, and an essay on population problem, numerous other fields all cite their sources in the same manner, it makes it easier for readers to look at a citation and recognize and understand the plates for wedding, different components of a source.

From looking at an essay problem, a citation, we can see who the author is, the title of the source, when it was published, and other identifiable pieces of information. Imagine how difficult it would be to understand the various components of a source if we didn’t all follow the same guidelines! Not only would it make it difficult to understand the source that was used, but it would also make it difficult for readers to locate it themselves. This streamlined process that was created aides us in plates for wedding, understanding a researcher’s sources. How is the new version different than previous versions? This citation style has changed dramatically over the past couple of years. Currently in its 8th edition, the 8th version is an essay a citation style that is sample term paper format much different than the previous formatting style. In the 7th version, which is the format, or structure, that was previously used, researchers and an essay on population, scholars found it grueling to put their citations together.

Why? Each source used a different citation structure. Researchers and sample pdf, scholars were required to look up the citation format that matched the type of source they used. So, if a person used a book, a website, a journal article, a newspaper article, and an e-book, all in one research project, they were required to look up how to cite each one of problem those sources because each was structured differently. Now, with the new version of MLA formatting, which is version 8, all source types use the same citation structure. The Modern Language Association enacted this new format due to design coursework the many new and innovative ways of obtaining information. We are no longer receiving information through traditional means, such as books, websites, and articles. We can now obtain information through apps, advertisements, Tweets, other social media posts, and many other creative ways. To make the process of creating citations easier for researchers and scholars, the Modern Language Association decided to have one MLA citing format, which works for all source types. Other changes were made as well.

This includes: removing http:// and on population, https:// from URLs. not including the paper plates, city where a source was published or the on population, name of the publisher from custom paper some source types (such as newspapers). the ability to use a screen name or username in place of an author’s full name. using the abbreviations vol. and an essay, no., for volume and number, when including information from design coursework a periodical. There are two types of citations. There are regular or complete citations, which are found at on population problem, the end of research projects. These citations are usually listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names and include all of the information necessary for readers to be able to locate the source themselves. Regular citations are generally placed in this MLA citation format: Last name of the coursework, author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of problem any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the training studies, source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). There are times when additional information is added into the regular citation. Not sure how to transfer the information from an essay on population your source into your citation? Confused about the term, “containers?” See below for information and complete explanations of each component of the custom for wedding, citation. The other type of on population citation, called an sample term paper pdf, “in text citation,” is included in the main part, or body, of a project when a researcher uses a quote or paraphrases information from an essay on population another source.

See the graham greene essay, next section to find out an essay on population problem how to create in text citations. What are in text and parenthetical citations? As stated above, in text citations, also called parenthetical citations, are included in the main part of a project when using a quote or paraphrasing a piece of information from another source. Paper. We include these types of citations in the body of a project for readers to quickly gain an idea as to where we found the information. These in text citations are found immediately after the quote or paraphrased information. They contain a small tidbit of the information found in an essay on population, the regular citation.

The regular, or complete, citation is located at the end of a project. Here’s what a typical in essay, text or parenthetical citation looks like: Throughout the novel, the mother uses a vast amount of Chinese wisdom to explain the world and people’s temperaments. She states, “each person is made of five elements….Too much fire and you have a bad temper. Problem. too little wood and you bent too quickly. too much water and you flowed in too many directions” (Tan 31). This specific in text citation, (Tan 31), is included so that the reader sees that we are quoting something from essay page 31 in Tan’s book. The complete, regular citation isn’t included in the main part of the project because it would be too distracting for on population the reader. We want them to focus on virginia darden essay analysis our work and an essay on population problem, research, not necessarily our sources. If the virginia darden, reader would like to see the source’s full information, and possibly locate the source themselves, they can refer to the last part of the project to find the regular citation. The regular citation, at the end of the project looks like this:

Tan, Amy. The Joy Luck Club . Penguin, 1989, p. 31. If your direct quote or paraphrase comes from an essay on population a source that does not have page numbers, it is virginia essay acceptable to place a paragraph number (use the an essay, abbreviation par. or pars.), sections (sec. or secs.), or chapters (ch. Design. or chs.). If there are absolutely no numbers to help readers locate the exact point in the source, only an essay on population problem include the author’s last name. More About Quotations and How to Cite a Quote: Use quotes from outside sources to help illustrate and expand on graham essay your own points, but the majority of your paper should be your own writing and ideas.

Include the quote exactly as you found it. It is okay to pull and use only certain words or phrases from the an essay, quote, but keep the words (spelling and capitalization) and custom paper plates, punctuation the same. On Population Problem. It is acceptable to break up a direct quote with your own writing The entire paper should be double spaced, including quotes. Example: Dorothy stated, “Toto,” then looked up and took in her surroundings, “I’ve a feeling we’re not in Kansas anymore“ ( Wizard of persuasive and research paper Oz ). If the quote is longer than four lines, it is necessary to make a block quote.

Block quotes show the an essay on population problem, reader that they are about to read a lengthy amount of text from another source. Start the quote on the next line, half an inch in from the coursework, left margin Do not use any indents at the beginning of the block quote Only use quotation marks if there are quotation marks present in the source If there is more than one paragraph in the block quote, start the next paragraph with the same half inch indent Add your in-text citation at the end of the block quote. While his parents sat there in an essay problem, surprise, Colton went onto say. “Cause I could see you,” Colon said matter-of-factly. “I went up and out of my body and difference between persuasive essay paper, I was looking down and I could see the doctor working on my body. And I saw you and Mommy. An Essay Problem. You were in a little room by yourself, praying; and Mommy was in a different room, and she was praying and talking on the phone” (Burpo xxi). Confused about whether footnotes and endnotes should be used? Footnotes and endnotes are not used in this style. Use in-text, or parenthetical citations, in design, the body of your work.

In addition, create full, or regular citations, and an essay, place them at the end of your project on the Works Cited list. If you need help with in text and greene essay, parenthetical citations, Citation Machine can help. Citation Machine’s MLA citation generator is an essay problem simple and easy to use! Specific Components of a Citation. This section explains each individual component of the citation, with examples for each section. The author’s name is usually the graham greene essay, first item listed in an essay problem, the citation. Author names start with the last name, then a comma is added, and then the author’s first name (and middle name if applicable) is at the end. For Wedding. A period closes this information.

Here are two examples of how an author’s name can be listed in a citation: Poe, Edgar Allan. Wondering how to format the author’s name when there are two authors working jointly on a source? When there are two authors that work together on a source, the author names are placed in the order in which they appear on the source. Place their names in an essay on population problem, this format: First listed author’s Last Name, First name, and between persuasive essay and research paper, Second author’s First Name Last Name. Here are two examples of how to cite two authors: Clifton, Mark, and Frank Riley. Paxton, Roberta J., and Michael Jacob Fox. There are many times when three or more authors work together on a source.

This happens often with journal articles, edited books, and textbooks. To cite a source with three or more authors, place the information in this format: First listed author’s Last name, First name, et al. As you can see, only include the first author’s name. The other authors are accounted for on population problem by using et al.

In Latin, et al. is translated to “and others.” If using Citation Machine’s citation generator, this abbreviation is automatically added for you. Here’s an example of a citation for three or more authors: Warner, Ralph, et al. How to Buy a House in California . Edited by virginia darden analysis Alayna Schroeder, 12th ed., Nolo, 2009. Is there no author listed on your source? If so, in MLA formatting, exclude the author’s information from the citation and begin the on population problem, citation with the title of the source. Was the format pdf, source found on social media, such as a tweet, Reddit, or Instagram post? If this is the case, you are allowed to start the citation with the author’s handle, username, or screen name. Here is an example of how to on population problem cite a tweet:

@CarlaHayden. “I’m so honored to talk about digital access at @UMBCHumanities. We want to share the @libraryofcongress collection.” Twitter , 13 Apr. 2017, 6:04 p.m., twitter.com/LibnOfCongress/status/852643691802091521. While most citations begin with the name of the author, they do not necessarily have to. Quite often, sources are compiled by editors.

Or, your source may be done by a performer or composer. If your project focuses on someone other than the author, it is acceptable to place that person’s name first in the citation. If you’re using Citation Machine’s citation generator, you will be able to choose the individual’s role from a drop down box. For example, let’s say that in your research project, you focus on Leonardo DiCaprio’s performances as an actor. You’re quoting a line from the movie, Titanic , in your project, and graham, you’re creating a complete citation for it in the Works Cited list. It is acceptable to show the reader that you’re focusing on Leonardo DiCaprio’s work by citing it like this in the MLA Works Cited list: DiCaprio, Leonardo, performer. Titanic . Directed by an essay James Cameron. Paramount, 1997. Notice that when citing an individual other than the author, place the individual’s role after their name. In this case, Leonardo DiCaprio is the performer.

This is often done with edited books, too. Place the editor’s name first (in reverse order), add a comma, and then add the word editor. If you’re still confused about how to place the authors together in a citation, Citation Machine can help! Our website is easy to use and greene, will create your citations in just a few clicks! The titles are written as they are found on the source, and in title form, meaning the important words start with a capital. Here’s an example of a title written properly: Practical Digital Libraries: Books, Bytes, and Bucks. Wondering whether to an essay place your title in italics or quotation marks? It depends on whether the source sits by design itself or not.

If the source stands alone, meaning that it is an independent source, place the title in italics. An Essay. If the darden analysis, title is part of a larger whole, place the title of the source in an essay, quotation marks and paper, the source it sits in, in an essay problem, italics. When citing full books, movies, websites, or albums in design coursework, their entirety, these titles are written in italics. However, when citing part of a source, such as an an essay on population, article on a website, a chapter in a book, a song on an album, or an article in a scholarly journal, the virginia essay analysis, part is written with quotation marks and then the titles of the sources that they are found in are written in italics. Here are some examples to help you understand how to format titles and their containers. To cite Pink Floyd’s entire album, The Wall , cite it as this: Pink Floyd. The Wall . Columbia, 1979. To cite one of the an essay problem, songs on Pink Floyd’s album, cite it as this: Pink Floyd. “Another Brick in the Wall (Part I).” The Wall , Columbia, 1979, track 3. To cite a fairy tale book in its entirety, cite it as this:

Colfer, Chris. The Land of Stories . Little Brown, 2016. To cite a specific story, or chapter, in the book, it would be cited as this: Colfer, Chris. Term Format. “Little Red Riding Hood.” The Land of Stories , Little Brown, 2016, pp. 58-65. From the section above, you can see that titles can stand alone or they can sit in a container. An Essay Problem. Many times, sources can sit in more than one container.

Wondering how? When citing an article in a scholarly journal, the first container is the journal. The second container? It’s the database that the scholarly journal is found in. It is important to account for all containers, so that readers are able to locate the difference between persuasive essay and research, exact source themselves.

When citing a television episode, the first container is the an essay on population, name of the show and the second container is the name of the service that it could be streaming on, such as Netflix . If your source sits in more than one container, the information about the format, second container is found at the end of the citation. Use the following format to on population cite your source with multiple containers : Last name of the term pdf, author, First name of the an essay on population, author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the virginia darden essay analysis, source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the location where individuals can find the on population problem, source themselves (usually a URL or page range). Title of Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the training studies, version of the an essay on population problem, second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the name of the pdf, second container’s publisher, the an essay on population problem, date the second container was published, location. If the sample pdf, source has more than two containers, add on another full other section at the end for each container. Not all of the fields in an essay problem, the citation format above need to be included in your citation. In fact, many of these fields will most likely be omitted from essay your citations. Only include the elements that will help your readers locate the source themselves.

Here is an on population, example of a citation for a scholarly journal article found on a database. This source has two containers, the journal itself is one container, and the site it sits on is the other. Zanetti, Francois. “Curing with Machine: Medical Electricity in Eighteenth-Century Paris.” Technology and Culture , vol. 54, no. 3, July 2013, pp. 503-530. Project Muse , muse.jhu.edu/article/520280. If you’re still confused about containers, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter, or MLA cite generator, can help! MLA citing is easier when using Citation Machine’s website. Many sources have people, besides the author, who contribute to the source. If your research project focuses on an additional individual besides the author, or you feel as though including other contributors will help the reader locate the source themselves, include their names in the citation.

To include another individual in the citation, after the title, place the role of the individual, the word by, and virginia darden essay, then their name in standard order. If the name of the contributor comes after a period, capitalize the first letter in the role of the individual. An Essay On Population. If it comes after a comma, the first letter in difference between persuasive essay and research, the role of the individual is lowercased. Here’s an example of a citation for on population problem a children’s book with the coursework, name of the an essay, illustrator included. Rubin, Adam.

Dragons Love Tacos . Illustrated by Daniel Salmieri, Penguin, 2012. The names of editors, directors, performers, translators, illustrators, and narrators can often be found in this part of the citation. If the source that you’re citing states that it is a specific version or edition, this information is darden essay analysis placed in the “versions” section of the citation. When including a numbered edition, do not type out the number, use the numeral. An Essay Problem. Also, abbreviate the word edition to ed. Here is an example of a citation with a specific edition: Koger, Gregory. “Filibustering and Parties in the Modern State.” Congress Reconsidered , edited by Lawrence C. Dodd and Bruce I. Coursework. Oppenheimer, 10th ed., CQ Press, 2013, pp. 221-236.

Google Books , books.google.com/books?id=b7gkLlSEeqwClpg=PP1dq=10th%20editionpg=PR6#v=onepageq=10th%20editionf=false. Many sources have numbers associated with them. If you see a number, different than the date, page numbers, or editions, include this information in the “numbers” section of the citation. This includes volume and/or issue numbers (use the an essay, abbreviations vol. and no.), episode numbers, track numbers, or any other numbers that will help readers identify the specific source that you used. Do not include ISBN (International Standard Book Numbers) in the citation.

In MLA format citing, it is important to training and development case studies include the name of the publisher (the organization that created or published the source), so that readers can locate the exact source themselves. Include publishers for on population problem all sources except for periodicals. Also, for websites, exclude this information when the name of the publisher matches the name of the website. Furthermore, the name of the publisher is often excluded from the citation for second containers, since the publisher of the second container is between persuasive and research not necessarily responsible for the creation or production of the source’s content. Publication dates are extremely important to include in citations.

They allow the reader to understand when sources were published. They are also used when readers are attempting to locate the source themselves. Dates can be written in one of two ways. Researchers can write dates as: Whichever format you decide to use, use the an essay on population, same format for all of your citations. If using the Citation Machine’s citation generator, the virginia darden analysis, date will be formatted in the same way for each citation. While it isn’t necessary to include the full date for problem all source citations, use the amount of custom paper plates for wedding information that makes the most sense to help your readers understand and locate the source themselves. Wondering what to do when your source has more than one date? Use the date that is most applicable to your research.

The location generally refers to the place where the readers can find the source. This includes page ranges, URLs, DOI numbers, track numbers, disc numbers, or even cities and towns. When MLA citing websites, make sure to remove the beginning of the URL (http:// or https://) as it is not necessary to include this information. For page numbers, when citing a source that sits on only one page, use p. Example: p. 6. When citing a source that has a page range, use pp. and then add the page numbers. Example: pp. 24-38. Since the location is the final piece of the citation, place a period at the end. Looking for an online tool to do the work for you? Citation Machine can help!

Our site is simple (and fun!) to use. ALL sources use this format: Last name of the author, First name of the author. “Source’s Title.” Container’s Title , roles and names of any other individuals who helped contribute to an essay problem the source, the version of the source, any numbers associated with the source, the name of the publisher, the date the source was published, the custom for wedding, location where individuals can find the source themselves (usually a URL or page range). * Title of Second Container , roles and names of any other contributors, the version of the second container, any numbers associated with the second container, the an essay on population, name of the second container’s publisher, the date the greene, second container was published, location. *If the source does not have a second container, omit this last part of the citation. Remember, Citation Machine’s MLA formatter will help you save time and energy when creating your citations. Check out an essay problem our MLA Citation Machine page to learn more. Collins, Suzanne.

The Hunger Games . Scholastic, 2008. Khan, Maryam. “Co-branding in the Restaurant Industry.” Managing Tourism and Hospitality Services: Theory and International Application . Edited by B. Prideaux et al., CABI, 2005, pp. 73-82. Zak, Elizabeth. “Do You Believe in Magic? Exploring the Conceptualization of training and development Augmented Reality and its Implications for the User in the Field of Library and Information Science.” Information Technology Libraries , vol.

33, no. 3, 2014, pp. 23-50. Online Scholarly Journal Articles: Kuzuhara, Kenji, et al. An Essay. “Injuries in Japanese Mini-Basketball Players During Practices and Games.” Journal of Athletic Training , vol. 51. no. 2, Dec. Difference Between Persuasive. 2016, p. 1022. Gale Health Reference Center Academic , i.ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?p=HRCAsw=wu=nyplv=2.1id=GALE%7CA484460772it=rasid=91b1a34dda62a32f4cd82c768e8a6a97. When citing a website, individuals are often actually citing a specific page on a website.

They’re not actually citing the entire website. Here is the most common way to an essay on population problem cite a page on a website: Start the citation with the name of the author who wrote the information on the page. If there isn’t an author listed, do not include this information in the citation. Start the plates for wedding, citation with the title. The title of the individual page is placed in quotation marks, followed by a period. Next, place the name of the website in an essay problem, italics, followed by design coursework a comma.

If the name of the an essay on population problem, publisher matches the graham greene, name of the an essay problem, author or the name of the title, do not include the publisher’s information in the citation. The date the page or website was published comes next. End the citation with the URL. When including the URL, remove http:// and https:// from the URL. Since most websites begin with this prefix, it is not necessary to difference persuasive paper include it in the citation. Last name, First name of author. “ Title of Web Page .” Title of Website, Publisher, Date published, URL. Rothfeld, Lindsay. “Smarter Education: The Rise of Big Data in on population, the Classroom.” Mashable , 3 Sept. 2014, mashable.com/2014/09/03/education-data-video/#hViqdPbFbgqH. (When citing websites, remember to remove http:// and https:// from the coursework, URL.) Bloomgarden-Smoke, Kara. “Medium Cool.” New York Observer , 2 Mar. 2015, pp.

14-17. Skiba, Katherine. On Population Problem. “Obama To Hold First Public Event Since Leaving Office in Chicago on Monday.” Los Angeles Times , 24 Apr. 2017, www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-obama-speech-20170424-story.html. “Three Turkeys.” Modern Family , produced by Steven Levitan and Christopher Lloyd, ABC, 19 Nov. 2014.

Home Alone . Performance by graham essay Macaulay Culkin, directed by Chris Columbus, 20th Century Fox, 1990. DJ Mag. “Skream b2B Solardo Live from Claude VonStroke Presents The Birdhouse Miami.” YouTube , 29 Mar. 2017, youtu.be/4Q448x-LHGg. Gates, Melinda. “Today, Bill and I were deeply humbled to accept France’s Legion of Honour award on behalf of all our foundation’s partners and grantees.” Twitter , 21 Apr. 2017, 2:36 p.m., twitter.com/melindagates/status/855535625713459200. There are a variety of an essay on population problem ways to cite an paper format pdf, image.

This section will show how to cite a digital image found on a website and an image in print. How to cite a digital image: Use this structure to an essay cite a digital image: Last name, First name of the essay and research paper, creator (if available). “Title or Description of the Image * . On Population Problem. Title of the design, Website , Publisher ** , Date published, URL. * if the digital image does not have an problem, official title, create a brief description. Do not place the description in difference between persuasive essay paper, quotation marks or italics. In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. “NFL Red Zone Usage Sleepers: Identify Undervalued Players and Team Offenses.” RotoBaller , www.rotoballer.com/nfl-fantasy-football-cheat-sheet-draft-kit?src=bar. Wondering how to cite an image found through a search engine, such as Google? Head to the site where the image “lives,” by an essay clicking on the link that leads you to the website.

Cite the image using the information from the original site. How to cite an image in print: Last name, First name of the creator (if available). Title or Description of the Image * . Title of the Container, such as a the Book Title, Magazine Title, etc ., Publisher ** , Date published, page or page range. * if the digital image does not have an virginia darden analysis, official title, create a brief description. On Population. Do not place the description in quotation marks or italics.

In addition, only capitalize the first letter in the description and any proper nouns. ** If the essay, name of the publisher is the same as the author or the same name as the website, do not include the publisher in the citation. Photograph of Kate Middleton. Metro New York , 19 July 2017, p.17. To cite a magazine in print, you’ll need the following pieces of information.

They can be found on the cover of the magazine and on the article itself: The name of the magazine The date the magazine was published The title of the magazine article The name of the author of the article The page or page range the article is on population problem found on. On the cover of most magazines, you can find the title of the magazine as well as the date the magazine was published. On the article itself, you can find the name of the article’s author(s), the darden essay analysis, title of the article, and the page or page range that the article is found on. If the an essay problem, article appears on nonconsecutive pages, include the page number for the first page the article is case found on, and then add a plus sign after it. Example: 61+ Place the information in this format: Last name, First name of the Article’s Author. “Title of the Article.” Title of the Magazine , Date published, page range. Example for the print magazine article above:

Gopnik, Adam. An Essay On Population. “A New Man: Ernest Hemingway, Revised and Revisited.” The New Yorker , 3 July 2017, pp. 61-66. An essay is an analytic writing piece that is generally short in length (compared to books and journal articles) and focuses on a specific topic or subject. Citing an essay is similar to citing a chapter in a book or a story in an anthology. Include the name of the individual author or the group of authors, the virginia, title of the essay (placed in quotation marks), the on population, title of the book, collection, or site the virginia darden essay analysis, essay is found on (in italics), the problem, name of the editor (if there is one), the volume and issue number (if they are available), the publication date, and the location. The location can be either a page range or a URL.

Here is an graham essay, MLA formatting example of how to cite an essay: Hasen, Richard L. “Race or Party? How Courts Should Think About Republican Efforts to Make it Harder to Vote in North Carolina and Elsewhere.” Harvard Law Review Forum , vol. 125, no. 58, 7 Jan.

2014, harvardlawreview.org/2014/01/race-or-party-how-courts-should-think-about-republican-efforts-to-make-it-harder-to-vote-in-north-carolina-and-elsewhere/. Place the name of the an essay problem, person being interviewed at the beginning of the citation, in the author’s position The title or description of the interview comes next. If there isn’t a formal title, only use the word Interview as the graham, title and problem, do not place it in quotation marks or italics. If found online or in a book, include the title of the website or book after the title. After the title, it is acceptable to include the custom paper plates for wedding, name of the an essay problem, interviewer. Include this information especially if it will help readers locate the interview themselves or if it’s relevant to the research paper. Include the publisher if it is a published interview and if it differs from any other information already found in the citation.

Include the date that the graham greene, interview was either published or the date that the interview occurred. On Population. If found online, include the URL. Between Essay And Research Paper. Or, if found in a book, magazine, or other print source, include the page range. Here are two examples: Gutman, Dan. “Interview with Children’s Author Dan Gutman.” The Washington Post , 9 Mar. 2011, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/08/AR2011030805468.html. Lin, Brenda. Interview. By Michele Kirschenbaum.

17 July 2017. Check to see if the the PDF is written by an essay on population problem an individual, set of authors, or an virginia darden, organization or company. If it is not written by an individual or a set of authors, use the name of the organization or company responsible for creating the PDF in place of the author’s name. Continue with the title of the PDF, version (if there are different versions available), the an essay on population problem, publisher (only include if the name of the design, publisher is different than the name of the author or the an essay on population problem, title), the publication date, and the location (usually a URL if found online). Notice that in the example below, the name of the publisher (The American Podiatric Medical Association) is omitted since the name of the training and development, publisher is the same name as the on population, author. MLA format example: American Podiatric Medical Association.

The Real Cost of Diabetes: Diabetic Foot Complications Are Common and Costly . Darden Essay. apma.files.cms-plus.com/ProductPDFs/APMA_TodaysPodiatrist_Infographic_8.5x11.pdf. To cite a full textbook in print, you’ll need to find the following pieces of information: The name of the on population problem, author(s) or editor(s) The title of the textbook, including any subtitles The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of information in this format: Last name, First name of the author or Last name, First name, editor. Title of the Textbook . Version, Publisher, Year published. If the textbook was compiled by an editor, use this format at between paper, the beginning of the citation: Last name, First name, editor. Examples of how to cite a textbook in an essay on population, print:

Lilly, Leonard S. Design. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: Review and Assessment . 9th ed., Elsevier Saunders, 2012. Cherny, Nathan, et al., editors. Oxford Textbook of Palliative Medicine . On Population. 5th ed., Oxford UP, 2015. How to Cite a Chapter from a Textbook in coursework, Print: To cite an individual chapter, you’ll need to find the problem, following pieces of information:

The name of the author(s) of the individual chapter or section The title of the individual chapter or section The title of the graham essay, textbook The name of the editors of the textbook The version of the textbook (such as a numbered edition or a revised edition) The name of the publisher The year the textbook was published. Place the pieces of on population problem information in this format: Last name, First name of the chapter author. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the Textbook , edited by First name Last name of editor, version, Publisher, Year published, page or page range. Example of how to cite a chapter from a textbook in print: Riley, Simon C., and Michael J. Coursework. Murphy. “Student Choice in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Student-Selected Components.” Oxford Textbook of Medical Education , edited by Kieran Walsh, Oxford UP, pp.

50-63. Surveys can be found online or in print. Find the format below that matches the type of survey you’re attempting to cite. To cite a survey found on a website, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for an essay its creation. “Title of the Survey.” Title of the Website , Publisher (if different than the greene essay, author or website title), Publication date, URL. International Food Information Council Foundation. “Food Decision 2016: Food Health Survey.” Food Insight , International Center of Excelled in Food Risk Communication, 2016, www.foodinsight.org/sites/default/files/2016-Food-and-Health-Survey-Report_%20FINAL_0.pdf. To cite a survey found in print, follow this structure: Last name, First name of survey’s creator(s) OR organization responsible for its creation. “Title of Survey.” Title of Publication , Publisher (if different than the author or website title), Publication date, page or page range that survey is found on. Don’t see your source type on this guide? Citation Machine’s citation generator can create your citations for on population you! Our website will help you develop your works cited page and in text and parenthetical citations in just a few clicks.

Looking for APA? Check out Citation Machine’s guide on APA format. Check out this article to see it in the news. When it comes to formatting your paper or essay for academic purposes, there are specific guidelines to follow. The section that follows will answer the following questions: How to format an MLA paper , How to training case create papers , and How to write in MLA format . If you’re trying to an essay on population learn how to format your essay, this section will help you too. Use paper that is 8?-by-11 inch in between essay and research paper, size. On Population Problem. This is the standard size for copier and printer paper Use high quality paper Your research paper or essay should have a one-inch margin on paper for wedding the top, bottom, left, and right sides of the paper While most word processors automatically format your paper to an essay have one-inch margins, you can check or modify the greene essay, margins of on population problem your paper by going to the “Page setup” section of your word processor. Click here for darden analysis more on margins. Use an easily readable font, specifically one that allows readers to see the difference between regular and italicized letters.

Times New Roman, Arial, and Helvetica are recommended options Use 12 point size font. Should I double space the problem, paper, including citations? Double space the entire paper There should be a double space between each piece of information in sample term paper format, the heading Place a double space between the heading and problem, the title Place a double space between the title and the beginning of the essay The Works Cited page should be double spaced as well. Coursework. All citations are double spaced. Text should be left-justified, meaning that the text is aligned, or lies flush, against the left margin New paragraphs should be indented half an inch from the left margin Indents signal to the reader that a new concept or idea is about to begin Use the “tab” button on your keyboard to create an indent Add one space after all punctuation marks. Include a proper heading and title The heading should include the following, on separate lines, starting one inch from the top and left margins: Your full name Your teacher or professor’s name The course number Date Dates in the heading and an essay problem, the body of your essay should be consistent. Design Coursework. Use the same format, either Day Month Year or Month Day, Year throughout the entire paper Examples: 27 July 2017 or July 27, 2017 The title should be underneath the heading, centered in the middle of the page, without bold, underlined, italicized, or all capital letters. Number all pages, including the on population problem, Works Cited page Place page numbers in the top right corner, half an inch from the top margin and one inch from the right margin. Include your last name to difference persuasive and research the left of the page number. The Works Cited list should be at the end of the paper, on an essay on population its own page.

If a citation flows onto the second line, indent it in half an inch from the left margin (called a hanging indent). For more information on the Works Cited list, refer to “How to Make a Works Cited Page,” which is found below. According to the Modern Language Associatin’s official guidelines for formatting a research paper, it is not necessary to create or include an individual title page at term paper, the beginning of a research project. Instead, follow the an essay, directions above, under “Heading Title,” to create a proper heading. This heading is featured at the top of the first page of the design, research paper or research assignment.

If your instructor or professor does in fact require or ask for an essay on population a title page, follow the training studies, directions that you are given. On Population Problem. They should provide you with the information needed to create a separate, individual title page. If they do not provide you with instructions, and you are left to create it at term pdf, your own discretion, use the header information above to an essay problem help you develop your research paper title page. You may want to include other information, such as the name of your school or university. The MLA Works Cited page is generally found at difference between, the end of a research paper or project. It contains a list of all of the citations of sources used for the research project. Follow these directions to format the an essay on population, Works Cited list to match the Modern Language Association’s guidelines.

The Works Cited list has its own page, at custom for wedding, the end of a research project Include the an essay on population problem, same running head as the rest of the project (Your last name and training and development, then the page number). The Works Cited List has the on population problem, final page number for the project. Name the page “Works Cited,” unless your list only includes one citation. In that case, title it as “Work Cited.” The title of the page (either Works Cited or Work Cited) is term format placed one inch from the top of the page, centered in the middle of the document. Double space the entire document, even between the title of the page and the first citation.

Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation (usually the last name of the author or the first word in the title if the citation does not include the author’s name. Ignore A, An, and The if the title begins with these words.) All citations begin flush against an essay the left margin. Studies. If the citation is long in length, and rolls onto a second or third line, the lines below the first line are indented half an inch from the left margin. This is called a “hanging indent.” The purpose of a hanging indent is to an essay on population make the citations easier to read. Wai-Chung, Ho. “Political Influences on Curriculum Content and Musical Meaning: Hong Kong Secondary Music Education, 1949-1997.” Journal of Historical Research in Music Education , vol. 22, no. 1, 1 Oct.

2000, pp. 5-25. Periodicals Index Online , search-proquest-com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/pio/docview/1297849364/citation/6B70D633F50C4EA0PQ/78?accountid=35635. Works Cited pages can be longer than one page. Use as many pages as necessary. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by and development Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of on population problem APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.

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essay farm animals The animals are shocked by this announcement, because they do like the meetings. The animals do not know how to an essay on population, argue back though, so their limited voice has just been completely damped out. During elections for a leader, citizens will need to pick who they are going to vote for. Design Coursework. The voters can not make the right decision if they do not even know why they are voting for whom. If the citizens of animal farm had known what napoleon was planning to do, he would not have been elected with such little. They encounter many obstacles from amongst the simpler animals, who are afraid of what might happen if Jones was not around to feed them. On Population. Also, Moses the paper format Raven is always telling the animals about an animal’s paradise called Sugarcandy Mountain, where the an essay on population problem animals go when they die. Many of the sample term format animals believe in an essay problem, Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs have to training and development, keep on persuading them that no such place exists. Without any planning, the rebellion happens on Midsummer’s day, just before harvest. Problem. Farmer.

(Orwell 27) to greene, calm down the perturbed animals. He first calls them “Comrades” (27) and therefore names them as his friends. This sets the mood to a supposedly friendly manner and could help make the animals believe more, since Squealer is allegedly their friend and friends do not lie to one another. Likewise, he cries that they “do not imagine” (27) that the pigs are eating the fruits of the diligent animals’ hard work. This is used to confuse the animals and make them start to doubt their belief.

Eventually the on population problem principles of Animalism are reduced to one principle: “all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others. (Orwell, 1945) ” It is important to note that in Animal Farm Orwell is not attacking the underlying principles of Socialism that are propagated by Karl Marx and Lenin, but rather the perversion of these principles by design coursework leaders like Stalin. Although Animal Farm is written as a critique of Stalin era Soviet Union, it could be widely viewed as a critique of any system. reality check after so much narrative about the utopian lifestyle of Animal Farm. The passage does clear up a few questions any inquisitive reader would have about the outside world. I mean, wouldn't you think that the other neighboring farmers might think something's up if one day they see a bunch of pigs supervising horses plow a field? Anyway, Orwell explains, It was lucky that the owners of the two farms which adjoined Animal Farm were on permanently bad terms. Anyone considering the allegorical. there was a case of the milk disappearing mysteriously. The pigs were the most intelligent of all the animals, so they hold debates for the other animals and eventually established a study-room for themselves. One of these pigs, Snowball, decided to an essay on population problem, campaign for economic improvement in term paper format pdf, the farm.

Napoleon, on the other hand, decided to oppose everything Snowball did. Unlike the pigs, not every animal was as clever to memorize the Commandments, so Snowball decided to reduce them into one thought: Four. Traditional fables are quite short and the animals are not usually given a great deal of on population problem, character. Although Animal Farm is quite a short book, there is time for George Orwell to develop characters in a manner that makes them appealing (or appalling) to the readers. His greatest success in graham, this area is problem Boxer, with his mottoes, Napoleon is always right and I will work harder. On the symbolic level, Boxer represents the Russian workers who trusted Stalin and made enormous sacrifices to ensure. Animalism and its purpose of training and development, equality. Power was not a part of Old major’s vision. While Snowball is very intelligent and an essay seems to difference between persuasive, want the an essay best for Animal Farm Napoleon is just power-hungry. It is clear that Napoleon is and development case studies jealous of Snowball, so he begins to plan how to get rid of him.

To do this, Napoleon uses the dogs to chase Snowball off the farm. When they return to him it’s as if they have no regret. “It was noticed that they wagged their tails to him in the same way as the other dogs had been. Napoleon uses propaganda, terror and disempowerment of animals in various forms to generate a dystopian society with himself in command. Blind loyalty and ignorance of Napoleon's ulterior motives becomes the eventual downfall of Animal Farm's utopian dream. This is made all the more easy by the way in which the animals are peer-pressured into actions that they may not have willingly chosen. The use of the sheep's perpetual chanting of “Four legs good, two legs bad”, worked so well earlier in the. where he lyrically describes the dream he had.

And another was by saying out loud how horrible and terrible their life under Jones rule is, and an essay on population problem how they need to be treated well. He mentioned some of the animals in his speech to paper plates, connect with and persuade them. This had a powerful effect on the other animals as they show great enthusiasm to on population, Old Major’s dream. Explain the design character Boxer and how he contributes to the stories theme. On Population. Boxer, the essay carthorse, represents the best characteristics. Animal Farm by George Orwell Essay. sleeping in on population, beds. When the animals took over the farm and changed their way of life, they made several Codes or Commandments, which the animals on animal farm would abide to.

These commandments were to remain unchanged. However, as the design farm developed, the an essay on population problem pigs started to claim more and more power over the rest of the animals. This included altering certain commandments without letting the custom plates for wedding rest of the animals know. This was achieved, because the majority of the animals (apart from the pigs) have. Each paragraph should first explain the behavior of the character, giving examples from the story.

Then each should explain how the behavior contributes to the loss of freedom and equality on Animal Farm. Follow the an essay problem Leader! ©2000-2003www.beaconlearningcenter.com Rev.9.8.03 Decide on sample term format, the order in which you want to an essay on population problem, discuss the two characters. You may want to emphasize the behavior that you think contributes most to the loss of freedom and equality. The final point that is discussed in. harder!’ However, Boxer doesn’t see that he is overworking himself, and custom plates for wedding no matter what Benjamin and Clover try to on population problem, tell him, he insists that everything will be solved if he works harder. Also, Boxer is a simple character and, like most of the other animals, doesn’t see that the pigs are taking advantage, and after Snowball is greene overthrown, Boxer lives by his two mottoes ‘I will work harder’ and on population ‘Napoleon is always right’. Old Benjamin, an elderly donkey, is unchanged by the rebellion. He still does. Essay on Animal Farm by training and development case George Orwell.

Cowshed. Mr. An Essay On Population. Jones appears back at the farm to take back what was rightfully his, but he was defeated once again. Analysis. Towards the end of the summer, news about Animal Farm spread around the town. Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick, the neighboring farm owners, become scared of the thought of seeing their own farm being taken over by an essay on population problem their animals.

Then these men marched towards Animal Farm. Snowball starts to create a defense and the humans are quickly defeated by the animals. Custom Paper Plates. During the battle lives were lost. Animal Farm by George Orwell Essay. This phenomenon is not unique to Russia or Animal Farm: it happens throughout the world.

Governments have done similar things to improve their standing by an essay on population problem blaming an invisible enemy. The purges and show trials with which Stalin eliminated his enemies and cemented his power mirrors the false confessions and executions of custom paper plates for wedding, animals that Napoleon distrusts after the windmill collapse. Stalin’s tyrannical rule and abandonment of the founding principles of the Russian Revolution are represented by Napoleon’s. Animal Farm, by George Orwell Essay. theme of George Orwell’s Animal Farm is an essay that excessive power and greed lead to absolute corruption.

The life lesson expressed is that your own personal gain should not place the custom plates for wedding welfare of the group at risk, but they should work in unison. Orwell demonstrates in his novel that when we lose sight of our original goal we can be consumed by greed and power and abuses the rights and freedom of others. Napoleon exemplifies obsession with power. In the beginning the animals were ruled by on population problem a terrible thoughtless. Essay on sample pdf, Allegory used in Animal Farm. Orwell uses comparison to provide a contrast between Stalin and the Russian working class. The stark growing divergence of their ideals, and the difference between the carefully made plans of Stalin and Napoleon and the bling following of the farm animals and an essay the working class, who don’t realize they’re being manipulated until it’s too late. Orwell writes a convincing argument in the favour of education and need for knowledge to paper, gain the upper hand in this situation.

Revolutions that are born. The Role of Propaganda in Animal Farm Essay. assure the other animals that saving all the milk and apples for themselves was not their own choice: “You don’t imagine… that we pigs are doing this in a spirit of on population problem, selfishness and design coursework privilege? Many of us actually dislike milk and problem apples. I dislike them myself.

Our sole object… is to preserve our health. Do you know what would happen if we fail our duty? Jones would come back!” By mentioning their recent master as an excuse for keeping the apples and graham greene milk, Squealer distracts the animals from the reality. The Literary Merit of Animal Farm Essay. Orwell gets the desired straightforward plot he is desires, but at the same time loses sight with his original goal of an essay on population problem, satirizing the plates actual revolution. Although it is never explicitly stated in an essay, the book, the events that occur in Animal Farm closely follow those of the Russian communist movement. Many critics can trace every sentence in the book to a date and studies place in Russia. Jeffrey Meyers, author of three Orwellian biographies, claims that . Though critics have often interpreted.

Animal Farm by George Orwell Essay. News of the rebellion at the Animal Farm, formally known as the Manor Farm, quickly spreads to the rest of the an essay on population animals in difference between persuasive essay, England. Soon they even learn the words to the “Beasts of England”. When Mr. Jones hears about this, he gathers some townsmen to an essay problem, help him regain his farm, but the animals successfully defend their new territory. Shortly after, Mollie, a young mare, runs away to work pulling a dogcart for a man that feeds her sugar lumps. As winter comes around, Snowball, one of the pigs, begins. Animal Farm Compare and Contrast Essay. For example throughout the entire story the between essay and research pigs are in charge of everyone and treat the other animals with very little respect. They got the an essay on population problem other animal’s trust this way because Old Major, who was one of the most majestic and wisest of the pigs, used a method of reaching to the animals’ emotions by telling them they are mistreated badly by humans and they needed to rebel and they all live short lives and they should live it freely.

His character reflects the difference persuasive essay actions of Adolf Hitler. During WWII. Animal Farm Napoleon Stalin Essay. snowball was able to an essay problem, get the animals in his favor and Napoleon called a pack of dogs which he was taking care of to run Snowball out of the farm. Graham. After this Napoleon becomes the leader and tyrant of the Animal Farm. An Essay Problem. Napoleon goes from being a co-leader with the rest of the pigs at the beginning of the revolution to a tyrant. Through the story, Napoleon's traits changed drastically. There were numerous occasions in which Napoleon used propaganda to control the animals in Animal Farm. Propaganda is used very.

Animal Farm-The hunger for power Essay. like leaders over essay, the other animals just like Farmer Jones. The more the pigs set themselves above the other animals, the more one can predict that the pigs’ power eventually assists them when they become dictators. Old Major, the wise old pig, warns the animals about the on population problem possible rise of a single power if the animals do not follow the commandments. “Above all, no animal must ever tyrannise over his own kind. Weak or strong, clever or simple, we are all brothers…All animals are equal” (Orwell 11).

Old. Macbeth and coursework Animal Farm Analysis Essay. boar, the only Berkshire on the farm” as well as stating that he was “not much of a talker but with a reputation for getting his own way.” This immediately sets him apart from the on population rest of the pigs and virginia essay analysis the word “only” also shows he has a different mind-set from those around him and is a unique and individual character. The deliberate use of the word “large” is on population effective as it foreshadows the magnitude of Napoleon’s ambition to gain power and control of virginia darden essay analysis, Animal Farm. The description of Napoleon as “fierce-looking” Essay on Animal Farm, by George Orwell. Czar said, “The law will henceforward be respected and obeyed not only by the nation but also the authority that rules it - and that the law would stand above the changing views of the individual instruments of the problem supreme power.” (Pares 420). The animal Napoleon can be compared as a character representing Stalin in format, Russia. Both were very mean looking, didn’t talk very much but always got what they wanted through force.

In one part of the book Napoleon charged the dogs on Snowball, the other pig in. “Jones” to keep his authority and control the animals. Also he does not allow people to vote. This shows that he is not a democratic leader and he frighten animals to control. An Essay. Thirdly. Sample. Napoleon violence to keep his authority. He never likes animals to question him or disobey his statements. For instance; Napoleon wanted hens to give their eggs to pigs and he wanted 60 eggs per a week. He told that the need to sell eggs to get enough food for the farm. At first hens didn’t wanted to give their eggs.

Essay on Animal Farm: a Fairy Story. Themes: Manipulating Language a. If the on population problem animals don’t “volunteer” to work on Sundays their rations of food would be reduced. b. This isn’t voluntary work. Essay. The reason is because if they chose to its okay but if they don’t they’ll be punished in a way. The pigs are just putting it in an essay on population, a nice way instead of saying they have to work. 6.Characterization: a. Mr. Whymper is was a sly-looking man with side whiskers. Custom Paper. b. Napoleons new policy for getting items the farm need is to engage in trade. An Essay On Population Problem. This doesn’t. Essay on essay, The Contemporary Relevance of Animal Farm poverty, hunger, lack of basic health care but claim to an essay, be living in a democratic nation (10). Orwell portrays this exact case in his story. The pigs belong to a social class that has privileges, while the other animals work hard but do not get enough food.

The pigs fatten, when the other animals live in hunger. The rich class in the developing world has access to sample paper format pdf, a quality life, quality education, and an essay problem security. There are schools distinct for the rich, and the poor cannot afford such schools. The rich. he was sent to plates, the “knacker’s” but alas, he wasn’t fast enough: “Come at once! They’re taking Boxer away!” he shouted . . . Sure enough, there was a . . . van, drawn by two horses . . . And Boxer’s stall was empty . . . On Population Problem. “Good-bye, Boxer!” [The animals] chorused . . . “Fools! Fools!” shouted Benjamin . . . “Fools! Do you not see what is written on . . And Research Paper. . that van? . . . Alfred Simmonds, Horse Slaughterer . . . They are taking Boxer to the knacker’s!” . . . But the van was already . . . drawing away. Political Satire in Animal Farm by George Orwell Essay. This battle clearly parallels the overthrow of Czar Nicholas II.

The animals rename Manor Farm more appropriately Animal Farm. At first everything seems to go well on the farm. The two most prominent leaders of the an essay problem animals begin to make rules for the animals to follow. Napoleon and Snowball, who parallel the leadership of sample format pdf, Stalin and Trotsky, begin to take over the leadership roles on the farm. The main theme of Animal Farm starts to an essay problem, become evident here. Pdf. It is that in an essay, every society and organization. Animal Farm: Differences between the Book and the Film Essay. not really affect the animals because he died because of his age. On the other hand, in the movie old Major is accidently shot by Mr.

Jones. Right after Major gives his speech Jones accidently shoots old Major because he thought there was something in darden, his barn. On Population. This occurs in the movie when Jones fires two shots in design, the air and one hits Major, and Major falls out the barn on an essay on population problem, the other side. The shooting of old Major really affected the animals in the movie because now the animals had more anger against. Animal Farm: the Story of Animals Were Overworked, Tied and Starved. Napoleon was a cruel, selfish and manipulative pig. He was the sole ruler of Animal Farm after he had gotten Snowball run off the farm.At first, Napoleon lead the animals into thinking that the work they did was to profit themselves.

Instead, the only ones who were benefiting were the pigs. (QUOTE) It was not until later that they realized that they were overworked, starved and design coursework tired. None of what they put into their work, did they get back. Napoleon, along with taking more than his share, also had. Napoleon, the Symbol of Oppression in an essay on population, Animal Farm Essay. Napoleon, unfortunately, became an asylum for these traits, festering with every misdeed he commits to the farm. At first it had just been acts of selfishness, taking the apples and design coursework milk for the pig’s consumption, with their excuse being “our sole object in taking these things is to preserve our health. Milk and apples….

We pigs are brain workers. The whole management and organization of this farm depend on us” (Orwell 36). Napoleon’s morals grew worse until eventually he took a liking to alcohol and. Animal Farm, by George Orwell: An Allegory to the Russian Revolution. Old Major helps the weak animals on the farm become strong by unifying them with a common vision promising a better life with dignity, a life of comfort and freedom. With the promise of a better life the animals overcome their fear and unite to overtake the farm. After the successful revolution, they have a new set of commandments to live by. They give themselves a new identity with a constitution to guide them.

The pigs fill the power vacuum left by the departure of Farmer Jones and soon a power. Essay on Tyranny in Animal Farm, by Geopge Orwell. Though the work was hard, animals were happy, as they worked only for themselves. Problem. However, this society was doomed to design coursework, become corrupt. The main reason for corruption to problem, occur was that the leaders began to put their interests and desires before of design coursework, others; they wanted to problem, obtain exclusive privileges in order to satisfy them. They no longer cared about the graham essay well-being of the farm. In spite of fact that there was the one, among the leaders, who wanted the society to prosper, who wanted to insert innovations. The Humane Treatment of Animals vs. Factory Farms Essay. com/watch?v=u-uYSafpKmk).

Use of antibiotics is a necessity with factory farms, to stave off disease of so many animals living so closely together. And the list of horrors grows longer. On Population. Watch a clip from this film and if you can, check it out from your local video source and watch the whole film: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yh8c9OUti4c In factory farms, animals are products or commodities, not animals, not pets; they have no rights. After watching some of these films, you get the. The Tragic Consequences of the Rebellion on Animal Farm Essay. The naivety of the animals was they key to which Napoleon was able to term, take over problem, the farm so quickly and easily. Another factor to consider was the way Napoleon terrorised his so-called comrades in order to gain power. He did this by using his personally trained guard dogs, who constantly monitored the animals and punished any that dared to graham essay, go against Napoleon’s many commands. An Essay On Population Problem. Soon after Napoleon’s rule commenced, the animals found that the morale that had existed in Old. Essay about training Power Corrupts in Animal Farm. With this, Squealer was brought to problem, power with Napoleon and Snowball.

Squealer was known for is good public speaking and his ability to persuade the animals to do whatever him and Napoleon wanted them to do. Squealer represents the propaganda of government. Squealer working with Napoleon is like the government working with Stalin. Squealer often gets caught in arguments but always finds a way to get out of it. This is like the Pravda which was a daily paper that came to prominence after the. Oppressive Systems of Government in Egypt and Animal Farm Essay. country voted for based on policies not related to politics, and therefore would have a political agenda that does not benefit the country well. In “Animal Farm,” the pigs use propaganda tactics to keep control of the other animals.

Squealer, second in command to Napoleon, often spreads lies and other propagandist messages to convince the animals that all is well, similar to the Egyptian media that propagates pro-government messages. Design. The leader, Napoleon, also attempts to blame an enemy for their. Language and Meaning in Animal Farm by George Orwell Essays. Moses is afforded special treatment not available to the other animals. For example, he is the only animal not present at the meeting called by Old Major as the book opens. Later, the reader is told the other animals hate the raven because he does not do any work, in fact, the pigs give him a daily ration of beer. An Essay. Like Lenin, who proclaimed religion was the opiate of the people, Orwell sees organized religion as another corruptible institution which serves to persuasive, keep the masses tranquil. Moses preaches. The Similarities of the Russian Revolution and an essay on population problem Animal Farm by sample George Orwell.

actions towards Snowball. Leon was inspired by Karl Marx’s theory of an essay on population problem, Communism, which was made to unite the workers of the design world creating the perfect society. An Essay On Population. On the other hand, Animalism is created to make a world where all animals are together and share in the success of the farm. Leon Trotsky was represented by Snowball, who thought that a number of essay and research paper, rebellions were required to achieve the revolution's goals. Snowball invented many influential plans like the an essay on population windmill, which reflects on Trotsky’s intelligent.

Lord of the Flies and Animal Farm Comparison Essay. this is clear when reading the books in which they appear. Both books have two characters of great similarity. The first is Piggy; the side kick in Lord of the Flies. The second is Squealer; Napoleons messenger and deliverer of propaganda in Animal Farm. Both show some weaknesses in character, but also strength of mind.

Piggy's naivety and dependability is shown often throughout Golding's book. Piggy's naivety and design dependable nature is portrayed in open admiration and reliance upon Ralph. Piggy. Essay on Exploration Of The Main Themes In Animal Farm The animals had assumed that it would be shared out an essay on population problem equally so they began to stir. The pigs quickly silenced this and put the training and development other animals minds at rest by sending in Squealer, the on population main propagandist throughout the story. Squealer explains “Milk and apples (This has been proven by science comrades) contain substances absolutely necessary to the well-being of a pig” and that if they were not to eat them “Jones would come back” Squealer uses science, something most of the animals know nothing about. Animal Farm, by George Orwell Essay example. was conceptualized to paper format pdf, encourage industrial growth in the country, which is similar to an essay on population problem, the plans for the windmill that were Napoleon’s (that Snowball recognized as his own). The windmill was designed to create electricity (industrialization) for the animals, so their corrals could be heated.

With the corruption of the graham first Five Year Plans (and thus the destruction of the windmill), a new set of Five Year Plans, as was a new windmill, introduced. It is an essay on population problem Napoleon who is. The Use of Distortion as a Literary Device in George Orwell#x27;s Animal Farm. working class animals and instills a sense of uncertainty and disillusionment that is felt by most of the characters in the story. In the beginning, the animals are excited by Major’s talk of rebellion against coursework Mr. Jones and an essay on population through Orwell’s objective point of essay, view, the an essay same feeling of insurrection is passed on to the audience. As the pigs weave an paper plates intricate web of lies and scandal, the reader gets the sense that not all is well in the same way the animals do.

The difference between the animals and ourselves. Comparing Events in Animal Farm and the Russian Revolution through Symbolism. Like the animals in the farm yard, the people is Russia thought there would be no oppression in an essay, a new society because the working class people (or animals) would own all the riches and hold all the power. (Golubeva and Gellerstein 168). In Marx’s “Communist Manifesto”, Marx calls attention to change. The animals, at first, resisted the dictatorship of the humans and wished to govern themselves where all animals were equal. Like in coursework, Russia, the common people were tired of the rich getting richer. Animal Farm - Napoleon and Boxer Act in Ways to Destroy Freedom and Eq.

The animals think that killing is against one of the commandments, but when Muriel reads the writing on the barn wall to Clover, interestingly, the an essay on population words are, No animal shall kill any other animal without cause. In addition, Napoleon completely transforms the farm into the same or worse way it was in the hands of analysis, Man. He mimics Man: adopts all its bad habits which are against the animals with the exception of the pigs. The other aspect that is against the followers is that Napoleon in general clearly. Propaganda, War, Famine and Death in Orwell#x27;s Animal Farm Essay. outside world and surrounding farms and teach them to sing Beasts of England from beginning to on population, end propaganda has been there. Snowball spread propaganda that would promote Animalism by building a windmill. This windmill was to be used for luxuries that would make life better for everyone on Animal Farm. Snowball also said that although the construction would be difficult all animals would benefit in the long run. His positive attitude, ideas and propaganda excited the animals so much that they wanted.

Animal Farm Analytical Essay Comparing and Contrusting Erin Brockonvich. his care for other animal and not his love of virginia darden essay analysis, controlled. Orwell construct the hens and the sheep as freedom fighter who has lost their life fighting for an essay on population, justice, who has been executed by napoleon. The rest of the animal represents the civilian who are under the regulation of napoleon. Paragraph 4 George Orwell positions the reader to custom paper, understand the abuse of power by constructing his character Napoleon Evil and constructing the animals as powerless. In the novel Animal Farm the author has constructed. How Napoleon Achieved and Maintained Power in George Orwell#x27;s Animal Farm. credibility was another of an essay on population problem, Napoleon’s tricks. Any animal who admired Boxer (one of the most well respected and plates for wedding famous characters on the farm) would have followed and imitated Boxer and his ‘Napoleon is always right’ attitude, thus earning Napoleon more supporters (much like the Labor Party did in their hiring of Peter Garrett…).

Napoleon and Snowball were supposed to be joint leaders of the revolution, but they had different ideas as to how Animal Farm should be run. An Essay On Population. Snowball was more interested in.

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