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Are you prepared for the 4th Anti-Money-Laundering Directive?


Financial institutions and other obliged entities, such as companies trading goods with a value over EUR 10000, are now faced with

International anti-money laundering standards and their

Dissertation anti money laundering

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American Literature and Composition. Advanced Placement English Language and Composition. I went back to the good nature books that I had read. And I analyzed them. I wrote outlines of whole books—outlines of chapters—so that I could see their structure. And I copied down their transitional sentences or their main sentences or their closing sentences or their lead sentences. I especially paid attention to how these writers made transitions between paragraphs and dissertation anti laundering scenes. -Annie Dillard, Winner of the Pulitzer Prize for Literature. If you are in this class, it is because you have been recommended to take AP Language and Composition, an advanced English course in which you increase your reading and save trees life writing skills in the hopes that you will take an dissertation, AP exam designed by the College Board in etude pour dentaire the spring and score high enough to forego taking some freshman English courses in dissertation laundering college. Thus, one of the more pragmatic goals of an Advanced Placement course is to take the AP exam in May and do well on it. With this in thesis mind, some of the primary goals of this course are (1) to enable you to write effectively and confidently across the curriculum; (2) to dissertation money laundering enable you to read and understand complex texts; and (3) to enable you to use prose writing to communicate effectively with a wide-ranging and preparing a personal financial statement mature audience. This course will thus provide many and varied opportunities to anti money respond in writing to extended life of pi assignments which are the basis for dissertation anti, both extended writing projects and briefer, timed activities, helping you both to gain authority and to learn to take risks in writing both the informal and the formal essay.

As advanced English Language students, it is reaction essay thesis statement, expected that you will enter this course with and continue to demonstrate self-motivation, academic honesty, good reading and writing skills, and the ability to work productively toward significant improvements with a flexible and inquisitive mind. Only those students who can demonstrate all of these qualities will be recommended for AP English Literature (12) in the following school year. About the AP English Language and Composition Exam. There are two AP English Courses, one to be taken in anti your junior year entitled AP English Language and Composition, and the other to be taken in your senior year entitled AP English Literature and save save Composition. The former course (your course for this year) is designed to help you hone an anti money laundering, awareness of how an author creates meaning through language use, genre conventions, and etude prothesiste rhetorical choices.

There are two sections of the exam: a multiple choice section and a free-response section. The multiple choice section tests your ability to analyze prose passages drawn from a variety of sources and genres. Dissertation Anti Money Laundering? The multiple choice section is worth 45% of the total exam score. The second section consists of three types of essays: argumentative, rhetorical analysis, and synthesis. The entire exam lasts 3 hours and 15 minutes.

Your required Cliffs AP book will explain all of reaction essay thesis statement, this information and more in much more detail. The entire course is designed to dissertation anti money laundering give you proficiency in all of these areas. For the most up-to-date information and for many more materials, tips and statement practice exams, you are encouraged to pro-actively access and make use of the College Board AP website throughout the dissertation, year. That web address is: http://www.collegeboard.com/student. AP English Language PRACTICE Exam: Saturday morning, May 8 , 2010 at the school (in the classroom). Exact times forthcoming. AP English Language Exam Date : The morning of Wednesday, May 12 , 2010 at the school (CSS)

(1) To write effectively and confidently across the trees, curriculum. Laundering? Construct good essays with clear ideas, a strong position, and evidence of deep thinking. Employ rhetorical and literary devices to defend a position. Synthesize a variety of financial statement, sources to money laundering defend a position or argument. (2) To read and understand complex texts. Identify AND understand how and why various rhetorical and how to literary techniques work. Read well and closely for denotation and dissertation money connotation, inference and implication. Decipher what is important within the context of a work as a whole. (3) To use prose writing to communicate effectively with a wide-ranging and mature audience. Essay Thesis? Write in a way that convinces the reader that your point of view is viable.

Employ logic and an emotional quality with a strong writer’s voice to persuade an dissertation anti, audience. Develop a more flexible and write a book summary sophisticated writing style. (4) To use research meaningfully in dissertation anti money the service of one’s own investigations and writing. Employ various research tools, such as reputable databases, the Internet, the library system, etc. Locate and evaluate primary and preparing a personal statement secondary sources. Integrate sources into writing with a balance of dissertation anti money laundering, general and etude pour prothesiste dentaire specific illustrative detail, and without sacrificing the writer’s own voice or argument. Use properly the MLA format. A Raisin in anti money the Sun , Lorraine Hansberry (drama) Summer Reading An American Childhood , Annie Dillard (autobiography) Summer Reading Pilgrim at Tinker Creek , Annie Dillard (nature writing) Summer Reading Where I Lived and What I Lived For , Henry David Thoreau (non-fiction essay; nature writing) Self-Reliance , Ralph Waldo Emerson (non-fiction essay; reflective, philosophical) The Crucible , Arthur Miller (drama), and the critical introduction to the play Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God , Jonathan Edwards (non-fiction sermon/speech) The Scarlet Letter , Nathaniel Hawthorne (novel) Huckleberry Finn , Mark Twain (novel/satire) Please purchase the exact text listed on MBS Direct (This edition contains both the novel AND the essays and how to for college historical documents needed for class discussions and the synthesis paper.) Essay by Mark Twain (“Corn Pone Opinions”) and critical essays on the controversy surrounding Huckleberry Finn . (non-fiction, secondary sources by Julius Lester, Peaches Henry, and Justin Kaplan) Born To Trouble , a documentary film about one woman’s attempts to remove Huckleberry Finn from her daughter’s high school curriculum (a PBS special).

The Great Gatsby , F. Scott Fitzgerald (novel), and critical, pictorial and historical sources of the student’s own choosing. Poetry, music and dissertation money laundering art of the rowan application essay, Harlem Renaissance and the Jazz Age AP Materials, including practice tests, prose pieces by American writers not on our formal reading list, and money laundering various visuals with subtexts A Writer’s Reference (latest edition), Diana Hacker A Guide to MLA Documentation (latest edition), Joseph F. Trimmer Cliffs AP English Language and Composition (3 rd edition), Barbara V. How To Write A Book For College? Swovelin The Class Website. One parody or homage for each of the following: (A) a reflective essay that employs the literary techniques of America’s great autobiographical and reflective nature writers; (B) a sermon in laundering the style of Jonathan Edwards; (C) an opening chapter of a novel; (D) and a satire on our contemporary society in the style of Mark Twain. Timed, in-class traditional formal essay writing: analysis, synthesis, and argumentative (i.e. Write For College? one practice test once every two or three weeks). Dissertation Anti? Small group projects (once every two or three weeks), oral presentations (once every three weeks) and informal class discussions (nearly every day) One formal Synthesis paper (a formal, MLA formatted research paper) Regular reading comprehension (two or three times per week) and reading analysis multiple choice tests and quizzes (one every two or three weeks) Regular vocabulary assignments and assessments (twice per unit of study) Regular opportunities for peer editing and multiple revisions of how to write a book for college, essays (always when formal essays are due; see unit descriptions below) Regular assessment and review of grammar and complex sentence structure (when needed, about anti money, once every two weeks) Formal and informal exercises on analyzing image as text (during the financial statement worksheet, unit that covers the two synthesis papers—see unit descriptions; once per week) Reflective free writing, such as writing a letter to a character, and free responses to significant questions and quotes from a work (about twice per week). Engagement in dissertation anti laundering the research process, including gathering and deciphering sources, outlining, drafting, and responding to essay thesis critical feedback from the teacher and from peers through revision. Living Deliberately: In this unit, students study the art of the reflective essay by reading the works of Annie Dillard, Henry David Thoreau, and Ralph Waldo Emerson. They will answer questions such as: How is this kind of writing different from autobiography? How do the writers present their experiences? How do they generate meaning?

How do they use events, people, and places to communicate their meaning? With what themes are all of dissertation, these authors concerned? Who is their audience? How are their approaches to delivering these themes alike? How are they different? What literary devices do the authors employ in the service of their own writing? After intense examination, students will apply what they have learned from these exemplary models and preparing statement worksheet write their own reflective essay, preferably using nature as a vehicle for exploration and meaning. Regular journal writing will provide a wealth of material from which to draw. In addition, students will work in groups during class time to write their own set of AP multiple choice questions on one of the money, passages from their summer reading. Thesis Statement? Each group will write one of each of the following types of AP questions: inferential, factual, technical, and analytical. Victims or Villains?

This unit is an dissertation money laundering, attempt to look at the colorful characters of dentaire, Arthur Miller’s The Crucible , and Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter . Can we defend Abigail Williams, Roger Chillingworth, and Arthur Dimmesdale? If so, how? In the anti laundering, first segment of the unit, students will take a position on Abigail Williams in extended essay life of pi an argumentative essay: is she a self-absorbed, opportunistic villain or a victim of a repressive, hysteria-driven and money laundering vengeful society? In the second segment of the unit, students will write both an how to summary for college, argumentative , in-class essay (defending one of the less defensible characters from The Scarlet Letter ), as well as an in-class analysis essay on the rhetorical methods of Hawthorne’s chapter, “The Prison Door.” Studying and parodying Jonathan Edwards’s famous sermon , Sinners in laundering the Hands of an Angry God , will help to explain the fear and rebellion that may be driving figures such as these. The formal take-home writing project for this unit of study is a first-chapter of a novel similar to Nathaniel Hawthorne’s “The Prison Door”. Final Exam for First Semester : The midterm exam consists of a rhetorical analysis essay and a multiple-choice section.

The exam is done in the classroom in a period of 90 minutes. The exam counts for 15% of the final semester grade. Minstrel Show or Satire? The novel, Huckleberry Finn , has been controversial from the rowan, moment of its publication. Originally, libraries across the nation banned it for its vulgar usage of language. They saw it as a story about a boy from the money laundering, slums who smoked, who was dishonest, and who used poor grammar. More recently, the novel became controversial for two other reasons: (1) the abundant use of the “N” word, and (2) the save save, stereotypical depiction of Jim. Students will develop a position on whether Huckleberry Finn should be taught in schools across the United States or should be eliminated from the anti money laundering, curriculum. In order to answer this question in how to for college an argumentative essay, students must synthesize a variety of money laundering, critical, pictorial, and historical sources, which are provided in the required edition of the text for pour, this class. Yet, in order to dissertation anti money take a position on the matter, students must understand deeply the purpose of satire and Twain’s own employment of how to summary, satire.

Therefore, students will not only anti money laundering analyze Twain’s own use of satire, but also write their own satire on a contemporary problem in their own society. Foolish Dreamer or Romantic Idealist? I think I saw the etude pour dentaire, American dream in your swimming pool! Is Jay Gatsby someone to be admired? Or is his dream of winning back the alluring Daisy Buchanan the product of laundering, foolish hubris?

If so, then should we discount him as someone to admire? Is Gatsby the instantiation of the American dream? We will ask these questions and more as we read one of America’s greatest novels of all time, The Great Gatsby. In this unit, AP students study F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel in conjunction with their studies of the 1920’s and the Jazz Age in AP American History. For their culminating project, these students will design their own research question on a topic concerning the 1920’s and research their own variety of rowan college application essay, sources in order to answer the dissertation money laundering, question in a formal synthesis paper . Because this is considered a research paper, the final product must reflect all of the criteria of a typical formal research paper, including proper MLA formatting and a works cited page. See “Research and application essay Writing Resources” on the class website. Dissertation Anti Money Laundering? Final Exam : The synthesis paper (above) on a topic concerning The Great Gatsby and the 1920s will satisfy the requirements for the final exam. This paper will count for 20% of the final spring semester grade. AP Practice Exam: Students who decide to take the AP exam are required to complete a full 3-hour and 15 minute practice AP exam given on Saturday, May 8. Extended Essay Of Pi? Students are responsible to clear their schedules and to inform their parents about this event well in advance.

A grade will be awarded to all students who take this exam. Students who do not show up will receive a zero unless illness or serious, documented, and unforeseen personal and family circumstances arise. In such a case, the student’s parent should contact Ms. Harris as well as the teacher. Students need to purchase and bring daily.

1) a three-ring binder with five dividers, 2) writing implements (pencils, dark blue pens or black pens) 3) lined 8 ? x 11 inch white paper (use three-hole punch, not tear-out paper, please). 4) several yellow highlighters for annotating. 5) one pack of colored pencils for special artistic, in-class reading activities (to be kept by Ms. Craig in the classroom). 6) Nightly access to a working computer and to the internet. A student#8217;s grade will be determined by the following weighted categories: Homework and Classwork: 25% Tests and Quizzes: 30% Papers, In-class Essays and other Projects: 30% Classroom Behavior and Participation (includes adherence to Upper School general classroom rules and guidelines, respectful listening and treatment of the teacher and fellow classmates, focused and active participation in small and large group activities, attendance, non-distracting behaviors and preparedness): 15% Note: The above percentages are approximate and reflect the semester as a whole. Dissertation Anti? At grading periods along the way, the weighting may be adjusted slightly to reflect actual work done to trees save life date.

Each assignment is given a certain number of points whose value has meaning in comparison to money others in the same category. Student letter grades are determined according to the Upper School Handbook. There will be no alteration to these cut-offs: A+ 98-100 B+ 87-89 C+ 77-79 D+ 67-69. A 93-97 B 83-86 C 73-76 D 63-66. A- 90-92 B- 80-82 C- 70-72 D- 60-62 F Below 60. (0.5 and pour prothesiste above rounds up; 0.4 and below rounds down.) Attendance, Late and Class Policies: I expect you to be here on time with your materials out (paper, notebook, pen and relevant texts) and dissertation money your mind ready for 45 minutes of English. Discussions are an essential part of the how to write a book summary, course; therefore, your respectful, spirited participation is required. Money Laundering? Disagreement in our classroom is natural, even desired, as considering diverse opinions can be very productive; however, these opinions must be expressed with respect and civility, and rowan college listening open-mindedly to others is dissertation anti money, essential to save learning. Dissertation Laundering? Rudeness or denigrating comments will not be tolerated.

Written Work: All work is due at the beginning of the period, printed, ready to hand in. Life Of Pi? In general, late work will be lowered 10% per day that it is anti money, late. However, be advised that many assignments done in preparation for class (worth 10 points or less) are of little use after the fact, and thus will not receive any late credit . A Book? Broken printers, computers, etc. are not a valid excuse. If you cannot print at home, email it to me at school or to dissertation money Ms. Application? Peterson in the computer lab in an emergency. I will give you credit for on-time completion based on timely electronic arrival. If you miss a class for an unplanned but excused absence, you are responsible for coming to see me to make sure you have turned in any work and gotten any handouts and/or other important information that you missed. #8220;I wasn#8217;t there that day#8221; is not a valid excuse.

Also, if you will miss class, and you know that in advance, (for family matters, sports events, etc.) please be advised that you must turn in laundering any work due or arrange to take any quizzes IN ADVANCE of essay, your departure; failure to do so will result in a #8220;late#8221; grade, or no credit, depending on the assignment. You can expect me to be open to questions, available for extra help, and respectful and fair in my dealings with students. I am very thorough in grading papers, and I will strive to return most work no later than a week after the assignment was due. Dissertation Anti Money Laundering? Longer assignments may take a bit more time, however. I’m more sympathetic if you come see me one-on-one when you have problems.

You can come see me at any Scholar Session, and at many other times (best to make arrangements in advance whenever possible.) I really enjoy helping students talk through ideas for papers or work on revisions, so please don#8217;t hesitate to ask for help. Please feel free to how to write a book summary for college e-mail me or, if especially urgent, you may call me on my cell phone (my only phone). Anti Money Laundering? I usually check my e-mail no later than 9:00 p.m. You should strive to obtain the information you need from the website, your classmates, or your handout materials first, however. You can expect me to provide you with readings and assignments that will challenge you and use many different types of intelligences. While you may not like all of them , you can expect me to trees save life essay convey the relevance and objectives for each, so you know why you are doing the things you do. I have high expectations for all of dissertation laundering, you, and you can expect me to help you achieve them. You can also expect me to provide you with more challenging reading and assignments if you find that the mainstream work is write summary for college, not as demanding as your need it to be. However, I need you to communicate with me if this is the case.

I will sit down with you and devise a plan for dissertation anti money laundering, a challenging and rowan application engaging way for you to demonstrate your comprehension of dissertation money, this extra reading, but you need to come see me. Of Pi? Communication: If you have a question regarding an uncomfortable classroom situation, a specific grade, or a disjunction between what Power School/Grade says and dissertation money laundering how you think you are doing in essay thesis statement class, or any other concern, you should talk to me first before getting your parents involved. Most of the time, misunderstandings can be easily remedied with discreet, honest, searching, and respectful communication between the dissertation anti money, student and save trees save the teacher. This mode of communication done pro-actively and independently contributes to a productive relationship between you and your teacher, and encourages self-reliance that prepares you for college and dissertation money adulthood. Essay Thesis Statement? Academic Honesty: Academic dis honesty includes cheating of any sort, fabrication, plagiarism (intentional and unintentional), submitting the same paper or work for more than one class, unless a cross-curricular project, including submitting a paper you wrote for dissertation money laundering, another school, and facilitating academic dishonesty (i.e., helping someone else do any of the above). Any work that is plagiarized will receive a zero for the assignment at a minimum. To help you along with avoiding plagiarism, I am requiring that every student submit each one of their final papers, including a COMPLETE first draft for each, to Turnitin.com , a commonly used and preparing financial helpful site for dissertation money, students and teachers in many high schools, colleges and universities. Please read through page 24 of the 2009-2010 Upper School Handbook for the continuation of this description and our policies on academic dishonesty. I have also provided for you a more thorough explanation of plagiarism informed my own experience working with students ( see class website and look under “PAGES” and then “Research and Writing Resources” ). You are expected to read ALL of these explanations thoroughly before you turn in preparing a personal financial your first essay.

Please look for the class information to get into the Turnitin submission site before your first essay is anti, due. I will post this information in the classroom and on your assignment sheets for pour dentaire, formal papers. Parents are encouraged to read what their kids are reading and discuss as desired and initiated by the student any questions that come up. I ask that parents try to be questioners themselves, rather than telling the student #8220;the answer.#8221; I urge them to resist the temptation to #8220;correct#8221; student writing. Dissertation Money? Instead, parents can point out where they see problems, and etude pour prothesiste dentaire see if the student can figure out anti money what#8217;s wrong on his/her own first. If not, parents might then try identifying the type of problem (e.g. #8220;There is a punctuation error on this line, do you see it?#8221;) and only get more specific if necessary. Please encourage students to rowan essay proofread their work carefully, before they ask for help.

Simply correcting the student#8217;s paper and having him/her type in dissertation changes (or, even more so, typing them for him/her) not only does not allow him/her to think for him/herself, it is also considered an inappropriate degree of dentaire, parental involvement, except in anti cases of specific learning differences, which should be discussed between student, parent, and teacher, so that we are all working toward the same ends. Parents are also invited and encouraged to reaction thesis statement log on to the dissertation money, class website to see what we are doing on a weekly basis. I have compiled (and will continue to add) helpful worksheets, optional comprehension questions for preparing financial statement, more focused reading, assignments, research links, and many other resources on this site. Dissertation Money? I welcome your feedback and ideas for rowan college application, making it a more effective learning tool for dissertation anti laundering, students. Essay Of Pi? Finally, I encourage parents to money laundering come to Academics in the Spotlight, Parent Conferences, and other opportunities that CSS provides for parent-teacher interaction. Beyond these formal events, I welcome your personal communication. Financial Statement Worksheet? The best way to initiate a conversation is through email, as I check my email at least once, and usually several times daily. From there, we can figure out a time to talk in person or by anti money laundering, phone if necessary.

Students : please sign, detach and return the a personal financial, portion below, making sure your parents have signed first. Keep the main document in your notebook for future reference. I have also put the syllabus on the class website for your convenience. Money Laundering? Parents : After you have read this syllabus carefully, please sign and detach this sheet and save essay return it to me via your son/daughter, who should also read and sign it. Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any questions. Upper School English Teacher. I have thoroughly read and dissertation anti money laundering understand the extended essay life, above syllabus.

Student Signature Date. Anti Money? Parent Signature Date. A hard copy of this syllabus will be furnished to all students on save trees save life the first day of class.

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Exit Strategy: In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. 41 Min read time. In 1963, JFK ordered a complete withdrawal from Vietnam. President and anti money, Mrs.

Kennedy arrive at Love Field, Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963. Photograph by Cecil Stoughton, White House, in the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, Boston. Forty years have passed since November 22, 1963, yet painful mysteries remain. What, at the moment of his death, was John F. Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam? It’s one of the big questions, alternately evaded and disputed over four decades of historical writing. It bears on Kennedy’s reputation, of course, though not in an unambiguous way.

And today, larger issues are at stake as the United States faces another indefinite military commitment that might have been avoided and that, perhaps, also cannot be won. The story of Vietnam in 1963 illustrates for college essay us the dissertation laundering, struggle with policy failure. More deeply, appreciating those distant events tests our capacity as a country to look the reality of our own history in the eye. One may usefully introduce the issue by recalling the furor over Robert McNamara’s 1995 memoir In Retrospect. Reaction then focused mainly on thesis McNamara’s assumption of personal responsibility for dissertation anti laundering the war, notably his declaration that his own actions as the extended, Secretary of Defense responsible for dissertation laundering it were “terribly, terribly wrong.” Reviewers paid little attention to the book’s contribution to history. In an a personal statement editorial on April 12, 1995, the New York Times delivered a harsh judgment: “Perhaps the only value of dissertation anti “In Retrospect” is to remind us never to forget that these were men who in the full hubristic glow of their power would not listen to trees life, logical warning or ethical appeal.” And in the New York Times Book Review four days later, Max Frankel wrote that.

David Halberstam, who applied that ironic phrase [The Best and dissertation laundering, the Brightest] to his rendering of the tale 23 years ago, told it better in many ways than Mr. McNamara does now. So too, did the Pentagon Papers, that huge trove of documents assembled at Mr. Preparing! McNamara’s behest when he first recognized a debt to dissertation anti, history. In view of these criticisms, readers who actually pick up McNamara’s book may experience a shock when they scan the table of etude pour dentaire contents and sees this summary of Chapter 3, titled “The Fateful Fall of 1963: August 24November 22, 1963”: A pivotal period of U.S. involvement in Vietnam, punctuated by three important events: the overthrow and assassination of South Vietnam’s president Ngo Dinh Diem; President Kennedy’s decision on October 2 to begin the withdrawal of U.S. forces ; and his assassination fifty days later. Anti Money! (Emphasis added.) Kennedy’s decision on October 2, 1963, to begin the essay statement, withdrawal of U.S. forces from South Vietnam? Contrary to Frankel, this is laundering, not something you will find in Halberstam. Save Trees Save Life! You will not find it in Leslie Gelb’s editorial summary in the Gravel edition of The Pentagon Papers, even though several documents that are important to establishing the money, case for college application essay a Kennedy decision to withdraw were published in that edition. Anti Money Laundering! Nor, with just three exceptions prior to dentaire, last spring’s publication of Howard Jones’s Death of anti money laundering a Generationa milestone in the search for difficult, ferociously hidden truthwill you find it elsewhere in 30 years of historical writing on Vietnam. Did John F. Kennedy give the order to etude pour, withdraw from Vietnam?

Certainly, most Vietnam historians have said “no”or would have if they considered the anti laundering, question worth posing. Reaction Thesis! They have asserted continuity between Kennedy’s policy and Lyndon Johnson’s, while usually claiming that neither president liked the war and also that Kennedy especially had expressed to anti money laundering, friends his desire to get out sometime after the 1964 election. The view that Kennedy would have done what Johnson didstay in Vietnam and gradually escalate the war in 1964 and 1965is held by left, center, and right, from preparing financial worksheet Noam Chomsky to Kai Bird to dissertation, William Gibbons. Preparing A Personal Worksheet! It was promoted forcefully over the years by money the late Walt Rostow, beginning in 1967 with a thick compilation for Johnson himself of Kennedy’s public statements on Vietnam policy and continuing into the 1990s. Gibbons’s three-volume study states it this way: “On November 26 [1963], Johnson approved NSAM [National Security Action Memorandum] 273, reaffirming the write a book for college, U.S. commitment to Vietnam and the continuation of Vietnam programs and policies of the anti money, Kennedy administration.” Equally, Stanley Karnow writes in application essay, his Vietnam: A History (1983) that Johnson’s pledge “essentially signaled a continuation of Kennedy’s policy.” Patrick Lloyd Hatcher, while writing extensively on the Saigon coup, makes no mention at all of the Washington discussions following Johnson’s accession three weeks later. Gary Hess offers summary judgment on the policy that Johnson inherited: “To Kennedy and his fellow New Frontiersmen, it was a doctrine of faith that the problems of Vietnam lent themselves to an American solution.” Kai Bird’s 1998 biography of McGeorge and William Bundy briefly reviews the discussions of anti withdrawal reported to have occurred in late 1963 but accepts the general verdict that Kennedy did not intend to quit. So does Fredrik Logevall, whose substantial 1999 book steadfastly insists that the choices Kennedy faced were either escalation or negotiation and financial statement, did not include withdrawal without negotiation.

All this (and more) is in dissertation money laundering, spite of evidence to the contrary, advanced over the years by a tiny handful of authors. In 1972 Peter Dale Scott first made the case that Johnson’s NSAM 273the document that Gibbons relied on in making the case for continuitywas in fact a departure from Kennedy’s policy; his essay appeared in Gravel’s edition of The Pentagon Papers. Arthur M. Schlesinger’s Robert Kennedy and His Times tells in a few tantalizing pages of the “first application” in October 1963 “of Kennedy’s phased withdrawal plan.” A more thorough treatment appeared in summary, 1992, with the publication of John M. Newman’s JFK and Vietnam.1 Until his retirement in 1994 Newman was a major in dissertation anti money, the U.S. Army, an intelligence officer last stationed at Fort Meade, headquarters of the National Security Agency. As an historian, his specialty is summary for college, deciphering declassified recordsa talent he later applied to the CIA’s long-hidden archives on dissertation anti money laundering Lee Harvey Oswald. Newman’s argument was not a case of write a book summary for college “counterfactual historical reasoning,” as Larry Berman described it in an early response.2 It was not about what might have happened had Kennedy lived.

Newman’s argument was stronger: Kennedy, he claims, had decided to begin a phased withdrawal from anti Vietnam, that he had ordered this withdrawal to begin. Reaction Statement! Here is the chronology, according to Newman: (1) On October 2, 1963, Kennedy received the report of a mission to Saigon by McNamara and dissertation anti money laundering, Maxwell Taylor, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS). Statement! The main recommendations, which appear in Section I(B) of the McNamara-Taylor report, were that a phased withdrawal be completed by the end of 1965 and that the “Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1,000 out of 17,000 U.S. military personnel stationed in Vietnam by the end of 1963.” At Kennedy’s instruction, Press Secretary Pierre Salinger made a public announcement that evening of McNamara’s recommended timetable for withdrawal. (2) On October 5, Kennedy made his formal decision. Anti Money Laundering! Newman quotes the minutes of the meeting that day: The President also said that our decision to etude prothesiste dentaire, remove 1,000 U.S. advisors by December of this year should not be raised formally with Diem. Instead the dissertation anti laundering, action should be carried out routinely as part of our general posture of withdrawing people when they are no longer needed. (Emphasis added.) The passage illustrates two points: (a) that a decision was in fact made on that day, and thesis, (b) that despite the earlier announcement of McNamara’s recommendation, the October 5 decision was not a ruse or pressure tactic to win reforms from Diem (as Richard Reeves, among others, has contended3) but a decision to dissertation, begin withdrawal irrespective of Diem or his reactions.

(3) On October 11, the White House issued NSAM 263, which states: The President approved the military recommendations contained in section I B (1-3) of the write a book summary for college, report, but directed that no formal announcement be made of the implementation of plans to anti money, withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of essay life 1963. In other words, the withdrawal recommended by McNamara on dissertation money laundering October 2 was embraced in reaction statement, secret by Kennedy on October 5 and implemented by his order on October 11, also in secret. Newman argues that the secrecy after October 2 can be explained by a diplomatic reason. Money Laundering! Kennedy did not want Diem or anyone else to interpret the withdrawal as part of any pressure tactic (other steps that were pressure tactics had also been approved).

There was also a political reason: JFK had not decided whether he could get away with claiming that the withdrawal was a result of progress toward the goal of a self-sufficient South Vietnam. The alternative would have been to dentaire, withdraw the troops while acknowledging failure. Dissertation Anti! And this, Newman argues, Kennedy was prepared to do if it became necessary. He saw no reason, however, to take this step before it became necessary. Prothesiste! If the troops could be pulled while the South Vietnamese were still standing, so much the better.4 But from dissertation laundering October 11 onward the CIA’s reporting changed drastically. Official optimism was replaced by extended of pi a searching and comparatively realistic pessimism. Dissertation Anti Money! Newman believes this pessimism, which involved rewriting assessments as far back as the previous July, was a response to NSAM 263. It represented an effort by the CIA to undermine the ostensible rationale of withdrawal with success, and therefore to a personal financial worksheet, obstruct implementation of the plan for withdrawal. Kennedy, needless to say, did not share his full reasoning with the CIA. (4) On November 1 there came the coup in Saigon and dissertation laundering, the assassination of Diem and Nhu.

At a press conference on November 12, Kennedy publicly restated his Vietnam goals. Life Essay! They were “to intensify the struggle” and “to bring Americans out of there.” Victory, which had figured prominently in a similar statement on September 12, was no longer on the list. (5) The Honolulu Conference of senior cabinet and anti laundering, military officials on etude pour November 2021 was called to review plans in the wake of the anti laundering, Saigon coup. The military and the CIA, however, planned to use that meeting to rowan college, pull the rug from under the false optimism which some had used to rationalize NSAM 263. However, Kennedy did not himself believe that we were withdrawing with victory.

It follows that the changing image of the military situation would not have changed JFK’s decision. (6) In Honolulu, McGeorge Bundy prepared a draft of what would eventually be NSAM 273. The plan was to present it to Kennedy after the meeting ended. Dissertation Money Laundering! Dated November 21, this draft reflected the change in military reporting. A Personal Financial Worksheet! It speaks, for anti laundering example, of a need to “turn the tide not only of battle but of belief.” Plans to intensify the struggle, however, do not go beyond what Kennedy would have approved: A paragraph calling for reaction statement actions against dissertation, the North underscores the role of Vietnamese forces: 7. With respect to action against North Vietnam, there should be a detailed plan for the development of additional Government of Vietnam resources , especially for sea-going activity, and such planning should indicate the time and investment necessary to achieve a wholly new level of effectiveness in write, this field of action. (Emphasis added.) (7) At Honolulu, a preliminary plan, known as CINCPAC OPLAN 34-63 and later implemented as OPLAN 34A, was prepared for presentation. This plan called for intensified sabotage raids against the North, employing Vietnamese commandos under U.S. controla significant escalation.5 While JCS chief Taylor had approved preparation of this plan, it had not been shown to McNamara. Tab E of the meeting’s briefing book, also approved by Taylor and also not sent in advance to McNamara, showed that the withdrawal ordered by Kennedy in anti laundering, October was already being gutted, by the device of substituting for the withdrawal of full units that of individual soldiers who were being rotated out of a personal financial statement Vietnam in any event. (8) The final version of NSAM 273, signed by Johnson on November 26, differs from the draft in several respects. Most are minor changes of anti money wording.

The main change is that the reaction essay statement, draft paragraph 7 has been struck in its entirety (there are two pencil slashes on the November 21 draft), and replaced with the following: Planning should include different levels of possible increased activity, and in each instance there be estimates such factors as: A. Resulting damage to North Vietnam; B. The plausibility denial; C. Vietnamese retaliation; D. Dissertation Anti Laundering! Other international reaction. Plans submitted promptly for approval by authority. The new language is incomplete. It does not begin by declaring outright that the subject is attacks on the North. But the thrust is unmistakable, and the restrictive reference to “Government of Vietnam resources” is now missing. Newman concludes that this change effectively provided new authority for U.S.directed combat actions against North Vietnam. Planning for these actions began therewith, and we now know that an reaction essay OPLAN 34A raid in August 1964 provoked the North Vietnamese retaliation against dissertation anti laundering, the destroyer Maddox, which became the first Gulf of Tonkin incident. And this in turn led to the confused incident a few nights later aboard the Turner Joy, to preparing a personal statement worksheet, reports that it too had been attacked, and to Johnson’s overnight decision to seek congressional support for “retaliation” against North Vietnam.

From this, of course, the anti money, larger war then flowed. A reply to Newman’s book appeared very quickly. How To! It came from Noam Chomsky, hardly an apologist for Lyndon Johnson or the war. Chomsky despises the dissertation anti money laundering, Kennedy apologists: equally the old insiders and preparing a personal statement worksheet, the antiwar nostalgicsArthur Schlesinger and money, Oliver Stoneand the historical memory of how to a book summary “the fallen leader who had escalated the attack against Vietnam from terror to aggression.” He reviles efforts to portray Kennedy’s foreign policy views as different from Johnson’s. On this point he may well be fundamentally correct, though for anti money laundering reasons quite different from those that he offers. Chomsky’s Rethinking Camelot challenges Newman’s main points. First, did Kennedy plan to withdraw without victory? Or, were the plans of prothesiste NSAM 263 contingent on a continued perception of success in battle?

Second, did the dissertation laundering, change in NSAM 273 between the prothesiste, draft (which was prepared for Kennedy but never seen by him) and the final version (signed by Johnson) represent a change in dissertation, policy? Chomsky is categorical on both issues: “Two weeks before Kennedy’s assassination, there is not a phrase in reaction thesis, the voluminous internal record that even hints at withdrawal without victory.” Elsewhere he notes that “[t]he withdrawal-without-victory thesis rests on the assumption that Kennedy realized that the dissertation anti laundering, optimistic military reports were incorrect. . . . Not a trace of supporting evidence appears in the internal record, or is suggested [by Newman].” And, as for the changes to NSAM 273: “There is no relevant difference between the two documents [draft and final], except that the LBJ version is weaker and more evasive.” Chomsky denies Newman’s claim that the new version of college paragraph 7 in the final draft of dissertation anti money NSAM 273 signed by Johnson on a personal financial statement November 26 opened the way for OPLAN 34A and the use of U.S.directed forces in covert operations against North Vietnam. Rather, he reads the Johnson version as applying only to dissertation money laundering, Government of Vietnam forces, even though the language restricting action to those forces is a book summary, no longer there. Peter Dale Scott, the former diplomat, professor of English at money laundering, the University of California, Berkeley, and author of part of the Pentagon Papers, replied to Chomsky on a personal worksheet both points almost immediately.

On the first point, withdrawal without victory, Scott writes: Following [Leslie] Gelb, Chomsky alleges that Kennedy’s withdrawal planning was in response to an “optimistic mid-1962 assessment.” . . . But in fact the anti laundering, planning was first ordered by thesis McNamara in anti money, May 1962. This was one month after ambassador Kenneth Galbraith, disenchanted after a presidentially ordered visit to Vietnam, had proposed a “political solution” based in part on a proposal to preparing financial worksheet, the Soviets entertaining “phased American withdrawal.” Scott goes on to point out that it cannot be proven that Galbraith’s recommendation was responsible for McNamara’s order. But there is good reason to believe they were linked, that both reflected Kennedy’s long-term strategy on Vietnam.6 As for the proposition that no evidence hinting at withdrawal without victory exists, Scott argues that Chomsky’s “internal planning record”for the most part the Pentagon Papers“is in fact an edited version of the primary documents.” Moreover, “the documentary record is anti, conspicuously defective” for November 1963. “[I]n all three editions of the Pentagon Papers there are no complete documents between the five [coup] cables of October 30 and McNamara’s memorandum of how to write a book for college December 21; the 600 pages of documents from the Kennedy Administration end on October 30.”

On the second point, concerning NSAM 273, Scott writes that Chomsky reads “Johnson’s NSAM as if it were as contextless as a Dead Sea Scroll,” dismissing its importance and ignoring “early accounts of it as a ‘major decision,’ a ‘pledge’ that determined ‘all that would follow,’ from journalists as diverse as Tom Wicker, Marvin Kalb, and I. F. Stone.” Scott writes that Chomsky also ignores Taylor’s memo to President Johnson of January 22, 1964, which cites NSAM 273 as authority to “prepare to escalate operations against North Vietnam.” In the course of this controversy, the ground had narrowed sharply. After Newman’s book, no one seriously disputed that Kennedy was contemplating withdrawal from anti money laundering Vietnam. Instead, the trees save life, disagreements focused on anti four questions: Did the etude pour, withdrawal plans depend on the perception of dissertation money victory? Did Kennedy act on his plans? Were actions he may have taken noisy but cosmetic, a pressure tactic aimed at Diem or a ploy for the American public, or were they for extended essay real? And were the OPLAN 34A operations that got under way following Kennedy’s death a sharp departure from previous U.S. policy or merely a “Government of Vietnam” activity consonant with intensifying the war in the South? The publication of McNamara’s In Retrospect sharpened the terms of debate. Dissertation Money! Some key source materials, including the texts of the McNamara-Taylor report and those of NSAM 263 and 273, have been in the public domain for years.

McNamara’s 1995 account of his September 1963 mission to Vietnam makes substantial use of the extended life of pi, McNamara-Taylor report and the quotations presented are a study in ambiguity. He quotes General Maxwell Taylor’s apparent conviction that the war could be won by the end of 1965, but then he acknowledges that there were “conflicting reports about military progress and political stability” and describes the impressive doubts of those he spoke with that the South Vietnamese government was capable of the effective actions that military victory required: The military campaign has made great progress and continues to progress. . . . There are serious political tensions in Saigon. . . . Further repressive actions by Diem and Nhu could change the present favorable military trends. . . . It is not clear that pressures exerted by dissertation anti the U.S. Save Save Life Essay! will move Diem and Nhu toward moderation. . . . The prospects that a replacement regime would be an improvement appear to be about 50-50. The drift seems clear enough: the Diem government is failing and there is no reason to think a replacement would be better. Money! But the references to college, “great progress” leave room for doubt. Withdrawal with victory or without it? McNamara then reproduces the precise wording of the military recommendations from Section I(B) of the report:

We recommend that: [1] General Harkins review with Diem the military changes necessary to complete the military campaign in the Northern and Central areas by the end of 1964, and in the Delta by the end of 1965. [2] A program be established to train Vietnamese so that essential functions now performed by U.S. military personnel can be carried out by Vietnamese by the end of 1965. It should be possible to withdraw the bulk of U.S. personnel by that time. [3] In accordance with the program to train progressively Vietnamese to take over dissertation anti laundering military functions, the statement, Defense Department should announce in the very near future presently prepared plans to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963. The report then went on to make a number of dissertation money recommendations to “impress upon Diem our disapproval of his political program.” These matters dealt with the repression of the Buddhists and related issues; the recommendation to announce plans to withdraw 1,000 soldiers is not listed under this heading. The reason for the ambiguity over the military situation, as well as the etude pour, vague “it should be possible” wording of the second recommendation, becomes clearer when McNamara describes the dissertation money, National Security Council meeting of write a book summary October 2, 1963, which revealed a “total lack of consensus” over the battlefield situation: One faction believed military progress had been good and training had progressed to the point where we could begin to withdraw. Dissertation Money Laundering! A second faction did not see the war as progressing well and did not see the South Vietnamese showing evidence of successful training. But they, too, agreed that we should begin to withdraw. . . . The third faction, representing the majority, considered the South Vietnamese trainable but believed our training had not been in place long enough to achieve results and, therefore, should continue at current levels. As McNamara’s 1986 oral history, on how to a book summary for college deposit at the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library, makes clear (but his book does not), he was himself in the second group, who favored withdrawal without victorynot necessarily admitting or even predicting defeat, but accepting uncertainty as to what would follow. The denouement came shortly thereafter: After much debate, the president endorsed our recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by December 31, 1963.

He did so, I recall, without indicating his reasoning. In any event, because objections had been so intense and because I suspected others might try to get him to reverse the decision, I urged him to announce it publicly. That would set it in concrete. . . . The president finally agreed, and the announcement was released by Pierre Salinger after the meeting. Before a large audience at the LBJ Library on dissertation May 1, 1995, McNamara restated his account of this meeting and stressed its importance. He confirmed that President Kennedy’s action had three elements: (1) complete withdrawal “by December 31, 1965,” (2) the first 1,000 out by the end of 1963, and (3) a public announcement, to set these decisions “in concrete,” which was made. Reaction Statement! McNamara also added the dissertation anti, critical information that there exists a tape of this meeting, in the John F. Kennedy Library in Boston, to rowan, which he had access and on which his account is based. The existence of money a taping system in extended of pi, JFK’s oval office had become known over the years, particularly through the release of partial transcripts of the historic meeting of the “ExComm” during the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962. But the full extent of Kennedy’s taping was not known. And, according to McNamara, access to particular tapes was tightly controlled by representatives of the Kennedy family. When McNamara spoke in anti money, Austin, only he and essay life of pi, his coauthor, Brian VanDeMark, had been granted the privilege of listening to the actual tape recordings of Kennedy’s White House meetings on Vietnam.

In 1997, however, this situation changed. The Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB), an independent civilian body established under the 1992 JFK Records Act that has already been responsible for the release of millions of pages of official records deemed relevant to Kennedy’s assassination, ruled that his tapes relating to Vietnam decision-making should be released. In July the JFK Library began releasing key tapes, including those of the withdrawal meetings on October 2 and 5, 1963.7. A careful review of the October 2 meeting makes clear that McNamara’s account is essentially accurate and even to some degree understated. One can hear McNamarathe voice is dissertation, unmistakablearguing for preparing a personal financial statement a firm timetable to withdraw all U.S. forces from money laundering Vietnam, whether the war can be won in 1964, which he doubts, or not. McNamara is emphatic: “We need a way to get out of Vietnam, and this is a way of doing it.” In Retrospect’s discussion of Kennedy’s decision to withdraw ends at this point. McNamara makes no mention of NSAM 263.

However, on the tape of the meeting of October 5, 1963, one can clearly hear a voiceit may be Robert McNamara or McGeorge Bundyasking President John F. Kennedy for “formal approval” of “items one, two, and three” on essay life of pi a paper evidently in front of them. It is dissertation anti laundering, clear that one of reaction these items is the recommendation to withdraw 1,000 men by the end of 1963, the rationale being that they are no longer needed. This short exchange is thus unmistakably a request for dissertation anti money a formal presidential decision concerning the McNamara-Taylor recommendations. After a short discussion of the possible political effect in Vietnam of essay announcing this decision, the voice of dissertation JFK can be clearly heard: “Let’s go on ahead and do it,” followed by a few words deciphered by historian George Eliades as “without making a public statement about it.” Unfortunately, the last White House tape from the Kennedy administration is a personal financial statement, dated November 7, 1963. The archivists at the JFK Library have no information on why the tapings either ended or are unavailable for later dates. McNamara states that he has “no specific memory” of the Honolulu Conference that he was sent to chair on November 20, 1963. The President of the dissertation money laundering, United States does not make decisions in a vacuum.

Agencies have to be notified, plans have to be made, actions have to be taken. Part of the enduring doubt over Kennedy’s decision to withdraw U.S. forces from Vietnam surely stems from the failure of this decision to cast a shadow in the primary record, and particularly in extended, the Pentagon Papers, on which so many historians have relied for so many years. Furthermore, a persistent skeptic can still point to dissertation money, the “it should be possible” language of the etude dentaire, McNamara-Taylor Report with respect to the final date of anti money laundering 1965 as leaving an “out” for the case where the military situation might turn sour. In two years and two months, much can happen, as events would prove. But as Scott already pointed out to Chomsky in extended, 1993, the primary record available to date has been heavily edited. Documents from November 1, 1963, through early December are conspicuously missing. So, we now learn, are many others. In January 1998, again under the supervision of the ARRB, about 900 pages of new materials were declassified and released from the anti laundering, JCS archives. These include important records from preparing a personal May 1963, from October, and anti money, from the period immediately following Kennedy’s death; many had been reviewed for declassification in 1989 but were not declassified at that time. They clarify considerably the trees life essay, nature of the “presently prepared plans” referred to in the McNamara-Taylor third recommendation, and they give the military leadership’s interpretation of the direction they were getting from JFK. Since it is well known that the Pentagon did not favor withdrawal, it is fair to assume that if wiggle room existed in the President’s instructions it would surface in dissertation anti laundering, these documents.

Many of the new documents relate to rowan application, the Eighth Secretary of Defense Conference, held in Honolulu on May 6, 1963. Dissertation Anti! Here one gets a taste of McNamara’s skepticism and essay statement, the replies of the anti money laundering, brass. For instance, at one point the secretary extracts a concession that “50-60 percent of VC weapons were of U.S. origin.” A bit later, we read: “GEN HARKINS stated that for effective control the border should be defined, marked and cleared similar to extended of pi, the Greek boundary with Albania and Bulgaria. However, this cannot be done in the foreseeable future.” Turning to the development of a “comprehensive plan,” the documents immediately reflect discussions of a phase-down in the U.S. presence. For instance: “SEC MCNAMARA stated that our efforts should be directed toward turning over equipment now in U.S. units supporting the Vietnamese as rapidly as possible.

He added that we must avoid creating a situation that now obtains in Korea where we are presently spending almost half a billion dollars per year in foreign aid.” A little later, we find a decision noted: “1. Draw up training plans for the RVNAF that will permit us to start an earlier withdrawal of U.S. personnel than proposed under the plans presented.” And: “d. Plan to withdraw 1000 U.S. military personnel from RVN by December 1963.” Further discussion of the 1,000 man withdrawal is anti money, recorded shortly: GEN HARKINS emphasized that he did not want to how to write a book summary for college, gather up 1,000 U.S. personnel and have them depart with bands playing, flags flying etc.

This would have a bad effect on the Vietnamese, to be pulling out just when it appears they are winning. SEC MCNAMARA stated that this would have to be handled carefully due to the psychological impact. Dissertation Laundering! However, there should be an intensive training program of RVNAF to allow removal of U.S. units rather than individuals. There follows considerable discussion of proposals to launch raids on save trees life essay North Vietnam. For Geneva convention reasons, it is agreed that these must be covert. Use of Laos is not feasible; there are no land entries through the demilitarized zone. As for sea entry, available boats are susceptible to anti money laundering, weather and too slow. Sea is the only means of exfiltration.

However, for any major operation the RVN naval craft are not qualified to tangle with DRV craft. . . . Build-up in CIA resources by end CY 1963 includes 40 teams in addition to 9 in essay, country. New high speed armed boats will be available for infiltration and exfiltration in September, providing a year-round, all-weather capability. Thus emerges an answer to one of the critical questions separating Newman and dissertation anti laundering, Scott from Chomsky. OPLAN 34A, when it emerged in write for college, November, would be a CIA operation. It could not be otherwise, for dissertation anti laundering the Government of how to a book summary for college Vietnam did not possess the boats.8. Eventually, discussion turns to projected force structures, and a table titled “CPSVNFORECAST OF PHASE-OUT OF US FORCES” gives precise estimates, by major unit, of the projected American commitment through 1968. Dissertation Anti Money Laundering! McNamara’s reaction to this timetable is recorded clearly: In connection with this presentation, made by how to write a book for college COMUSMACV (attached hereto), the Secretary of Defense stated that the phase-out appears too slow. He directed that training plans be developed for the GVN by CINCPAC which will permit a more rapid phase-out of U.S. forces, stating specifically that we should review our plans for pilot training with the view to accelerating it materially. He made particular point of the anti money laundering, desirability of speeding up training of helicopter pilots, so that we may give the life of pi, Vietnamese our copters and thus be able to move our own forces out. ACTION: Joint Staff (J-3); message directive to CINCPAC, info COMUSMACV. Dissertation Money Laundering! (Emphasis added.)

The May conference thus fills in life essay, the primary record: plans were under development for the complete withdrawal of U.S. forces from anti money Vietnam. On October 2, 1963, as we have previously seen, President Kennedy made clear his determination to implement those plansto withdraw 1,000 troops by the end of 1963, and to get almost all the rowan college, rest out by the end of 1965. There followed, on dissertation anti laundering October 4, a memorandum titled “South Vietnam Actions” from reaction thesis statement General Maxwell Taylor to his fellow Joint Chiefs of Staff, Generals May, Wheeler, Shoup, and Admiral McDonald, that reads: b. The program currently in anti, progress to train Vietnamese forces will be reviewed and accelerated as necessary to insure that all essential functions visualized to be required for the projected operational environment, to include those now performed by U.S. military units and personnel, can be assumed properly by the Vietnamese by the end of calendar year 1965. Of Pi! All planning will be directed towards preparing RVN forces for the withdrawal of money all U.S. special assistance units and personnel by the end of calendar year 1965. (Emphasis added.) “All planning” is an unconditional phrase. There is no contingency here, or elsewhere in this memorandum.

The next paragraph reads: c. Execute the plan to withdraw 1,000 U.S. military personnel by the end of 1963 per essay life, your DTG 212201Z July, and as approved for planning by JCS DTG 062042Z September. Previous guidance on the public affairs annex is altered to the extent that the action will now be treated in money, low key, as the initial increment of U.S. forces whose presence is no longer required because (a) Vietnamese forces have been trained to save trees save essay, assume the function involved; or (b) the dissertation anti money, function for which they came to Vietnam has been completed. Rowan Application! (Emphasis added.) This resolves the question of how the initial withdrawal was to be carried out. It was not to be a noisy or cosmetic affair, designed to please either U.S. Dissertation! opinion or to change policies in Saigon. It was rather to be a low-key, matter-of-fact beginning to a process that would play out over essay the following two years. The final paragraph of Taylor’s memorandum underlines this point by directing that “specific checkpoints will be established now against which progress can be evaluated on a quarterly basis.” There is much more in the JCS documents to show that Kennedy was well aware of the evidence that South Vietnam was, in laundering, fact, losing the etude pour prothesiste, war. But it hardly matters. The withdrawal decided on was unconditional, and money laundering, did not depend on military progress or lack of it. Four days after Kennedy was killed, NSAM 273 incorporated the new president’s directives into policy. It made clear that the objectives of Johnson’s policy remained the same as Kennedy’s: “to assist the pour prothesiste, people and government of dissertation South Vietnam to win their contest against the externally directed and supported Communist conspiracy” through training support and without the life of pi, application of overt U.S. military force.

But Johnson had also approved intensified planning for dissertation anti money laundering covert action against North Vietnam by CIA-supported South Vietnamese forces. With this, McNamara confirms one of Newman’s central claims: NSAM 273 changed policy. Yes, the “central objectives” remained the reaction essay statement, same: a Vietnamese war with no “overt U.S. military force.” But covert force is still “U.S. Laundering! military force.” And that was introduced or at trees, least first approved, as McNamara writes, by NSAM 273 within four days of Kennedy’s assassination.Moreover, McNamara effectively supports Newman on the meaning of NSAM 273’s seventh paragraph, which was inserted in dissertation anti money laundering, the draft (as we have seen) sometime between November 21 and 26after the Honolulu meeting had adjourned and probably after Kennedy died. A final military document is relevant here. Dated December 11, 1963, it is titled “Department of Defense Actions to Implement NSAM No. 273, 26 November 1963.” This document was prepared by Marine Lieutenant Colonel M. C. Dalby; it is from CINCPAC files and is labeled “Group 1Excluded from Automatic Downgrading and Declassification.” The document begins coldly: “After reviewing the recent discussions of South Vietnam which occurred in Honolulu and after discussing the matter further with Ambassador Lodge, the President directed that certain guidance be issued to various Government Agencies. Trees Life Essay! This was promulgated in the form of anti National Security Action Memorandum 273, 26 November 1963.” There is college application essay, no reference to the change of dissertation anti money commander in chief, which had occurred within the time frame indicated by the opening sentence. The particular importance of this document is its reference to paragraph 7 of NSAM 273. Planning for intensified action against essay of pi, North Vietnam was directed following the Honolulu Conference (JCS 3697, 26 Nov 1963) in the form of a 12-month program. . . . A deadline of 20 Dec 63 has been set for completion of the plan. There are then notes that these requirements were communicated to CINCPAC and COMUSMACV on December 2, with a reply from COMUSMACV on dissertation anti laundering December 3. CIA station guidance, however, happened even more rapidly than that:

CIA guidance to Saigon Station for intensified planning was dispatched following the Honolulu Conference (CAS 84972, 25 Nov 63). (Emphasis added.) In other words, the CIA began developing intensified plans to implement OPLAN 34A, the program of seaborne raids and sabotage against prothesiste dentaire, North Vietnam that would lead to the Gulf of Tonkin incident and eventually to the wider war, one day before President Johnson signed the directive authorizing that action. How this happened, and laundering, its precise significance, remains to be determined.9. John F. Kennedy had formally decided to withdraw from Vietnam, whether we were winning or not. Robert McNamara, who did not believe we were winning, supported this decision.10 The first stage of withdrawal had been ordered. The final date, two years later, had been specified. These decisions were taken, and even placed, in an oblique and carefully limited way, before the public. Howard Jones makes two large contributions to this tale. One of them is simply range, depth, and completeness.

His recent book Death of a Generation is prothesiste, a full history of how the assassinations of Diem and then of JFK prolonged a war that otherwise might have ended quietly within a few years. Where this essay has presented the story-within-a-story of just a few Washington weeks, Jones goes back to the start of the 1960s, chronicling the struggle for power and money laundering, policy that marked the whole of Kennedy’s thousand days. And he presents a reasonably complete account of the archival record surrounding the withdrawal decisions of a book October 1963. Equally important, Jones’s reach extends to Saigon. In a long and fascinating section he outlines the intrigues that led to the murders of Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu on November 1, 1963. Here, Kennedy’s White House appears at its worst. It was fractious, disorganized, preoccupied with American politics, ignorant of the forces it faced in Vietnam.

Diem’s mistreatment of the Buddhists, which provoked the monk Quang Duc to burn himself on a Saigon street in June 1963, traumatized the White House. Anti! And following that incident, Madame Nhu and her remarks about write summary “barbecued bonzes” were an irritant out of proportion to dissertation, their importance. Trees Life Essay! Thus, in part, the decision to dissociate from Diem. In August 1963 it was a faction of subordinates (Averell Harriman, Roger Hilsman, Michael Forrestal) who seized the opportunity to foment a Saigon coup, taking advantage of the absence of the most senior officials over money a Washington weekend. Then, having set events in motion, the White House became preoccupied with a deniability that was wholly implausible. Partly as a result it had limited contact with the financial worksheet, conspirators and was unable to dissertation money laundering, protect Diem and Nhu when the coup came.

Diem was indefensible in many ways. But the coup went forward with no alternative in view; and prothesiste, as the French ambassador to money laundering, Saigon put it at the time: “any other government will be even more dependent on extended of pi the Americans, will be obedient to them in all things, and so there will be no chance for peace.” Meanwhile, there are tantalizing undercurrents of anti what might have been. Was Nhu in preparing financial, discussions with intermediaries for Ho Chi Minh, with the possibility that there might have been a deal between North and South to boot the Americans from Vietnam? It appears that he was. And had he succeeded, it would have saved infinite trouble. U.S. Dissertation Anti Money Laundering! policy over Vietnam changed again in late November1963. Rowan Application! The main change was a decision to authorize OPLAN 34-Aminor but fateful commando raids against targets in dissertation anti money, the North. The decision to launch covert attacks on North Vietnam does not by itself establish that Lyndon Johnson wanted a larger war. As tapes recently released from the LBJ Library establish, Johnson also knew that Vietnam was a trap, a tragedy in the making. He feared that a catastrophe would follow.

In this respect, Johnson and Kennedy were similar. And yet, Johnson could not muster Kennedy’s determination, one might say blind determination, to avoid the statement worksheet, disaster. He acceded to dissertation anti money laundering, proposals for covert action, and he promised the military, on November 24, that they could have what they wanted. Etude Dentaire! And so the sequence of events that led to the Tonkin Gulf, to our retaliation, to the North Vietnamese decision to dissertation money, introduce their own main forces in preparing a personal statement worksheet, the South, and to our decision to introduce main forces, played out. The days from Honolulu to NSAM 273, November 20 to 26, 1963, simply marked the first turning point.

It is not difficult to understand why Johnson felt obliged to assert his commitment to Vietnam in November 1963. To continue with Kennedy’s withdrawal, after his death, would have been difficult, since the American public had not been told that the war was being lost. Dissertation Anti Money Laundering! Nor had they been told that Kennedy had actually ordered our withdrawal. To maintain our commitment, therefore, was to maintain the preparing financial worksheet, illusion of dissertation anti money continuity, and thisin the moment of trauma that followed the assassinationwas Johnson’s paramount political objective. Moreover, delay in the resolution of the Vietnam problem in late 1963 did not necessarily entail the war that followed. Our commitment then was still small. Tonkin Gulf and its aftermath lay almost a year into the future. Notwithstanding the commando raids, a diplomatic solution might have been found later on. Left in charge, Lyndon Johnson temporized, agonized, and cursed the fates.

But ultimately he committed us to essay, war that he knew in advance would be practically impossible to win. Anti Laundering! Nothing can erase this. And yet meanwhile, alongside McNamara, he too prevented any steps that might lead to an invasion of the North, direct conflict with China, and nuclear confrontation. He bided his time, until the trauma of Tet in January of 1968 and his own departure from preparing financial worksheet politics in March liberated him to do what Kennedy had done over Laos in 1961: send Harriman to dissertation anti, end it at preparing, the negotiating table. Why did Johnson do it? He was not misinformed about the prospects for sucess. He was not crazy. His political fate in 1964 did not depend on anti laundering a show of toughness. But one possibility is that the alternatives, as he saw them, were worse.

To appreciate this possibility, one needs to grasp not one but two exceptionally thorny nettles: that of the strategic balance in the early 1960s on the one hand, and that of the assassination of John F. Kennedy on the other. In contemplating Johnson’s dilemma we find ourselves poised between the two black holes of the modern history of the United States.11. Kennedy’s decision to withdraw from rowan essay Vietnam was, as Jones writes, “unconditional, for he approved a calendar of dissertation events that did not necessitate a victory.” It was also part of a larger strategy, of a sequence that included the Laos and Berlin settlements in 1961, the non-invasion of Cuba in 1962, the Test Ban Treaty in 1963. Kennedy subordinated the timing of these events to rowan, politics: he was quite prepared to leave soldiers in dissertation, harm’s way until after his own reelection. His larger goal after that was to settle the Cold War, without either victory or defeata strategic vision laid out in JFK’s commencement speech at American University on June 10, 1963.

And that was, partly, a question of atomic survivala subject that can only pour prothesiste dentaire be said to have obsessed America’s civilian leadership in dissertation money laundering, those days, and for very good reason. Reaction Statement! The Soviet Union, which had at anti laundering, that time only four intercontinental rockets capable of hitting the U.S. Write Summary For College! mainland, was not the danger that rational men most feared. The United States held an overwhelming nuclear advantage in anti money, late 1963. Accordingly, our nuclear plans were not actually about deterrence. Rather, then as evidently again now, they envisioned preventive war fought over a pretext.12 There were those who were dedicated to carrying out those plans at for college, the appropriate moment. In July 1961, the nuclear planners had specified that the optimal moment for such an attack would come at the end of 1963. And yet, standing against them (as Daniel Ellsberg was told at dissertation, the time), the college application, civilian leaders of the United States were determined never, under any circumstances, to allow U.S. nuclear weapons to be used firstnot in Laos or Vietnam, nor against China, not over Cuba or Berlin, nor against the Soviet Union. For political reasons, at a moment when Americans had been propagandized into thinking of the money, atomic bomb as their best defense, this was the deepest secret of the time. Was it also a deadly secret?

Did LBJ have reason to fear, on the day he took office, that he was facing a nuclear coup d’etat?13 Similar questions have engendered scorn for 40 years. But they are not illegitimateno more so, let me venture, than the idea that Kennedy really had decided to quit Vietnam. Perhaps someday a historian will answer them as well as Howard Jones has now resolved the Vietnam puzzle. Meanwhile, let us hope that we might learn something about the need to recognize and cope with policy failure. And as for the truth behind the darkest state secrets, let us also hope that the victims of September 11, 2001, don’t have to wait as long. Rowan Application Essay! James K. Galbraith, a 2003 Carnegie Scholar, holds the Lloyd M. Bentsen, Jr., Chair of Government/Business Relations at the Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, University of Texas at Austin. 1 JFK and Vietnam has an laundering odd story, in a personal financial worksheet, which I should acknowledge a small role. Anti Money Laundering! On release, it received a front-page review by Arthur Schlesinger Jr. in save save, the New York Times Book Review. Laundering! But of some 32,000 copies printed (in two printings, according to Newman) only write a book about 10,000 were sold before Warner Books abruptly ceased selling the hardcovera fact I discovered on my own in the fall of 1993, when I attempted to assign it to a graduate class. I met Newman in November 1993, partly through the good offices of the LBJ Library. Money! I carried his grievance personally to an honorable high official of Time Warner, whose intervention secured the return of his rights.

Still, the hardback was never reissued, and no paperback has appeared. 2 “Counterfactual Historical Reasoning: NSAM 263 and NSAM 273,” mimeo for a conference at the LBJ Library, 1415 October 1993, published as “NSAM 263 and etude prothesiste, 273: Manipulating History” in anti laundering, Lloyd C. Gardner and Ted Gittinger, eds., Vietnam: The Early Decisions (University of Texas Press, 1997). 3 Reeves, author of college essay President Kennedy: Profile of Power, made this argument in a televised lecture at the LBJ Library in early 1995. 4 In a contribution to Vietnam: The Early Decisions, Newman adds a further reason: Kennedy had, on October 2, allowed McNamara and Taylor to dissertation anti money laundering, announce, as their recommended target date, that the withdrawal be completed by etude prothesiste 1965. It would have been awkward to follow just three days later with a presidential decision making clear that the timetable was, in fact, a firm one. 5 The fate of these commandos surfaced in the New York Times of anti money laundering 14 April 1995, where it was reported that after 30 years in prison, many were denied immigration to the United States because of a lack of service records. 6 My father has said many times that Kennedy sent him to Vietnam “because he knew I did not have an open mind.” 7 I requested release of the tapes in a letter to the ARRB in rowan, November 1996.

8 CINCPAC was developing these plans, but they had not been shown to JFK, according to Newman. 9 According to Newman, LBJ took a belligerent tone at his first Vietnam meeting as President on November 24, and McGeorge Bundy attributed the escalatory language in dissertation anti money laundering, NSAM 273 to this. However, by any standard the pour dentaire, CIA moved quickly, and by this account it relied on the discussions at Honoluluwhich occurred while JFK was still alive. 10 I have in dissertation laundering, this narrative deliberately underplayed the role of my own father, who was repeatedly called upon by Kennedy to deliver arguments in favor of disengagement from Vietnam, and preparing statement, whose 1962 recommendation for phased withdrawal was probably the basis of the 1963 orders. My father did not know that the dissertation laundering, actual decision was taken in October 1963, but he is in no doubt as to Kennedy’s determination: he recalls Kennedy in 1962 saying to him privately and unmistakably that withdrawal from Vietnam, as that from Laos and the detachment from Cuba, was a matter of political timing. 11 My father retains a distinct, chilling recollection of LBJ’s words to him, in private, on save life essay one of their last meetings before the dissertation laundering, Vietnam War finally drove them apart: “You may not like what I’m doing in Vietnam, Ken, but you would not believe what would happen if I were not here.” 12 Heather Purcell and I documented these nightmares in an article published in 1994 entitled “Did the U.S.

Military Plan a Nuclear First Strike for 1963?” It is still available on the website of the American Prospect. When once I asked the late Walt Rostow if he knew anything about the National Security Council meeting of July 20, 1961 (at which these plans were presented), he responded with no hesitation: “Do you mean the one where they wanted to blow up the trees essay, world?” 13 There is no doubt that the danger of nuclear war was on Johnson’s mind. It also explains important points about his behavior in dissertation anti money, those days, including his orders to trees save life essay, Earl Warren and Richard Russell (the latter in a phone call, a recording of which has long been available on the C-SPAN website) as to how they would conduct their commission. The point to appreciate is that there is only one way a war could have started at that time: by preemptive attack by the United States against the Soviet Union. 19972003 by James K. Dissertation Money Laundering! Galbraith. All rights reserved. Originally published in the October/November 2003 issue of etude dentaire Boston Review. September 01, 2003. 41 Min read time. Vital reading on politics, literature, and more in dissertation anti, your inbox.

The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. The German Left Is Its Own Worst Enemy. Kenya#039;s New Electoral Authoritarianism. Business as Usual: The Long History of Corporate Personhood. Searching for of pi Mao in dissertation anti money laundering, Xi Jinping#039;s China. Copyright 1993-2017 Boston Review and its authors.

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A critical analysis of anti-money laundering and funding of terrorism

Writing Better University Essays/Process words. On this page you find a list of process words that are often used. Anti Money Laundering. This list is in college essay, part based on Jordan (1999). The process words are given in dissertation money laundering, alphabetical order. Probably the most common process words are: discuss , describe , explain , compare , evaluate , and criticize . Account for asks for an explanation. Even though it looks similar to give an account of, this process word is rather different. You should give a description with details.

The description should clarify the concept, and don’t forget to give reasons. Analyze calls for preparing statement, an outline of the components. Take the issue, and break it down (divide) into the parts that make up the issue. Dissertation Money. Your task is not only to write for college describe the different parts of the issue, but also to show (examine) how they relate to each other. Argue is about making a case. You’re often asked to argue for or against something.

In order to make a good case, your answer will need to include convincing evidence. Your argument will be more convincing if it’s logically structured. Even though the question often asks for a one-sided case, don’t forget the arguments against: even if it’s to dismiss them. If you don’t agree with the proposition, this is fine: what counts is the anti laundering case you present. Assess asks you to make a judgement of the value or importance of something. Your answer should focus on both sides of the coin, weighing up the positive and application essay, negative aspects. It’s often necessary to spend much time on dissertation anti the areas that are disputed. In order to provide a credible answer, back up your answer with references and etude prothesiste, good examples. Even though you may have a good example from your own experience, it’s usually better to choose a more authoritative source. Calculate asks you to estimate the laundering extent of how to write a book summary something.

You should take great care to define the key dimensions and determine how they are measured. Weigh up different reasons carefully. In the social sciences, the estimate itself is often secondary to how you evaluate the key dimensions. Characterize is dissertation money mostly another word for describe. You’re looking for the key dimensions (characteristics) of a concept. Often it’s necessary to compare to other concepts to make clear the limit. Classify is very similar to analyze. The key difference is possibly that this process word explicitly asks you to come up with some sort of classification: a way to divide. You probably want to spend a bit more time on the boundaries, on how the identified dimensions are different. Comment is similar to the content words analyze and assess.

It’s indeed often considered a combination of the two. Be careful not merely to etude dentaire summarize the issue, but include some form of evaluation. This process word asks you to explain the importance of something. Your ability to describe an issue is usually only money appreciated in college application essay, conjunction with a critical argument. Compare always involves two or more issues. Focus on anti money laundering what characterizes the etude pour prothesiste dentaire issues, and your answer will include both the similarities and differences.

This content word often occurs in conjunction with contrast. Technically, compare is about similarities, but for dissertation money, a balanced answer you’ll need to include the write differences, too. Your conclusion may include a statement of which of the issues or options discussed you consider preferable. Consider asks you to think carefully about something. This process word is sometimes followed by an example or case study, but also a theoretical perspective. Take great care to include these aspects, because you’ll be (partly) marked on how well you apply whatever the question is to this particular example or theory. Contrast is anti like a twin to compare. Two or more issues or options are involved, and for college, your answer should focus on the differences.

Technically, contrast does not ask you to include similarities, but a balanced answer will include these, too. Your conclusion may include a statement of which of the issues or options discussed you consider preferable. Criticize asks for a careful judgement of anti laundering a statement or point of view. You’re often asked to pour make statements about the value or truth of a statement. Dissertation Money. Make sure you point out trees faults. It’s important to state by which criteria of anti evaluation your answer is guided. Your illustrations should not be of general nature, but specific. If the illustrative examples are not general in nature, too, then say so. Your answer will judge the merit of the views included in the statement. Trees Essay. Often you can—and should—link to underlying theories and approaches. These should be included in the evaluation, too.

Your answer also needs to discuss the anti money nature and quality of evidence you cited for and against the different views. Reaction Essay Thesis. Always back up your argument with evidence and reasoning. Deduce asks you to dissertation reach a conclusion based on extended essay something. Make clear how you reach this conclusion. Define may look innocent, but the devil is often in dissertation laundering, the detail.

Similar to analyze, you’re after the components of an issue of concept. You don’t want just any definition, but one that discusses the different meanings of a concept, the different ways it can be interpreted. Often, you can link the answer to how different schools of extended essay of pi thought use a term. In this case your task is to tease out the different understandings and state the different meanings. Your answer necessarily includes an appreciation of the different components, but you should also pay attention to the differences to dissertation other concepts: how is it distinct from something else. Precision is important in your answer, and your answer should always go beyond common-sense interpretations.

Sometimes you’re asked to write for a specific audience, such as a student encyclopaedia, and you should bear this in mind. Demonstrate asks you to save trees life show something as clearly as you can. Dissertation Anti Laundering. You’ll need to use an example (illustration) to essay statement this extent. Dissertation Anti Money Laundering. Make sure the illustration is relevant and state clearly how it is relevant. Describe is one of the most straight-forward tasks. You’re asked to outline the extended essay of pi main aspects of an issue or point of view. Say what something is dissertation money laundering like. Sometimes the reaction essay statement order of events is important. Dissertation Money. Your answer should always include illustrative examples to bring the argument alive. The structure of the answer is important: don’t jump around, picking up bits and pieces on the way.

Instead, plan a logical and coherent way in order to cover all the main aspects. This process word often occurs together with others, such as in describe and criticize. Determine asks you to find out something, maybe to calculate or estimate something. You should always describe how you arrive at the answer, including an appreciation of how not to proceed. Be open about the shortcomings or potential dangers of your approach. Differentiate between something and something else is a combination of describe and define.

You’re asked to focus on the differences. Often it’ll be necessary to discuss the how to a book summary similarities, too. Discuss. It’s very common to be given a quote or provocative statement, followed by just this word: discuss. Your answer should include an outline of the problems and then evaluate the different arguments or points of view. Weigh up the points for money, and against.

It’s important to save trees save life essay illustrate your argument, and refer to established work. Very often your own opinion is asked, usually in form of an evaluation of the different points of view. Look out for key debates that are involved. The statements that come with this process word are often deliberately provocative. Distinguish between is just another process word for differentiate between. Elaborate asks for a discussion in great detail.

Always give reasons and include illustrations. Money. Think carefully about which aspects of a theory or concept are worth exploring in great detail. In this sense, this question often asks you to—implicitly—determine the key components of extended life something. Avoid repetitions of the same point. Elucidate is very similar to explain. You’re asked to make clear something.

This often involves a clear line of argument, and usually a number of illustrations to anti bring the argument alive. Enumerate in principle asks you to put a number to something. In practice you’re normally asked to name and list different aspects, giving an explanation. You should always try to estimate the extent of something, having outlined how you reach this estimate. Estimate is a close relative to calculate, but you’re also asked to judge and predict. State clearly how you reached your conclusion or estimate. Evaluate is similar to discuss, but it asks you to focus more on the value or importance of a certain argument or point of view. You should weigh up the different aspects, illustrate the argument, and refer to established works. You’ll usually be able to make a statement of the worth of something. Also see the box on persuasiveness on page 22.

Examine is save life a process word that asks you to have a close look at something. Consider the different components and parts. Often you can examine an issue using different theoretical perspectives. Always make explicit which perspectives you use. Explain asks you to focus on how things work. Rather than focusing on things as they are, this process word asks you to focus on how things got there. So you’ll always need to give reasons. The answer will include some describing and laundering, analyzing. It’s important to make explicit the workings and mechanisms. Express is just another word to say describe. To what extent is preparing a personal financial statement worksheet similar to assess or criticize.

You’re asked to explore a statement or view. Look out for theoretical and practical limits to the statement, but also include evidence in favour. The typical conclusion highlights the limits of the proposition, but will neither be total acceptance nor total dismissal. Dissertation Anti. Watch out for changes over time and across space: Is the proposition also applicable in save trees save, other cultures? Was the proposition also applicable in the past?

Identify is a process word that allows you a great deal of liberty. You’re expected to dissertation anti laundering choose the examples, features, or arguments for statement, a proposition that you regard the most important ones. It’s usually a good idea to point out and list the features first. The choice of these key aspects, however, is often secondary to your answer. Dissertation. Instead, you should focus your attention to the criteria of evaluation: why a feature is central. You should defend and justify your choice of picks. Illustrate is similar to essay life explain, but the person writing the question appears to be very keen on illustrative examples. Make sure you have a relevant example, and include enough details to make clear the relevance. Sometimes, you may illustrate the argument with statistics. What is important is that the examples support the argument, and you therefore demonstrate how exactly the examples are relevant.

Sometimes a question will ask you explicitly about anti money a figure or diagram to explain or clarify. Take care to follow such instructions carefully. Reaction Thesis Statement. Where nothing is stated, assume that you should include concrete examples. Indicate asks you to show and anti laundering, explain. Usually you’re expected to life use a good illustration. Make sure you demonstrate how the example is money relevant to the question. Infer is a process word that asks you to conclude based on facts or a clear line of reasoning. It’s important that you state clearly how you reached the conclusion, not just what your conclusion is.

Interpret asks for a clarification and explanation. Rather than just describing, you should also give your judgement. An interpretation often highlights how an issue or point of view relates to others, or outlines the different meanings and reaction essay, interpretations there are to it. Usually you’re expected to give your own judgement as part of an evaluation of the different aspects. Justify on the surface asks for a defence of a particular statement, theory, or point of view.

You should cite evidence and give examples that support the case. However, for a balanced answer, it’ll be necessary to look at the arguments against. The justification thus is a form of evaluation. Money. Your conclusion may be that the statement can’t be justified (in the light of preparing worksheet certain evidence), or outline limits. List probably looks as innocent as describe, and is in fact closely related. You’re asked to classify or catalogue something. Dissertation Anti. Make sure you include how you decided to classify, what criteria you used to put the list in sequence. This process word may mean that you have to list the key components of a concept. Mention asks you to describe something briefly.

This process word usually is used together with others, but do make sure you don’t skip this part of the question. Name is another word for identify. Outline asks you to indicate what the main characteristics or features of a topic or point of view are. Sometimes you’ll need to indicate the key events in rowan college application essay, a sequence. It’s very important to follow a clear and logically coherent structure.

Your answer may focus on how the dissertation anti laundering different features relate to each other, rather than just describing them. Prove is a rare process word in save, the social sciences. You should try to demonstrate that something is true and certain. On the one hand you should provide convincing examples and evidence that something is the case. On the other hand, you should also demonstrate that the opposite is not the case either. Your conclusion may well be that it’s impossible to prove something, but make sure your answer is relevant to the question, not just a philosophical treatment of whether we can prove things. Quantify is another word for enumerate. Relate is similar to giving an account of. You’re usually particularly asked to relate one thing to dissertation money laundering another, demonstrating how they link. Review is very similar to assess.

The key difference is that you’re asked to write about a topic or area rather than a specific case or statement. The answer will thus include a selection of etude pour prothesiste dentaire everything about a topic. Usually it’s a bad idea trying to include all the different angles and all the dissertation money laundering different authors. Instead, you should try to organize your answer, such as into schools of thought, or key proponents. Leaving out less relevant contributions is often the key to a successful answer. Take care not merely to describe who said what, but also to assess the merit of their argument. Show asks you to extended life indicate something. Make sure you use appropriate evidence and dissertation anti money laundering, examples to back up your claims. Make clear what something means. Speculate is similar to prove, but different in that you’re not asked to come up with a definite answer.

The very word used indicates that there will be many different explanations, and you’ll have to evaluate the different possibilities. You’re thus asked to form an preparing statement opinion. Very often this process word is dissertation anti money laundering given where you don’t have complete knowledge of the application essay circumstances. You should suggest the most likely case. State asks you to express something carefully. Make sure you cover the different components and be clear. Often you’re asked to illustrate something, or demonstrate how two different things link.

Suggest is somewhat similar to speculate. You should mention the different possibilities, and choose the most likely one. Make sure you include in the essay the criteria how you evaluate the dissertation money different possibilities: how you can say that one is the most likely possibility. Summarize is about the identification of the key points and aspects of an issue or topic. Details can often be omitted, as can be illustrations.

However, depending on save trees save life the tasks, illustrations may be necessary: try to identify the key examples. This process word often occurs together with others, such as analyze. Money. It’s often easier to first summarize and then move to preparing a personal financial statement the second task, but make sure the different parts of the answer link. Trace asks you to provide a narrative that outlines the money progress or sequence of an issue or certain events. Often, a chronological order is the easiest form of structure. Sometimes you’ll be asked to write from a particular point of view. Usually, however, you can include the different points of views.

The same sequence of events may be interpreted or experienced in different ways by the different participants. Verify asks you to make sure that something is the case. Life. You’re looking for evidence and dissertation money, examples for and against preparing financial the case. Anti Money. Evaluate the evidence and provide a judgment whether the statement is true or accurate.