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Literature Reviews APA Format


Defines the five common parts of a critique essay and provides a formula for completing each part.

How to Write a Journal Article Review APA Style | Pen and The Pad

Article reviews in apa

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How To Write Great APA Style Article Reviews? - EAE Magazine

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lab write up ASA 7 th /8 th grade Scientific Reports Handout. This handout provides a general guide to article reviews in apa, writing reports about scientific research you've performed. In addition to describing the conventional rules about the format and content of a lab report, we'll also attempt to respect essay, convey why these rules exist, so you'll get a clearer, more dependable idea of reviews how to letter for teaching assistant uk, approach this writing situation. Why do we write research reports? You did an experiment or study for your science class, and now you have to write it up for your teacher to article reviews, review. Assignment! You feel that you understood the background sufficiently, designed and completed the study effectively, obtained useful data, and article in apa, can use those data to draw conclusions about a scientific process or principle. But how exactly do you write all that?

What is your teacher expecting to see? To take some of the guesswork out of answering these questions, try to think beyond the napoleon french classroom setting. In fact, you and in apa, your teacher are both part of napoleon french a scientific community, and reviews, the people who participate in this community tend to share the same values. As long as you understand and respect these values, your writing will likely meet the expectations of your audience—including your teacher. So why are you writing this research report?

The practical answer is Because the french revolution teacher assigned it, but that's classroom thinking. Generally speaking, people investigating some scientific hypothesis have a responsibility to the rest of the scientific world to article reviews in apa, report their findings, particularly if these findings add to or contradict previous ideas. As you can probably imagine, people reading such reports have two primary goals: They want to gather the information presented. They want to know that the findings are legitimate.

Your job as a writer, then, is to fulfill these two goals. Good question. You're probably familiar with the basic format scientists have designed for research reports: This format, sometimes called IMRAD, may take slightly different shapes depending on the discipline or audience; some ask you to essay, include an abstract or separate section for the hypothesis, or call the Discussion section Conclusions, or change the order of the sections (some professional and academic journals require the Methods section to appear last). Overall, however, the IMRAD format was devised to represent a textual version of the reviews in apa scientific method. The scientific method, you'll probably recall, involves developing a hypothesis, testing it, and deciding whether your findings support the hypothesis. Rates Of Reactions Chemistry! In essence, the format for a research report in the sciences mirrors the scientific method but fleshes out the reviews in apa process a little. Below, you'll find a table that shows how each written section fits into the scientific method and french revolution, what additional information it offers the reader. Scientific method step. states your hypothesis. explains how you derived that hypothesis and how it connects to previous research; gives the purpose of the experiment/study.

details how you tested your hypothesis. clarifies why you performed your study in in apa that particular way. provides raw (i.e., uninterpreted) data collected. (perhaps) expresses the data in table form, as an easy-to-read figure, or as percentages/ratios. considers whether the data you obtained support the hypothesis. explores the implications of your finding and judges the phd thesis in logistics potential limitations of article reviews your experimental design. Thinking of that worked your research report as based on the scientific method, but elaborated in the ways described above, may help you to meet your audience's expectations successfully.

Actually, we're going to proceed by explicitly connecting each section of the lab report to article in apa, the scientific method, then explaining why and how you need to elaborate that section. It's important to understand that although this handout takes each section in the order in supplement that which it should be presented in the final report, you may for practical reasons decide to compose sections in another order. For example, many writers find that composing their Methods and Results before the other sections help to clarify their idea of the article reviews experiment or study as a whole. You might consider using each assignment to practice different approaches to drafting the report, to find the of women in the order that works best for article reviews in apa, you. What should I do before drafting the lab report? The best way to prepare to write the lab report is to napoleon essay revolution, make sure that you fully understand everything you need to about the experiment.

Obviously, if you don't quite know what went on during the lab, you're going to article reviews in apa, find it difficult to explain the lab satisfactorily to rates of reactions coursework, someone else. To make sure you know enough to article in apa, write the report, complete the following steps: Read your lab manual thoroughly, well before you start to carry out the experiment. Ask yourself the following questions: What are we going to do in this lab? (That is, what's the procedure?) Why are we going to on the in the odyssey, do it that way? What are we hoping to learn from this experiment? Why would we benefit from this knowledge? Answering these questions will lead you to a more complete understanding of the reviews in apa experiment, and letter assistant, this big picture will in turn help you write a successful lab report. Make use of your lab supervisor as you perform the lab.

If you don't know how to answer one of the questions above, for article reviews, example, your lab supervisor will probably be able to explain it to you (or, at cover assistant with uk least, help you figure it out). Plan the steps of the experiment carefully with your lab partners. Article Reviews In Apa! The less panicky running around you do, the more likely it is that you'll perform the essays odyssey experiment correctly and record your findings accurately. Also, take some time to think about the best way to article in apa, organize the data before you have to start putting numbers down. If you can design a table to in logistics and supply, account for reviews in apa, the data, that will tend to cover for teaching no experience, work much better than jotting results down hurriedly on a scrap piece of paper. Record the article in apa data carefully so you get them right. You won't be able to trust your conclusions if you have the wrong data, and your readers will know you messed up if the other three people in respect assignment your group have 97 degrees and article in apa, you have 87.

Consult with your lab partners about everything you do. Lab groups often make one or two mistakes: two people do all the work while two have a nice chat, or everybody works together until the rates chemistry coursework group finishes gathering the raw data, then scrams outta there. Reviews In Apa! Collaborate with your partners, even when the experiment is over. Respect Essay Assignment! What trends did you observe? Was the hypothesis supported? Did you all get the same results? What kind of reviews in apa figure should you use to represent your findings? The whole group can work together to of reactions coursework, answer these questions. Article Reviews! Consider your audience. You may believe that audience is a non-issue: it's your lab TA, right?

Well, yes—but again, think beyond the cover letter assistant classroom. If you write with only reviews your lab instructor in mind, you may omit material that is chemistry coursework crucial to in apa, a complete understanding of your experiment, because you assume the instructor knows all that stuff already. As a result, you may receive a lower grade, since your TA won't be sure that you understand all the principles at work. Try to write towards a student in the same course but a different lab section. That student will have a fair degree of scientific expertise but won't know much about rates of reactions chemistry your experiment particularly. Alternatively, you could envision yourself five years from article reviews in apa, now, after the reading and lectures for this course have faded a bit. What would you remember, and what would you need explained more clearly (as a refresher)? Once you've completed these steps as you perform the experiment, you'll be in a good position to draft an effective lab report. How do I write a strong Introduction?

For the purposes of this handout, we'll consider the Introduction to contain four basic elements: the purpose, the scientific literature relevant to the subject, the hypothesis, and the reasons you believed your hypothesis viable. Essays Role! Let's start by going through each element of the Introduction to clarify what it covers and why it's important. Then we can formulate a logical organizational strategy for the section. The inclusion of the purpose (sometimes called the objective) of the experiment often confuses writers. The biggest misconception is that the purpose is the same as the hypothesis. Not quite.

We'll get to hypotheses in a minute, but basically they provide some indication of what you expect the experiment to show. The purpose is broader, and deals more with what you expect to gain through the experiment. In a professional setting, the hypothesis might have something to do with how cells react to a certain kind of genetic manipulation, but the purpose of the experiment is to in apa, learn more about potential cancer treatments. Undergraduate reports don't often have this wide-ranging a goal, but you should still try to maintain the distinction between your hypothesis and your purpose. In a solubility experiment, for example, your hypothesis might talk about the relationship between temperature and the rate of solubility, but the purpose is probably to learn more about some specific scientific principle underlying the process of supplement solubility. For starters, most people say that you should write out article reviews, your working hypothesis before you perform the experiment or study. Many beginning science students neglect to do so and find themselves struggling to remember precisely which variables were involved in the process or in what way the researchers felt that they were related. Write your hypothesis down as you develop it—you'll be glad you did. As for the form a hypothesis should take, it's best not to be too fancy or complicated; an respect inventive style isn't nearly so important as clarity here.

There's nothing wrong with beginning your hypothesis with the article phrase, It was hypothesized that . . . Be as specific as you can about the essay assignment relationship between the different objects of your study. In other words, explain that when term A changes, term B changes in this particular way. Readers of scientific writing are rarely content with the reviews in apa idea that a relationship between two terms exists—they want to know what that relationship entails. Not a hypothesis : It was hypothesized that there is a significant relationship between the for teaching assistant uk temperature of a solvent and in apa, the rate at which a solute dissolves. Hypothesis : It was hypothesized that as the temperature of a solvent increases, the that worked rate at which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases. Put more technically, most hypotheses contain both an independent and a dependent variable. The independent variable is what you manipulate to test the reaction; the dependent variable is what changes as a result of your manipulation. In the example above, the independent variable is the temperature of the solvent, and the dependent variable is the rate of solubility. Be sure that your hypothesis includes both variables.

Justify your hypothesis. You need to article in apa, do more than tell your readers what your hypothesis is; you also need to essay french revolution, assure them that this hypothesis was reasonable, given the article in apa circumstances. In other words, use the Introduction to assistant with, explain that you didn't just pluck your hypothesis out of thin air. In Apa! (If you did pluck it out of thin air, your problems with your report will probably extend beyond using the appropriate format.) If you posit that a particular relationship exists between the cover assistant with no experience uk independent and the dependent variable, what led you to believe your guess might be supported by evidence? Scientists often refer to this type of justification as motivating the article reviews in apa hypothesis, in the sense that something propelled them to make that prediction. Supplement That! Often, motivation includes what we already know—or rather, what scientists generally accept as true (see Background/previous research below). But you can also motivate your hypothesis by relying on logic or on your own observations.

If you're trying to article reviews, decide which solutes will dissolve more rapidly in a solvent at increased temperatures, you might remember that some solids are meant to dissolve in hot water (e.g., bouillon cubes) and some are used for a function precisely because they withstand higher temperatures (they make saucepans out of something). Cover Letter For Teaching Assistant No Experience! Or you can think about whether you've noticed sugar dissolving more rapidly in your glass of iced tea or in article reviews your cup of coffee. Even such basic, outside-the-lab observations can help you justify your hypothesis as reasonable. This part of the Introduction demonstrates to the reader your awareness of how you're building on other scientists' work. If you think of the scientific community as engaging in a series of conversations about various topics, then you'll recognize that the relevant background material will alert the rates of reactions chemistry reader to which conversation you want to enter.

Generally speaking, authors writing journal articles use the background for slightly different purposes than do students completing assignments. Because readers of academic journals tend to be professionals in the field, authors explain the background in order to permit readers to evaluate the study's pertinence for their own work. You, on the other hand, write toward a much narrower audience—your peers in the course or your lab instructor—and so you must demonstrate that you understand the context for the (presumably assigned) experiment or study you've completed. Article Reviews In Apa! For example, if your professor has been talking about polarity during lectures, and you're doing a solubility experiment, you might try to essay assignment, connect the polarity of a solid to its relative solubility in certain solvents. Article In Apa! In any event, both professional researchers and undergraduates need to connect the supplement essays worked background material overtly to reviews in apa, their own work. Organization of this section.

Most of the supplement that time, writers begin by stating the purpose or objectives of article reviews in apa their own work, which establishes for the reader's benefit the nature and napoleon, scope of the problem investigated (Day 1994). Once you have expressed your purpose, you should then find it easier to move from the general purpose, to relevant material on the subject, to your hypothesis. In Apa! In abbreviated form, an Introduction section might look like this: The purpose of the experiment was to test conventional ideas about french revolution solubility in the laboratory [purpose] . . Article Reviews! . According to Whitecoat and Labrat (1999), at higher temperatures the molecules of solvents move more quickly . . . We know from the class lecture that molecules moving at higher rates of speed collide with one another more often and thus break down more easily [background material/motivation] . . . Thus, it was hypothesized that as the temperature of a solvent increases, the rate at on the of women in the which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases [hypothesis]. Again—these are guidelines, not commandments. Some writers and readers prefer different structures for reviews in apa, the Introduction. The one above merely illustrates a common approach to organizing material. How do I write a strong Materials and Methods section? As with any piece of writing, your Methods section will succeed only if it fulfills its readers' expectations, so you need to be clear in your own mind about the purpose of this section. Let's review the purpose as we described it above: in essay this section, you want to describe in detail how you tested the hypothesis you developed and also to clarify the rationale for your procedure.

In science, it's not sufficient merely to design and carry out an experiment. Ultimately, others must be able to verify your findings, so your experiment must be reproducible, to article, the extent that other researchers can follow the same procedure and in logistics and supply management, obtain the same (or similar) results. Here's a real-world example of the importance of reproducibility. In 1989, physicists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman announced that they had discovered cold fusion, a way of producing excess heat and power without the nuclear radiation that accompanies hot fusion. Such a discovery could have great ramifications for the industrial production of reviews energy, so these findings created a great deal of interest. When other scientists tried to essays of women odyssey, duplicate the reviews experiment, however, they didn't achieve the same results, and rates, as a result many wrote off the conclusions as unjustified (or worse, a hoax).

To this day, the viability of cold fusion is debated within the scientific community, even though an increasing number of article in apa researchers believe it possible. So when you write your Methods section, keep in coursework mind that you need to describe your experiment well enough to article reviews, allow others to replicate it exactly. With these goals in mind, let's consider how to write an effective Methods section in terms of content, structure, and style. Sometimes the hardest thing about writing this section isn't what you should talk about, but what you shouldn't talk about. Napoleon! Writers often want to include the results of their experiment, because they measured and recorded the results during the course of the experiment. But such data should be reserved for the Results section. In the Methods section, you can write that you recorded the article reviews results, or how you recorded the results (e.g., in a table), but you shouldn't write what the results were—not yet. Here, you're merely stating exactly how you went about testing your hypothesis. How much detail?

Be precise in providing details, but stay relevant. Ask yourself, Would it make any difference if this piece were a different size or made from rates chemistry coursework, a different material? If not, you probably don't need to get too specific. If so, you should give as many details as necessary to prevent this experiment from going awry if someone else tries to carry it out. Probably the most crucial detail is measurement; you should always quantify anything you can, such as time elapsed, temperature, mass, volume, etc. Rationale: Be sure that as you're relating your actions during the experiment, you explain your rationale for the protocol you developed. Article! If you capped a test tube immediately after adding a solute to a solvent, why did you do that? (That's really two questions: why did you cap it, and why did you cap it immediately?) In a professional setting, writers provide their rationale as a way to explain their thinking to potential critics. On one hand, of course, that's your motivation for talking about protocol, too.

On the phd thesis management other hand, since in practical terms you're also writing to your teacher (who's seeking to evaluate how well you comprehend the article in apa principles of the experiment), explaining the rationale indicates that you understand the reasons for conducting the experiment in that way, and that you're not just following orders. Critical thinking is crucial—robots don't make good scientists. Essays On The Role In The! Control: Most experiments will include a control, which is a means of comparing experimental results. (Sometimes you'll need to have more than one control, depending on the number of hypotheses you want to test.) The control is exactly the same as the other items you're testing, except that you don't manipulate the independent variable-the condition you're altering to check the article effect on the dependent variable. For example, if you're testing solubility rates at increased temperatures, your control would be a solution that you didn't heat at revolution all; that way, you'll see how quickly the solute dissolves naturally (i.e., without manipulation), and you'll have a point of reference against which to compare the solutions you did heat. Describe the control in the Methods section. Two things are especially important in writing about the control: identify the article control as a control, and explain what you're controlling for. Example: As a control for the temperature change, we placed the same amount of solute in supplement essays that the same amount of article in apa solvent, and let the solution stand for five minutes without heating it. Structure and style.

Organization is especially important in the Methods section of phd thesis a lab report because readers must understand your experimental procedure completely. Many writers are surprised by the difficulty of conveying what they did during the experiment, since after all they're only article reporting an revolution event, but it's often tricky to present this information in a coherent way. Reviews! There's a fairly standard structure you can use to guide you, and following the conventions for style can help clarify your points. Subsections: Occasionally, researchers use subsections to report their procedure when the following circumstances apply: 1) if they've used a great many materials; 2) if the procedure is unusually complicated; 3) if they've developed a procedure that won't be familiar to many of their readers. Phd Thesis In Logistics And Supply! Because these conditions rarely apply to the experiments you'll perform in article class, most undergraduate lab reports won't require you to use subsections. In fact, many guides to writing lab reports suggest that you try to respect essay assignment, limit your Methods section to a single paragraph. Article! Narrative structure: Think of this section as telling a story about a group of essays of women people and the experiment they performed. Describe what you did in the order in which you did it. You may have heard the old joke centered on article, the line, Disconnect the of reactions coursework red wire, but only after disconnecting the green wire, where the person reading the directions blows everything to reviews in apa, kingdom come because the directions weren't in order. We're used to reading about events chronologically, and so your readers will generally understand what you did if you present that information in the same way. Also, since the napoleon french Methods section does generally appear as a narrative (story), you want to avoid the reviews in apa recipe approach: First, take a clean, dry 100 ml test tube from the rack.

Next, add 50 ml of distilled water. You should be reporting what did happen, not telling the reader how to perform the experiment: 50 ml of distilled water was poured into a clean, dry 100 ml test tube. Hint: most of the time, the recipe approach comes from of women in the odyssey, copying down the steps of the procedure from your lab manual, so you may want to article, draft the supplement that worked Methods section initially without consulting your manual. Article! Later, of course, you can go back and cover letter with no experience uk, fill in any part of the article reviews in apa procedure you inadvertently overlooked. Past tense: Remember that you're describing what happened, so you should use past tense to refer to of reactions chemistry, everything you did during the experiment. Article! Writers are often tempted to use the imperative (Add 5 g of the solid to the solution) because that's how their lab manuals are worded; less frequently, they use present tense (5 g of the solid are added to the solution). Essays! Instead, remember that you're talking about an event which happened at a particular time in the past, and which has already ended by the time you start writing, so simple past tense will be appropriate in this section (5 g of the reviews solid were added to the solution or We added 5 g of the solid to the solution). Passive voice vs. Chemistry Coursework! first person: In the past, scientific journals encouraged their writers to avoid using the first person (I or we), because the article reviews researchers themselves weren't personally important to the procedure in the experiment. Rates Of Reactions Chemistry Coursework! Remember that other researchers should ideally be able to reviews in apa, reproduce experiments exactly, based on the lab report; using first person indicates (to some readers) that the assistant with no experience experiment cannot be duplicated without the original researchers present. To help keep personal references out of lab reports, scientific conventions also dictated that researchers should use passive voice, in which the reviews subject of a sentence or clause doesn't perform the phd thesis and supply management action described by the verb.

You can learn more in our handout on passive voice , but these examples might explain the distinction between active and passive voice: Active: We heated the solution to 80°C. (The subject, we, performs the action, heating.) Passive: The solution was heated to 80°C. Reviews In Apa! (The subject, solution, doesn't do the heating--it is acted upon, not acting.) Increasingly, especially in the social sciences, using first person and active voice is acceptable in rates coursework scientific reports. Article Reviews! Most readers find that this style of writing conveys information more directly and therefore more clearly and concisely. Napoleon! This rhetorical choice thus brings two scientific values into article reviews in apa conflict: objectivity versus clarity. Since the scientific community hasn't reached a consensus about which style it prefers, you may want to ask your lab instructor. How do I write a strong Results section? Here's a paradox for you.

The Results section is cover letter uk often both the shortest (yay!) and most important (uh-oh!) part of your report. Your Materials and Methods section shows how you obtained the results, and your Discussion section explores the significance of the results, so clearly the article reviews Results section forms the backbone of the lab report. This section provides the most critical information about your experiment: the data that allow you to discuss how your hypothesis was or wasn't supported. Phd Thesis And Supply Management! But it doesn't provide anything else, which explains why this section is generally shorter than the others. Before you write this section, look at article reviews in apa all the data you collected to figure out what relates significantly to your hypothesis. You'll want to highlight this material in your Results section. Resist the essays that worked urge to include every bit of data you collected, since perhaps not all are relevant. Also, don't try to draw conclusions about the results—save them for the Discussion section. In this section, you're reporting facts. Nothing your readers can dispute should appear in the Results section.

Most Results sections feature three distinct parts: text, tables, and article in apa, figures. Let's consider each part one at a time. This should be a short paragraph, generally just a few lines, that describes the results you obtained from your experiment. In a relatively simple experiment, one that doesn't produce a lot of data for napoleon french, you to repeat, the text can represent the entire Results section. Don't feel that you need to include lots of article extraneous detail to compensate for letter no experience uk, a short (but effective) text; your readers appreciate discrimination more than your ability to recite facts. In a more complex experiment, you may want to use tables and/or figures to help guide your readers toward the most important information you gathered. In that event, you'll need to refer to each table or figure directly, where appropriate: Table 1 lists the rates of solubility for article, each substance or Solubility increased as the temperature of the solution increased (see Figure 1). If you do use tables or figures, make sure that you don't present the same material in rates of reactions coursework both the article text and the tables/figures, since in rates chemistry coursework essence you'll just repeat yourself, probably annoying your readers with the article in apa redundancy of your statements.

Feel free to describe trends that emerge as you examine the data. Although identifying trends requires some judgment on your part and assignment, so may not feel like factual reporting, no one can deny that these trends do exist, and so they properly belong in the Results section. Example: Heating the solution increased the rate of solubility of polar solids by 45% but had no effect on the rate of solubility in solutions containing non-polar solids. This point isn't debatable—you're just pointing out what the data show. As in the Materials and Methods section, you want to refer to your data in the past tense, because the events you recorded have already occurred and have finished occurring. In the example above, note the use of increased and article reviews, had, rather than increases and has. (You don't know from your experiment that heating always increases the solubility of polar solids, but it did that time.) You shouldn't put information in the table that also appears in the text or use a table to present irrelevant data, just to show you did collect these data during the experiment. Tables are good for supplement worked, some purposes and situations, but not others, so whether and how you'll use tables depends upon what you need them to accomplish.

Tables are useful ways to show variation in data, but not to present a great deal of unchanging measurements. If you're dealing with a scientific phenomenon that occurs only within a certain range of temperatures, for example, you don't need to use a table to show that the in apa phenomenon didn't occur at any of the other temperatures. How useful is this table? As you can probably see, no solubility was observed until the trial temperature reached 50°C, a fact that the letter no experience text part of the Results section could easily convey. The table could then be limited to what happened at 50°C and higher, thus better illustrating the differences in solubility rates when solubility did occur. As a rule, try not to article, use a table to describe any experimental event you can cover in one sentence of text.

Here's an example of an unnecessary table from How to essays role of women odyssey, Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, by Robert A. Day: As Day notes, all the information in this table can be summarized in one sentence: S. griseus, S. coelicolor, S. Article! everycolor, and S. rainbowenski grew under aerobic conditions, whereas S. Napoleon! nocolor and S. greenicus required anaerobic conditions. Most readers won't find the table clearer than that one sentence. When you do have reason to tabulate material, pay attention to the clarity and readability of the in apa format you use. Here are a few tips: Number your table. Then, when you refer to the table in the text, use that number to tell your readers which table they can review to clarify the material. Give your table a title.

This title should be descriptive enough to communicate the contents of the essays table, but not so long that it becomes difficult to follow. The titles in article the sample tables above are acceptable. Arrange your table so that readers read vertically, not horizontally. For the most part, this rule means that you should construct your table so that like elements read down, not across. Think about what you want your readers to phd thesis in logistics management, compare, and put that information in reviews the column (up and down) rather than in on the role in the odyssey the row (across). Usually, the article in apa point of comparison will be the numerical data you collect, so especially make sure you have columns of numbers, not rows. Here's an example of how drastically this decision affects the cover assistant with uk readability of your table (from A Short Guide to Writing about Chemistry, by Herbert Beall and John Trimbur). Look at this table, which presents the relevant data in horizontal rows:

It's a little tough to see the trends that the author presumably wants to present in this table. Compare this table, in which the data appear vertically: The second table shows how putting like elements in a vertical column makes for easier reading. In this case, the like elements are the measurements of length and height, over five trials--not, as in the first table, the length and in apa, height measurements for each trial. Make sure to include units of measurement in the tables. Supplement Worked! Readers might be able to guess that you measured something in millimeters, but don't make them try. Line up numbers on the right, like this: or on the decimal point. It may help to reviews, pretend that you're going to add the numbers together and align them accordingly. Don't use vertical lines as part of the format for cover letter for teaching assistant with, your table. This convention exists because journals prefer not to have to reproduce these lines because the tables then become more expensive to print. Even though it's fairly unlikely that you'll be sending your Biology 11 lab report to Science for publication, your readers still have this expectation.

Consequently, if you use the table-drawing option in your word-processing software, choose the option that doesn't rely on a grid format (which includes vertical lines). How do I include figures in article reviews in apa my report? Although tables can be useful ways of showing trends in rates coursework the results you obtained, figures (i.e., illustrations) can do an article reviews even better job of essays on the odyssey emphasizing such trends. Lab report writers often use graphic representations of the data they collected to provide their readers with a literal picture of how the experiment went. When should you use a figure? Remember the circumstances under which you don't need a table: when you don't have a great deal of data, or when the data you have don't vary a lot. Article Reviews In Apa! Under the same conditions, you would probably forgo the figure as well, since the figure would be unlikely to provide your readers with an additional perspective. Scientists really don't like their time wasted, so they tend not to respond favorably to redundancy. If you're trying to decide between using a table and creating a figure to present your material, consider the following a rule of thumb. The strength of a table lies in its ability to supply large amounts of exact data, whereas the strength of a figure is on the in the odyssey its dramatic illustration of important trends within the experiment.

If you feel that your readers won't get the full impact of the results you obtained just by looking at the numbers, then a figure might be appropriate. Of course, an undergraduate class may expect you to create a figure for your lab experiment, if only to make sure that you can do so effectively. If this is the case, then don't worry about whether to use figures or not—concentrate instead on how best to accomplish your task. Figures can include maps, photographs, pen-and-ink drawings, flow charts, bar graphs, and section graphs (pie charts). But the most common figure by far, especially for undergraduates, is the line graph, so we'll focus on that type in this handout. At the article in apa undergraduate level, you can often draw and label your graphs by supplement worked, hand, provided that the result is article in apa clear, legible, and chain, drawn to scale. Computer technology has, however, made creating line graphs a lot easier. Article In Apa! Most word-processing software has a number of functions for transferring data into graph form; many scientists have found Microsoft Excel, for that, example, a helpful tool in article reviews graphing results. If you plan on pursuing a career in on the of women in the odyssey the sciences, it may be well worth your while to learn to use a similar program. Computers can't, however, decide for you how your graph really works; you have to know how to design your graph to meet your readers' expectations.

Some of these expectations follow: Keep it as simple as possible. You may be tempted to signal the complexity of the information you gathered by trying to design a graph that accounts for that complexity. But remember the purpose of your graph: to article reviews in apa, dramatize your results in a manner that's easy to see and grasp. In Logistics And Supply! Try not to make the reviews reader stare at the graph for a half hour to find the important line among the french revolution mass of other lines. For maximum effectiveness, limit yourself to three to five lines per article in apa, graph; if you have more data to demonstrate, use a set of graphs to account for them, rather than trying to cram it all into a single figure. Plot the independent variable on the horizontal (x) axis and the dependent variable on the vertical (y) axis. Remember that the independent variable is the that condition that you manipulated during the experiment and the dependent variable is the condition that you measured to see if it changed along with the independent variable. Placing the variables along their respective axes is mostly just a convention, but since your readers are accustomed to viewing graphs in this way, you're better off not challenging the convention in your report. Label each axis carefully, and be especially careful to article reviews, include units of measure. In Logistics Chain! You need to make sure that your readers understand perfectly well what your graph indicates.

Number and title your graphs. As with tables, the article reviews in apa title of the graph should be informative but concise, and you should refer to your graph by number in the text (e.g., Figure 1 shows the increase in the solubility rate as a function of temperature). Many editors of professional scientific journals prefer that writers distinguish the lines in their graphs by letter with no experience uk, attaching a symbol to article reviews in apa, them, usually a geometric shape (triangle, square, etc.), and using that symbol throughout the curve of the line. Generally, readers have a hard time distinguishing dotted lines from dot-dash lines from straight lines, so you should consider staying away from this system. Editors don't usually like different-colored lines within a graph, because colors are difficult and expensive to reproduce; colors may, however, be great for your purposes, as long as you're not planning to letter assistant with, submit your paper to Nature. Use your discretion—try to employ whichever technique dramatizes the reviews in apa results most effectively. Try to gather data at regular intervals, so the plot points on your graph aren't too far apart. You can't be sure of the arc you should draw between the letter for teaching assistant with no experience uk plot points if the in apa points are located at the far corners of the graph; over a fifteen-minute interval, perhaps the in logistics and supply management change occurred in reviews in apa the first or last thirty seconds of that period (in which case your straight-line connection between the points is respect essay misleading). If you're worried that you didn't collect data at article sufficiently regular intervals during your experiment, go ahead and connect the points with a straight line, but you may want to examine this problem as part of your Discussion section. Assistant With Uk! Make your graph large enough so that everything is legible and clearly demarcated, but not so large that it either overwhelms the rest of the Results section or provides a far greater range than you need to illustrate your point.

If, for example, the seedlings of your plant grew only 15 mm during the reviews in apa trial, you don't need to construct a graph that accounts for 100 mm of growth. The lines in your graph should more or less fill the space created by essays on the of women in the, the axes; if you see that your data is confined to the lower left portion of the graph, you should probably re-adjust your scale. Reviews! If you create a set of chemistry coursework graphs, make them the same size and format, including all the verbal and visual codes (captions, symbols, scale, etc.). You want to be as consistent as possible in your illustrations, so that your readers can easily make the comparisons you're trying to get them to see. How do I write a strong Discussion section? The discussion section is probably the least formalized part of the report, in that you can't really apply the same structure to every type of reviews in apa experiment.

In simple terms, here you tell your readers what to make of the in logistics management Results you obtained. If you have done the Results part well, your readers should already recognize the reviews in apa trends in the data and assistant uk, have a fairly clear idea of reviews whether your hypothesis was supported. Because the Results can seem so self-explanatory, many students find it difficult to know what material to add in this last section. Basically, the Discussion contains several parts, in essays on the odyssey no particular order, but roughly moving from specific (i.e., related to your experiment only) to general (how your findings fit in the larger scientific community). Article Reviews! In this section, you will, as a rule, need to: Explain whether the data support your hypothesis Acknowledge any anomalous data or deviations from what you expected Derive conclusions, based on your findings, about the letter for teaching assistant no experience uk process you're studying Relate your findings to earlier work in the same area (if you can) Explore the theoretical and/or practical implications of article reviews your findings. Let's look at some dos and don'ts for each of these objectives. Explain whether the supplement essays that worked data support your hypothesis. This statement is usually a good way to begin the Discussion, since you can't effectively speak about the reviews in apa larger scientific value of your study until you've figured out the essay assignment particulars of article reviews in apa this experiment.

You might begin this part of the Discussion by explicitly stating the relationships or correlations your data indicate between the independent and dependent variables. Then you can show more clearly why you believe your hypothesis was or was not supported. For example, if you tested solubility at various temperatures, you could start this section by noting that the and supply chain rates of solubility increased as the temperature increased. If your initial hypothesis surmised that temperature change would not affect solubility, you would then say something like, The hypothesis that temperature change would not affect solubility was not supported by the data. Note: Students tend to view labs as practical tests of in apa undeniable scientific truths. As a result, you may want to say that the hypothesis was proved or disproved or that it was correct or incorrect. These terms, however, reflect a degree of certainty that you as a scientist aren't supposed to have. Remember, you're testing a theory with a procedure that lasts only essays on the odyssey a few hours and relies on only a few trials, which severely compromises your ability to be sure about the truth you see.

Words like supported, indicated, and suggested are more acceptable ways to evaluate your hypothesis. Also, recognize that saying whether the reviews in apa data supported your hypothesis or not involves making a claim to be defended. Supplement! As such, you need to show the readers that this claim is warranted by the evidence. Make sure that you're very explicit about the relationship between the evidence and the conclusions you draw from it. This process is difficult for many writers because we don't often justify conclusions in our regular lives. For example, you might nudge your friend at a party and whisper, That guy's drunk, and once your friend lays eyes on the person in reviews in apa question, she might readily agree. Assignment! In a scientific paper, by in apa, contrast, you would need to defend your claim more thoroughly by pointing to data such as slurred words, unsteady gait, and the lampshade-as-hat.

In addition to pointing out these details, you would also need to show how (according to previous studies) these signs are consistent with inebriation, especially if they occur in coursework conjunction with one another. To put it another way, tell your readers exactly how you got from article reviews, point A (was the essays worked hypothesis supported?) to reviews, point B (yes/no). Acknowledge any anomalous data, or deviations from what you expected. You need to take these exceptions and divergences into rates of reactions account, so that you qualify your conclusions sufficiently. For obvious reasons, your readers will doubt your authority if you (deliberately or inadvertently) overlook a key piece of data that doesn't square with your perspective on in apa, what occurred. In a more philosophical sense, once you've ignored evidence that contradicts your claims, you've departed from the scientific method. The urge to tidy up the experiment is often strong, but if you give in to it you're no longer performing good science. Sometimes after you've performed a study or experiment, you realize that some part of the methods you used to test your hypothesis was flawed. Essays That! In that case, it's OK to suggest that if you had the chance to conduct your test again, you might change the design in article reviews in apa this or that specific way in order to avoid such and such a problem. The key to cover letter assistant no experience uk, making this approach work, though, is to be very precise about the weakness in your experiment, why and how you think that weakness might have affected your data, and how you would alter your protocol to eliminate—or limit the effects of—that weakness.

Often, inexperienced researchers and writers feel the need to account for article in apa, wrong data (remember, there's no such animal), and so they speculate wildly about what might have screwed things up. Rates Coursework! These speculations include such factors as the reviews unusually hot temperature in the room, or the possibility that their lab partners read the meters wrong, or the potentially defective equipment. Napoleon Essay French Revolution! These explanations are what scientists call cop-outs, or lame; don't indicate that the experiment had a weakness unless you're fairly certain that a) it really occurred and b) you can explain reasonably well how that weakness affected your results. Derive conclusions, based on your findings, about the reviews in apa process you're studying. If, for example, your hypothesis dealt with the changes in solubility at different temperatures, then try to figure out phd thesis chain, what you can rationally say about the process of reviews in apa solubility more generally. If you're doing an undergraduate lab, chances are that the lab will connect in some way to the material you've been covering either in lecture or in your reading, so you might choose to return to these resources as a way to help you think clearly about the process as a whole.

This part of the Discussion section is another place where you need to make sure that you're not overreaching. Again, nothing you've found in one study would remotely allow you to claim that you now know something, or that something isn't true, or that your experiment confirmed some principle or other. Hesitate before you go out on respect essay, a limb—it's dangerous! Use less absolutely conclusive language, including such words as suggest, indicate, correspond, possibly, challenge, etc. Relate your findings to previous work in reviews the field (if possible)

We've been talking about of reactions chemistry how to show that you belong in a particular community (such as biologists or anthropologists) by writing within conventions that they recognize and accept. Another is to reviews, try to identify a conversation going on among members of that community, and use your work to contribute to cover for teaching with no experience uk, that conversation. Article In Apa! In a larger philosophical sense, scientists can't fully understand the value of on the role of women their research unless they have some sense of the context that provoked and nourished it. That is, you have to article, recognize what's new about your project (potentially, anyway) and how it benefits the wider body of scientific knowledge. On a more pragmatic level, especially for undergraduates, connecting your lab work to previous research will demonstrate to the TA that you see the cover for teaching assistant big picture. You have an opportunity, in the Discussion section, to distinguish yourself from the students in your class who aren't thinking beyond the article reviews barest facts of the assignment study. Capitalize on in apa, this opportunity by putting your own work in context. If you're just beginning to coursework, work in the natural sciences (as a first-year biology or chemistry student, say), most likely the work you'll be doing has already been performed and re-performed to a satisfactory degree.

Hence, you could probably point to article in apa, a similar experiment or study and essay, compare/contrast your results and conclusions. More advanced work may deal with an issue that is somewhat less resolved, and so previous research may take the form of an ongoing debate, and you can use your own work to weigh in on that debate. If, for example, researchers are hotly disputing the value of herbal remedies for the common cold, and the results of your study suggest that Echinacea diminishes the article reviews symptoms but not the actual presence of the cold, then you might want to take some time in the Discussion section to recapitulate the specifics of the dispute as it relates to Echinacea as an herbal remedy. (Consider that you have probably already written in the Introduction about this debate as background research.) Explore the theoretical and/or practical implications of of reactions coursework your findings. This information is often the best way to article in apa, end your Discussion (and, for of reactions, all intents and purposes, the article report). In argumentative writing generally, you want to use your closing words to convey the main point of your writing.

This main point can be primarily theoretical (Now that you understand this information, you're in a better position to essays, understand this larger issue) or primarily practical (You can use this information to take such and such an action). In either case, the concluding statements help the reader to comprehend the significance of your project and article reviews in apa, your decision to rates of reactions, write about it. Since a lab report is argumentative—after all, you're investigating a claim, and article, judging the legitimacy of that claim by essays, generating and collecting evidence—it's often a good idea to end your report with the same technique for establishing your main point. Article In Apa! If you want to go the theoretical route, you might talk about the consequences your study has for of reactions chemistry, the field or phenomenon you're investigating. To return to reviews in apa, the examples regarding solubility, you could end by reflecting on chemistry, what your work on solubility as a function of temperature tells us (potentially) about solubility in general. (Some folks consider this type of exploration pure as opposed to applied science, although these labels can be problematic.) If you want to go the practical route, you could end by article reviews in apa, speculating about the medical, institutional, or commercial implications of your findings—in other words, answer the question, What can this study help people to respect essay, do?

In either case, you're going to make your readers' experience more satisfying, by helping them see why they spent their time learning what you had to teach them.

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How to Find Resumes on the Internet with Google. Want to learn how to reviews, find resumes on the Internet using Google? You’ve come to the right place! Whether you are new to searching the letter assistant no experience Internet for resumes or you are a veteran Interent sourcer, I’ve included some tips, tricks, and article reviews, observations for the novice and expert alike. When using Google to search specifically for resumes, it’s a good idea to of reactions chemistry coursework, begin by searching for the word “resume” in the title and/or the url of web pages. For example: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) Here is a sample result to illustrate how this works – we can see the word “Resume” in the blue TITLE line, as well as in the green URL line. The first line of any search result is the title of the article in apa webpage, and the url is the specific web page’s address.

Targeting the word “resume” in the title and/or url is rates very handy, because for many people, it’s simply common sense/instinct to either title the web page containing their resume with the word “resume,” and/or save their resume using the in apa word “resume” in the name of the file. Eliminating False Positive Results. A “false positive” result is a search result that contains your search terms, but does not match the “essence” of what you are actually trying to find. On The Role In The Odyssey! For example – if you’re searching for article reviews, resumes, there are many sites that will be returned in your search results that are in fact not resumes, such as sites advertising resume samples and on the role in the, job postings that mention phrases such as, “submit resumes to…” In order to article in apa, remove most non-resume false positive results, you can use Google’s version of the worked Boolean NOT operator, which is the minus sign, to prevent your search from returning results with words such as sample, job, etc. (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples. Other ideas of terms you can try to eliminate that may return false positive results: -eoe -submit -free -”resume service” -template -”resume service” -“resume writers” -“resume writing” Some people who decide to make their resume available on article reviews the Internet also decide to publish a phone number. On The Role Odyssey! To find these folks, you can try and include local area codes in your search in attempt to find them.

Here is an example of article reviews a search using area codes to target people who live in Northern VA: (intitle:resume OR inurl:resume) -job -jobs -sample -samples -“resume service” (703 OR 571) What you’ll notice, however, is that searching for area codes can easily produce false positive results, as can be seen in the screenshot below – which are the essays first 4 results from the search. Article Reviews! Result #3 and #4 mention the number 571, but it’s not referenced as an area code, so they are false positive, non-local results. To clean up the false positive results that mention 571 or 703 but are not of resumes of people who live in VA, you can add the state and assistant no experience, state abbreviation to the search as well as exclude more non-resume terms and article reviews in apa, phrases: While there are still a good number of non-resume false positive results, this can be expected because we didn’t even search for any keywords/skills. Once we do, we will notice a significant drop off in coursework false positives. Another way to search for local resumes is to target a zip code radius. While Google doesn’t support true zip code search functionality, we can leverage the fact that Google supports searching for reviews in apa, numbers within a range, otherwise known as “numrange” search. You can perform a numrange search on any sequential (low to essay french, high) set of numbers by typing two periods between the numbers without any spaces.

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Instead of eliminating results with the word “resume” in either the URL or the title, Google will in fact will do the exact opposite. Click here to see the article in apa sad reality. Sorry Google. Next, you’ll have to think about words that are commonly found on resumes, such as “objective,” “summary,” “experience,” “employment,” “skills,” “history,” “education,” etc. Then you’ll have to assignment, try and reduce false positive results of job postings, resume sample sites and such, and also target local results. Putting it all together, your search string could look like this: First page results: We can see that the first result is essentially of a resume, yet the reviews in apa person saved their work history as “biodata.” See? Some people don’t use the word resume. :-) Looking at the second result, we can see that the word “resume” is respect essay actually highlighted in the url of the article reviews second result – which technically should not happen, as we coupled Google’s NOT/- operator with inurl:resume.

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essayist whose Vita Alice Mona ALISON (1852-1932) Alice Mona Henryson Caird. Novelist, essayist, critic, social reformer, ardent campaigner against vivisection , Mona Caird believed that marriage led many women into article, a virtual slavery, limiting their destiny and subordinating them to their partners. She became widely known after 1888 for advocating change in the marriage laws to grant women greater equality and respect assignment more freedom. She warned of the dangers of the authoritarian mix of eugenics and in apa social dictatorship that was to emerge in the next century:

Mona Caird (ne Mona Alison, also called Alice Mona Henryson-Caird) (1854-1932) was a Scottish novelist and essayist whose feminist views sparked controversy in the late years of the 19th century. Her publications included Whom Nature Leadeth (1883) , The Wings of Azrael (1889) , Beyond the Pale: An Appeal on Behalf of the Victims of Vivisection (1897) , The Morality of Marriage, and Other Essays on the Status and Destiny of Woman (1897) . Phd Thesis In Logistics And Supply Chain Management. Mona Caird's friend Elizabeth A. Sharp stressed that though her writings about marriage had met acute hostility, they did a great deal to alter public attitudes on in apa women’s rights. She was born in Ryde on the Isle of Wight, daughter of the 40-year-old John Alison, Midlothian inventor of vertical boilers and letter for teaching assistant no experience retorts, and the 19-year-old Matilda Ann Jane Hector. Too little is known about her parents. Mona’s father may have hailed from article reviews Portobello or Duddingston.

In amassing a substantial fortune he undoubtedly spent some of his life in Australia. Essay. Mona’s young mother was born in Sleswig-Holstein, in those days part of Denmark, Whether she was related to the Edinbugh legal and trading Hectors (like the surveyor of New Zealand and Canada, Sir James Hector of article reviews in apa Kicking Horse fame) remains uncertain. Mona wrote stories and plays beginning in her early childhood, and role of women in the odyssey was at ease in French and German as well as English. Article Reviews. She published her first novel, Lady Hetty , anonymously in 1875. After the Isle of Wight, Mona’s family moved on the strength of John Alison’s landholdings and investments, spending some time at Gatton Road, Reigate in Surrey during her early school years. Later, the family moved comfortably to take their place in central London at 90 Lancaster Gate, now the in logistics chain management, Thistle Hyde Park Hotel.

In 1877, Mona Alison married farmer James Alexander Caird, the oldest son of article eight children of the well-known agronomist of the day, Sir James Caird FRS. Mona’s father-in-law was a few years younger than her own father. Sir James had been active in politics as MP for Dartmouth 1857-9, and the Stirling Boroughs 1859-65, later becoming a member of the Inclosure Commission, of the Board of Agriculture, and a Privy Councillor. Sir James was a widower, his wife Margaret Henryson, a distant descendant of the Scots poet, died in Nice in 1863 after twenty years of marriage. Sir James and his famiy came from Wigtownshire, and phd thesis and supply his own landholding in that county, at reviews, Casencary, he had purchased after his name as an supplement that agronomist was well-known. James Alexander Caird, Mona’s new husband, had been given charge of the farm management of the estate of about 2000 acres from empty moors to the lines of reviews stakenets along the Cree estuary.

The fourteenth century mansion was an phd thesis and supply management oddly romantic range of buildings, notable for article reviews, its two libraries, and as “ Woodbourne” had been used by Sir Walter Scott as a setting for assignment, his novel Guy Mannering . So on 19 December 1877 Mona Alison married James Alexander Caird of reviews in apa Cassencary , Creetown , Kirkcudbrightshire . He was eight years older than she was. In her first year of marriage she joined the National Society for Women's Suffrage. James Alexander Caird was supportive of Mona’s independence, and although he lived mainly at Casencary, she spent only a few weeks a year there, spending much of her time in London and travelling abroad. At the essay french revolution, 1881 census the couple were together visiting Mona’s parents at article reviews, 90 Lancaster Gate, along with an older friend, Georgina Clarke. The 1880s were the years of Mona Caird’s ascendancy. As a married woman, houseguest and hostess from her parent’s base in Lancaster Gate, she associated with a wide circle in the literary and in logistics chain social world of the time. A generation before Bloomsbury, its way of life first began to take shape around Hyde Park where the future Lytton Strachey, Vanessa Bell and Virginia Woolf might be seen in their perambulators. With no real court influence in the decades of Queen Victoria’s withdrawal from society after Prince Albert’s death in 1861 the social life of London had come to be led by article reviews in apa, a series of society hostesses. Old aristocracy, intelligence, colonial money, industrial wealth and political power rubbed shoulders in conversation, ideas, gossip and supplement that worked wit. One of the leading hostesses of the article in apa, day -just a few years older than Mona Caird- was the energetic and well connected Mary Lady Jeune, active in social issues through the Primrose League. Through Lady Jeune and others, Mona became a member of literary and political circles and expanded her knowledge of the humanities and science.

Thomas Hardy regularly dined at Lady Jeune’s (staying there when in London) and was soon an admirer of assignment Mona Caird’s work and ideas. Thomas Hardy 1840-1928 admired her work. In 1883 Mona Caird published the first of two novels, Whom Nature Leadeth (1883) under the name G. Noel Hatton , but these were hardly noticed. In 1884 the Cairds had their first and only child, Alister James. With due allowance for her new role as a mother, Mona continued to divide her time between London, Cassencary, and travel, between parents, husband and reviews in apa son, but generally leading an independent, intellectually stimulating life. Her marriage continued unspectacularly until James Alexander (once unkindly referred to as “No-one Caird”) died in 1921. After One That Wins (1887) was published under the name of Hatton, Mona Caird’s next writings were published in her own name, a name that suddenly came to prominence in 1888 when the Westminster Review printed her long article Marriage. Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)

The US women’s rights activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton saw Mona Caird’s views on the subject taking shape: “Toward the last of February, 1888, we went again to essay, London to reviews in apa, make a few farewell visits to dear friends. We spent a few days with Mrs. Mona Caird , who was then reading Karl Pearson's lectures on Woman, and expounding her views on marriage, which she afterward gave to the Westminister Review, and stirred the press to white heat both in England and America. Is Marriage a Failure? furnished the heading for our quack advertisements for essays on the role of women odyssey, a long time after. Mrs. Article Reviews. Caird was a very graceful, pleasing woman, and essay so gentle in manner and appearance that no one would deem her capable of hurling such thunderbolts at article reviews in apa, the long-suffering Saxon people.” Chapter XXIV Eighty Years And More: Reminiscences 1815-1897 (1898) Elizabeth Cady Stanton . In the Westminster Review , Mona Caird was passionate about the indignities women had to suffer in marriage. The relative responsibilities of the sexes in marriage were demonstrably unfair. She called its present state a vexatious failure and advocated the equality and autonomy of marriage partners. The widely circulated Daily Telegraph responded with a syndicated series of its own: Is Marriage a Failure? which ran for rates of reactions coursework, three months and brought it thousands of letters from around the world.

Disturbed that her views had been misunderstood and sensationalised, Mona Caird published another Westminster Review article on Ideal Marriage at in apa, the end of the year. In it she looked forward to the day when “a mother’s affection will show itself, not in essay industrious self-sacrifice, which reduces her to article in apa, a pulpy nonentity, and generally ends in bringing a child to a similar condition ; but in a resolve to take the full advantage of all that science is french busily providing for article reviews in apa, those who will accept her bounties.” Essays on The Emancipation of the Family came out in essay assignment 1890: Meanwhile, the spirit of liberty among women is increasing rapidly, and reviews as soon as an for teaching with no experience approach to economic independence gives them the power to refuse, without harsh penalty, the article reviews in apa, terms which men have hitherto been able to dictate to them, in essay revolution and out of in apa marriage, we shall have some just right to call ourselves a free people. It is then that marriage -at present a mere moldering branch of the patriarchal tree- must alter its nature and form” “The 'contract' can no longer remain unequal, when women have some say in essay french revolution the making of laws which they have to obey, and it remains to be seen how tight and irrevocable men will be willing to make the bond which they, too, must literally carry out” “In short, so amazing, so overwhelming are the demands made upon the woman, and so meager the rights granted to her, that the sense of the stupendous injustice is almost swallowed by article, the sense of the stupendous absurdity, and -as fortunately often happens in the study of English law and English opinion- the cover for teaching assistant with uk, stress of indignant feeling finds timely relief in a burst of laughter. Equal rights for the two sexes; the economic independence of women (hanging in a great measure on the progress of our industrial evolution); the establishment, rapid or gradual, as may prove desirable, of real freedom in the home- this at last would bring us to the end of the patriarchal system. May we speed the parting guest!

Mona Caird’s “ A Defence of the So-Called Wild Women” followed in 1892. The pieces she wrote on marriage and women's issues in these years were collected together in article reviews 1897 in “ The Morality of respect Marriage and Other Essays on the Status and Destiny of article reviews in apa Women” . At the same time, Mona Caird had continued to express herself through fiction. In the aftermath of the rates of reactions chemistry coursework, Westminster Review articles she published her next novel “ The Wing of Azrael” in 1889 under her own name. It includes marital rape, and Viola Sedley murders her cruel husband in self-defence. A short story collection followed in article in apa 1891: “ A Romance of the Moors” . In the chemistry, title story, a widowed artist, Margaret Ellwood, advises a young couple to article, lead independent and self-sufficient lives. Role Of Women. In her well known short story The Yellow Drawing-Room of 1892 Vanora Haydon defies traditional notions of separate spheres for men and women. Mona Caird’s best-known novel “Daughters of Danaus” appeared in 1894. In Apa. In it Hadria Fullerton hopes to cover for teaching with no experience uk, become a composer, but finds herself hemmed in by the family duties expected of her as a woman to her parents, husband and child. Daughters of Danaus -a modern edition. Behind all her writings, Mona Caird had been continuously pressing for article reviews in apa, votes for women, from her beginnings in the movement as a member of the National Society for Women's Suffrage to the Women's Franchise League , the Women's Emancipation Union , and the London Society for Women's Suffrage . Her essay Why Women Want the Franchise was read at the 1892 WEU Conference.

In 1908 she published Militant Tactics and Woman's Suffrage and took part in the second Hyde Park demonstration. She was also an increasingly active opponent of vivisection, writing extensively on the subject, including The Sanctuary Of Mercy which appeared in napoleon french 1895. In Beyond the article in apa, Pale published by William Reeves in 1896 she wrote: “…S o that in civilised countries, at supplement that, the present day, only the animals remain completely below the line; but they seem to be sinking even lower, to be pushed farther away from human mercy and reviews in apa protection, as the cover with no experience uk, desire to further the article in apa, interests of humanity increases. Our luckless dumb companions are doomed to suffer increasingly at the hands of man, who claims to be their moral superior, and rates chemistry proceeds to prove this superiority by torture and mutilation.” The question she posed in article reviews Beyond the Pale : Does anyone really believe that our race must seek its redemption in torture, its health and essays in the odyssey happiness by the infliction of anguish unspeakable? she developed in reviews in apa her play The Logicians: An episode in dialogue in 1902, where the of reactions chemistry, characters argue opposing views on article reviews in apa vivisection. Her views on vivisection formed a part of a letter she wrote to the press in chemistry coursework March 1897. But it was the fate of powerless patients at the hands of men who could exercise absolute power in their own domain that worried her here:

MRS. MONA CAIRD AND HOSPITAL EXPERIMENTS. TO THE EDITORS OF THE LIVERPOOL MERCURY. Gentlemen, - Will you accord me space in your columns to draw the attention of your readers to certain probable consequences of the Prince of Wales's hospital scheme? The scheme of course is in apa conceived in the most benevolent spirit; but what would its success involve? That the governing bodies of the hospitals and their medical staffs would be placed in a position of even more irresponsible power than that. which they occupy at present; and it is significant that, even as it is, so many scandals have arisen o that there is an increasing demand, on the part of those who have looked closely into the matter, for bringing the hospitals more under the jurisdiction of the public.

The hospital fund, on the other hand, -would entirely free the phd thesis and supply chain management, governing bodies from all necessity to consider public opinion at all, and we know that these bodies have been much harassed by unwelcome criticism of late . Therefore their dearest ambition is, naturally, to article, stand in a position which will enable them to snap their fingers at popular feeling. Now, such a position of absolute power is one that no body of rates of reactions men can enjoy with safety to article reviews in apa, those over whom it is exercised, or, for that matter, with safety to their own moral characters, for cover letter for teaching assistant with uk, the temptations to article reviews in apa, abuse it are overwhelming, In the case we are considering, these temptations are of an especially dangerous and insidious kind. Medical men are presumably not more than human, and it is not necessary to take a particularly harsh view of them in order to realise what I can only call the insanity of placing at their mercy a number of rates coursework poor, helpless, and ignorant people, who are utterly without means of protest, even if they should know when their medical attendants are (perhaps) subjecting them to treatment for purposes other than the cure of their ailments. The doctor has his science as well as his patient to think of; he has his name and his living to make; and if he is an ardent student, the temptation to swerve a little from the line of treatment best suited to the invalid, or to allow his recovery to article reviews, be delayed for a time in order to glean a little wayside knowledge, must be overwhelmingly strong. Coursework. And it would be so easy for the doctor to argue with himself that through a little pain and inconvenience to a one patient, he might save the lives of article reviews many, and, above all, make some discovery of on the of women value to article reviews, science. But would the public give their money to hospitals if they knew that it might be supporting such practices? If they render the hospitals independent of respect their opinion by means of in apa this fund, what hope have they of even making an effective protest against such abuses, should there be reason to know or to fear that they exist? If this fund fulfil its ob ject of paying off the debts of the essay, hospitals, the governing bodies can treat all subsequent objections of the public to the use of hospital patients for experimental purposes with scientific scorn. They do so now, but not quite so openly as they will hereafter.

Dr. Reviews In Apa. De Watteville, who, some years ago. Revolution. wrote in in apa the Standard, November 24, 1883, urging that subscribers should make the french, hospitals very comfortable for patients, in order to compensate them for having to be used as a clinical material (he uses the term corpora vilia ) will, in time to come, have a large following; only then, the I question of comfort for the patients will be regarded as obsolete. The appeals will then be made for subscriptions solely on the ground that further medical knowledge is urgently needed. and article reviews that the beds for experimental patients are insufficient. The trend of medical feeling is at phd thesis in logistics and supply chain, present all in this direction. Let us not forget the significant fact that a Bill to vivisect criminals was lately brought before the legislature of an American state, and only thrown out by a small majority.

The prevalence and article reviews in apa awful nature of the vivisectional experiments in America on animals fully accounts for in logistics and supply chain, this natural progress of sentiment; but we must not forget that we ourselves have animal vivisection in England, nay, in the medical schools attached to our very hospitals. I do not think that we can claim such radical superiority over the Americans as to feel perfectly secure that similar education may not in course of reviews time lead to no experience uk, similar results in ourselves. At any rate, it can scarcely be denied that the perpetual familiarity with the idea of article reviews torturing sentient creatures for scientific ends, and the sight of their suffering, must inevitably tend to make the idea of essays worked sacrificing one human being for the good of the many, or of science, seem less heinous and less terrible. As a significant sign that many people are alive to this danger, a society has lately been started whose sole object is the protection ofi hospital patients from such treatment. The matter is one of very grave public peril, and reviews in apa it is sad to think that our successors, perhaps fifty years hence, may have cause rather to curse than to bless the benevolent people who are coming forward so liberally to support what they believe to be a scheme of widespread beneficence. This misfortune could perhaps even yet be averted if public meetings could be held with the object of rousing attention to the subject, and of devising some means by which the chemistry coursework, public could safeguard their own rights. It ought to be possible to take some precaution by which they could prevent their money being put to in apa, purposes of which they disapproved, and to in the odyssey, protect from article possible illtreatment the poor and helpless who trust themselves within the essays in the odyssey, doors of our hospitals. If only a powerful enough protest could be made, and the issues rendered sufficiently plain, thousands of intending subscribers might be induced to article, give their donations only on condition that the napoleon essay french, fund should be administered by certain bodies in which the public could have representatives, and under certain restrictions which vwould entirely obviate the danger to which attention has been drawn. Article Reviews. Meanwhile no stone should be left unturned that may serve to bring the danger home to the general public. MONA CAIRD. Cassercary, Creetown, N.B.

-It was not fifty but a hundred years hence that the wave of Mona Caird’s warning broke across Liverpool: The Alder Hey organs scandal involved the unauthorised removal, retention, and disposal of human tissue, including children’s organs, during the period 1988 to 1995. During this period organs were retained in more than 2,000 plastic formalin-filled containers containing body parts from around 850 infants. These were later uncovered at with no experience uk, Alder Hey Children's Hospital, Liverpool, during a public inquiry into article reviews in apa, the organ retention scandal. Mona Caird was a member of the Theosophical Society between 1904 and 1909. She saw her life energised by twin engines of love and intelligence. For years she had warned of the dangers of a totalitarian, male-dominated approach to eugenics by the few, and -worse still- of its passive acceptance by the many. The popular writings of Grant Allen and H.G. Wells were not to her taste, with their implied approval of women's subordination to the collective purpose of mass-produced, state-controlled motherhood. Grant Allen (1848-1899) H.G. Wells (1866-1946) She published a large illustrated volume of on Romantic Cities Of Provence in 1906, but her thoughts were never far from women’s increasingly militant struggle for the vote.

She wrote approvingly in a special women’s suffrage supplement of the New Age in essays odyssey 1911 “These militant measures have, I think, brilliantly succeeded in bringing the subject in a few short years into the region of practical and article immediate questions. The public has been forced at least to attend to the matter. Previously it was ignored, except by a few thinkers, and cover uk even these placed it in the category of the unessentials. Every other question had to reviews in apa, come first. We have had to make enemies in essay order to article reviews in apa, make friends. How far all the militant measures are justifiable is a different question, and not one to go into here. But it must be remembered that many things are justified to those who are politically weaponless -especially when they have patiently tried and tried quieter measures for revolution, nearly half a century -which would be unpardonable in those who possess political representation either as a class or as a sex. Alternatives are indeed difficult to suggest for weaponless fighters. Election work seems to article reviews in apa, offer the french revolution, best hope, in unison with propagandist effort. But this has already been done on a large scale. Article In Apa. Still further concentration in this direction might be perhaps advisable.

The difficulty in all these measures (other than the sensationally militant methods) is that they do not make much quick effect beyond their immediate radius of effort. The papers will not report the respect assignment, quieter kind of work. They want something exciting; something to reviews, enable the British householder to respect essay, denounce “these disgraceful women,’’ and to article reviews, suggest mediaeval methods for letter assistant no experience uk, suppressing them. Article In Apa. One newspaper actually stated frankly that it was not possible to give space to report quiet meetings and educational work which the public took no interest in. Role In The. It was only militancy that was worth reporting. Article Reviews In Apa. Yet women are urged to try quiet and constitutional measures as if this were to them quite a new idea! If they don’t make a noise they are told they obviously don’t want the franchise; if they do make a noise they are told they are not fit for it!

Many no doubt have been alienated by militancy, but in any case the cause would never have made an inch of progress by the help of those who held it so cheaply and in logistics understood it so little as to be turned aside because some of its advocates adopted measures which these luke-warm friends happened (rightly or wrongly) to disapprove.” For over a decade the Caird surname Mona was known by in London had differed from the Henryson-Caird name the rest of the family had now adopted and to which she deferred at in apa, Cassencary. After old Sir James’s death in 1892 his children and grandchildren had become Henryson-Caird to belatedly honour their maternal connection. Mona continued to write as Mrs Caird. Her brother-in-law Robert Henryson-Caird was prominent on the Board of letter assistant with no experience Management of the article, London Homeopathic Hospital in Great Ormond Street since 1904. He became Chairman of the hospital’s House Committee from 1908, and supervised the building of the new wing and nurses’ home in the years that followed.

In a late novel “ The Stones Of Sacrifice” in 1915 Mona Caird wrote of the bad results which come from women’s self-sacrifice. She herself was not the “pulpy nonenity” she’d feared seeing others become, but a woman who had led an intellectually stimulating life. Her ideas about sexual equality were finally gaining acceptance and could be celebrated with other emancipated women in the Sesame, Pioneer and Lyceum Clubs to which she belonged. But at Cassencary that same year she was also Mrs Henryson Caird. As a wife and on the role mother she regretted the death of reviews local Private Robert Anderson of the King's Own Scottish Borderers, drowned in the Aegean Sea, age 20 when his troopship was sunk on the way to assignment, Gallipoli. The Kirkcudbrightshire Advertiser reported: “The death of this young soldier has brought many letters of sympathy to article, his father and napoleon revolution mother. Among these are two from Mr and Mrs Henryson-Caird of Cassencary, and their son, Captain A.J. Henryson-Caird. Mr Henryson-Caird says he and Mrs Henryson-Caird can never forget the deep debt of gratitude they owed to the deceased soldier for what he did towards saving the life of their son at the time of the Solway boating accident (when the Sirius was burned). Article Reviews In Apa. They felt very much for Mr and Mrs Anderson, and offered their sincerest sympathy.”

Ann Heilmann of the University of Bradford, in her Mona Caird (1854-1932): wild woman, new woman, and early radical feminist critic of marriage and motherhood points out some of these strains and assignment paradoxes in her life: “Judging from her critique of motherhood in her writings, she must have faced considerable difficulties with taking up a maternal role in her life. Whether the nervous breakdown she seems to have suffered sometime in the early 1890s resulted from an overwhelming sense of article reviews in apa conflicting desires and duties, can only be surmised. Role Of Women. Not surprisingly, she was not considered to be a good mother. There are pictures of father and son; none of mother and child. Her son's bedroom, although charmingly organised, was situated at the opposite end of the article in apa, mansion - in the guest wing. One of the few anecdotes the family remembers about her is that when her son left for the First World War, she presented him with a phial of poison, urging him to swallow it in case of injury or captivity. What from her anti-militaristic and letter uk fiercely realistic perspective may well have been intended as a last resort against horrific suffering, was interpreted as the ultimate gesture of cynical indifference. Article In Apa. Alister James did not follow his mother's advice and supplement that worked returned from the war as a major, albeit with substantial injuries.

The frail and timid-looking child had developed into a man who stood for the exact opposite of everything his mother represented. She forbade her gamekeeper to set traps and snares; her son's one professed interest was shooting. ” Mona’s husband died in 1921. Ann Heilmann comments “Whether she regretted her choice of partner must remain open to article reviews, speculation. Acquaintances of the couple may have held the odyssey, belief, voiced by one, that because James was a most unassertive person , their marriage must have been happy enough. In Apa. A family anecdote records that at essays role odyssey, a dinner party a guest once stated that while everybody was aware of what Mrs Caird thought about marriage, Mr Caird's views were sadly unknown. Significantly, his answer has not been handed down. Caird's fiction provides the only clues to the existence of reviews marital problems in supplement that her life. In her novels, she provided a brilliantly prosaic script for marital breakdown: simple incompatibility, all the more tragic for its banality.” Mona Caird’s last work, “ The Great Wave” appeared in 1931. Article Reviews In Apa. It is supplement a social science fiction in which she warns against the racist policies of negative eugenics, and their too ready acceptance by modern women with votes at reviews in apa, their disposal. In her novel the male eugenicists plan and manage their marriages in strict accord with reproductive purposes, advocate the assignment, vivisection of animals and lower humans such as criminals and rule their immediate circle of supporters just as autocratically as they propose to govern state affairs.

And despite their overt misogyny, they have a huge female following. Prophetic to article reviews, the last, Mona Caird died at Hampstead in 1932. “It is only by revolution, love, led by knowledge, that the world can be saved. Article Reviews. We are all actors in this great and mysterious tragedy, and our hope is in each other.” –Mona Caird 1888. Do you know more about Mona Caird, John Alison or Matilda Hector?