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experimental report Prepared by a staff team from European I, Fiscal Affairs, Monetary and Exchange Affairs, Policy Development and Review and Statistics Departments with the my dissertation for me, cooperation of the United Kingdom authorities. Transparency of Monetary and sydney, Financial Policies Description of Practice IMF Staff Commentary on the Monetary Policy Framework IMF Staff Commentary on the Financial Policy Framework. Banking Supervision Assesses only the write my dissertation for me uk, authorities' observance of the transparency elements of the Basel Core Principles Description of Practice IMF Staff Commentary. Securities Market Regulation This section is a self assessment on the part of the authorities and was not independently verified by IMF staff.
It is paper not therefore a Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Insurance Industry Regulation This section is a self assessment on write for me uk the part of the authorities and was not independently verified by IMF staff. It is not therefore a Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC). Accounting Practices This section is a self assessment on the part of the authorities and was not independently verified by IMF staff. Thesis Latex? It is write for me uk not therefore a Report on Observance of Standards and essay ornekleri, Codes (ROSC). Auditing Practices This section is a self assessment on the part of the authorities and was not independently verified by IMF staff. It is not therefore a Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC).
This report is one in a series of experimental studies aimed at considering how to present information on an economy's transparency practices and some of the write my dissertation for me uk, standards that lie behind these practices. 1. There have been significant changes in the policy-making process in the United Kingdom in it assignment recent years. The objective of these changes has been to improve the substance of uk economic policy-making by: introducing explicit medium-term objectives for argumentative essay policy; clarifying institutional responsibilities and better aligning these with the medium-term objectives of policy; and. increasing transparency and accountability in the setting of policy objectives, in the process by which policy is developed, and in the responsibility for outcomes. 2. The recent re-assignment of institutional responsibilities and my dissertation for me, the clarification in the objectives for fiscal, monetary and financial supervisory policies, are outcomes of this process.
Efforts have also been made to enhance transparency in the policy process more generally by requiring that all legislation imposing new regulations on paper the private sector be accompanied by a Regulatory Impact Assessment, which is required to state the costs and benefits of the regulations and their impact on various sectors of the write my dissertation for me uk, economy. 3. In the context of this experimental report, the staff have considered the authorities' practices against a set of internationally accepted standards. In the areas of data dissemination, fiscal transparency and banking supervision, U.K. practices have been considered primarily against the Fund's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS), its Code of Good Practices on Fiscal Transparency , and the transparency aspects of the Basle Committee's Core Principles of Effective Banking Supervision . 1 The report also considers the transparency practices in the area of monetary and help, financial policies, using the write uk, broad principles underlying the February, 1999, preliminary draft Code of it assignment help sydney Good Practices on Transparency of Monetary and Financial Policies . In addition, the report provides a summary of the authorities' views on the extent to which domestic practices are consistent with existing international standards in the areas of securities market regulation, insurance regulation, accounting and auditing, and write, describes how domestic standards are promulgated and enforced. No attempt is made to provide an independent view of observance of standards in these areas. 4. Dopamine Research? In the staff's view, the United Kingdom has made important strides in write uk enhancing its transparency practices in several key areas of economic policy. While progress in this direction has been underway for some time, in recent years the agenda has been advanced substantially. As a result, the United Kingdom has achieved high levels of it assignment sydney transparency in the four areas assessed here - data dissemination, fiscal, monetary and financial policy transparency, and the disclosure aspects of banking supervision.
5. As always, there remain areas where further improvements in transparency and the observance of international standards could be made. Specifically: it will be important to achieve observance of the SDDS by bringing the DSBB metadata into my dissertation for me, line with actual practices on the dissemination of data and addressing those few remaining areas where dissemination practices are inconsistent with the standard; better integration of existing data on contingent liabilities with the budget documentation would help to research provide a more comprehensive picture of the fiscal position and attendant risks; and. an economic classification and a more detailed functional decomposition of government expenditures in the main budget documents would help facilitate policy analysis. 6. In addition, a key area under development is the impending legislative framework underpinning the regulatory arrangements for the financial sector. It will be critical that the final form of the legislation embody a high degree of transparency and accountability. II. Data Dissemination. 7. The United Kingdom subscribes to the Fund's Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS). The SDDS is write my dissertation a best practice standard against which a country's dissemination practices can be readily measured.
It covers four sectors of the economy (real, fiscal, financial, and external), as well as population, and has four dimensions, i.e., the data dimension (the coverage, periodicity, and it assignment help, timeliness of the data); access by the public to those data; the integrity of the data; and the quality of the write my dissertation, data. A. Description of Practice. Since its subscription to the SDDS was accepted by the Fund on June 5, 1996, the United Kingdom has announced a total of four transition plans 2 , affecting three data categories. Those plans dealt with the coverage, periodicity and timeliness of the data on central government debt, and the coverage of the data on the analytical accounts of the essay essay, central bank. The United Kingdom has now completed all of write uk these plans. In addition, the exemplar, United Kingdom now disseminates advance release calendars that meet the SDDS requirements for all relevant data categories. (See attached copies of the Summary of Observance and Advance Release Calendar pages.) The United Kingdom is taking a permanent flexibility option 3 for the periodicity and timeliness of the data for central government operations 4 and has indicated on the Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB) that it will continue to publish the write my dissertation uk, financing component for it assignment sydney this data category on a quarterly basis with a timeliness of one quarter. The United Kingdom has recently revised its metadata to indicate that it will be using a permanent flexibility option for my dissertation the timeliness of the essay essay, data on the analytical accounts of the central bank and will in future publish monthly data with a timeliness of about one month, instead of weekly data with a timeliness of one week as encouraged by the IMF.
The United Kingdom has recently recommenced publication of wages and earnings data. At present the metadata reflect the earlier situation when the data had been suspended. Write Uk? The metadata will be updated to reflect current practice later this year. The United Kingdom has a hyperlinked national summary data page (NSDP), which shows the latest available data for each prescribed data category and component. 5. B. IMF Staff Commentary. Continuous and systematic monitoring of list of abbreviations SDDS observance will begin in my dissertation practice as evidence of a country's degree of observance becomes available by mid-1999 (See Box 1). However, on a level essays the basis of information provided, the United Kingdom does not currently disseminate the prescribed component of a financing breakdown for two data categories (central government operations and general government operations 6 ) and needs to revise its metadata to reflect this fact and to describe current practices (in addition to updating the metadata for wages and write my dissertation uk, earnings). The existence of the NSDP (which is not mandatory under the SDDS until end-1999) contributes to enhanced transparency. However, data for the prescribed components of the analytical accounts of the central bank, and essay, data on the breakdown of debt by maturity, are not shown on write for me uk the NSDP. In addition, the central government debt data are more than six months out of aqa music a level essays date.
The authorities have advised that work will be undertaken later this year to publish timely data for these components. Subscription to the SDDS is voluntary. Countries that subscribe to the SDDS undertook to observe the Standard fully by my dissertation for me uk, the implementation deadlines which come into effect during 1999. 1. Staff monitoring of observance of the a level essays, SDDS is limited to the coverage, periodicity and timeliness of the data and to the dissemination of advance release calendars (ARCs), information about which is given on the Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB). In addition, the DSBB provides information (metadata) on a country's practices for the following aspects of transparency: simultaneous release of the data; laws governing the compilation and release of the data; access to the data by other government officials prior to release; ministerial commentary accompanying the release of the data; revision policy; and write my dissertation uk, advance notice of major changes in methodology. Staff have not undertaken an assessment of the quality of the data disseminated under the SDDS. The SDDS was designed to assist users to make their own assessment of data quality by dopamine research, providing information on write my dissertation uk the DSBB on the dissemination of documentation of methodology and the publication of essay essay more detailed data which provide an assurance of the reasonableness of the data.
In addition, Summary Methodologies designed to shed light on write my dissertation for me data quality, and using a standard format for all countries for each data category, will be disseminated on the DSBB in the future. III. Fiscal Transparency. 8. This section provides an assessment of fiscal management practices in United Kingdom against the requirements of the IMF Code of Good Practices on argumentative essay ornekleri Fiscal Transparency—Declaration on for me Principles . The authorities have completed the fiscal transparency questionnaire and self-evaluation report prepared by the IMF staff. Help Sydney? 7 The assessment has two parts. The first part is a description of practices, prepared by the IMF staff on the basis of the questionnaire response and the self-evaluation report.
The second part is an write uk IMF staff commentary on fiscal transparency in the United Kingdom. A. Dopamine? Description of write my dissertation for me uk Practice. 9. On Oscar? Clarity of write for me Roles and Responsibilities: The definition of the government and the public sector follows the SNA, with more detailed guidance provided by thesis list of abbreviations, the European System of my dissertation Accounts (ESA95). All new regulations are subjected to a published Regulatory Impact Statement, and there is a fast-track procedure to repeal unwarranted regulations. Arrangements for devolution to assemblies in Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales are almost complete, and are to wilde include a clear legislative and administrative framework for the allocation of fiscal responsibilities to each assembly. The Bank of my dissertation for me England has operational independence, there are no other significant public financial institutions, and dopamine, nonfinancial public enterprises operate on a commercial basis (with the costs of noncommercial activities being compensated for and reflected in write for me the budget). Research Paper? A strong framework for fiscal management is provided by the Code of Fiscal Stability (CFS), which was implemented in write 1998. The CFS requires the government to set out how fiscal and debt management policy will be formulated and implemented. The Inland Revenue Department publishes a wide range of guidance material for taxpayers and there is a Taxpayers' Charter. The behavior of essay essay public servants is write for me governed by the Civil Service Code. 10.
Public Availability of of abbreviations Information: The CFS requires the government to produce a Pre-Budget Report (PBR), an Economic and Fiscal Strategy Report (EFSR), a Financial Statement and Budget Report (FSBR), and a Debt Management Report (DMR). The FSBR provides comprehensive coverage of the public sector. While it does not include statements of contingent liabilities, tax expenditures, and quasi-fiscal activities, the first two are reported elsewhere and write for me, quasi-fiscal activities are not significant. The above reports are published according to a regular cycle. 11. List Of Abbreviations? Open Budget Preparation, Execution, and Reporting: The EFSR provides the broad macroeconomic framework for the budget, and it is intended to include illustrative projections for 10 years ahead beginning from the next budget. Fiscal policy is guided by two rules—the golden rule and write, the debt rule—which are clearly explained. Aqa Music A Level Exemplar Essays? 8 The preferred summary indicator of the fiscal position is the public sector current balance, which will be used to assess performance against the golden rule. The preferred summary indicator of fiscal stance is public sector net borrowing. Work is in progress to develop generational accounts, and the CFS requires the government to write move to accrual accounting in the context of a more general shift to resource accounting and budgeting. The presentation of fiscal data is consistent with ESA95, but the main budget documents report data at a high level of aggregation.
Accounting procedures and principles follow GAAP. Resource accounting will be guided by a recently-completed Resource Accounting Manual. 12. Essay Essay? Independent Assurances of Integrity: The National Audit Office is independent. Macroeconomic assumptions are open to independent scrutiny, indeed the entire Treasury model is write my dissertation for me required by law to research paper be published.
The Office of for me uk National Statistics has technical independence and ways are being sought to further strengthen its position. The United Kingdom is currently working toward full observance of SDDS requirements for fiscal data. B. IMF Staff Commentary. The United Kingdom has achieved a very high level of fiscal transparency. The requirements of the Code are met in ornekleri almost all respects and exceeded in many. The various provisions of the write uk, CFS described above have made a major contribution in this regard. While regular information on paper contingent liabilities is already published, transparency could be further enhanced if such information could be better integrated into the budget documents. Similarly, given that Departmental Reports are not published until a number of weeks after the write my dissertation, annual Budget, the transparency of the main budget documents could be further improved by providing a more detailed breakdown of government expenditure (including the main economic and functional categories of spending) in the PBR and the FSBR. 13. In the context of strengthening the architecture of the international monetary system, the essay questions on oscar wilde, Interim Committee, in its April and October 1998 communiqus, called on write for me uk the Fund to develop a code of transparency practices for monetary and financial policies, in cooperation with appropriate institutions.
The Fund, in consultation with others, has prepared a draft Code of Good Practices on Transparency in Monetary and Financial Policies . 9. 14. The following considers the transparency practices of U.K. monetary and financial policy frameworks as they relate to of abbreviations the broad principles underlying the Fund's draft Code based on information provided by, and discussions with, the authorities at the time of the for me uk, 1998 Article IV Consultation. 15. Clarity of dopamine paper roles and responsibilities: Recent changes to institutional arrangements have contributed to enhanced clarity of roles and a clearer assignment of responsibilities although some uncertainties remain pending the outcome of the legislative process. The Bank of write for me England Act 1998 , clearly defines the dopamine paper, Bank's operational responsibility for monetary policy. The Act also transfers the uk, BoE's supervisory responsibilities to the newly formed Financial Services Authority (FSA). Argumentative Essay Ornekleri? While already functioning, the legal basis for the FSA will remain uncertain until the passage of the Financial Services and write, Markets Bill (to be introduced into Parliament later this year).
On the basis of the draft bill, the FSA will incorporate the functions of nine separate authorities. The draft Bill sets out clear statutory objectives for the FSA in pursuing its regulatory functions. The May 1998 Memorandum of Understanding between the BoE, the FSA and the Treasury should help ensure effective working arrangements between the institutions. 16. Open process for formulating and reporting of monetary and financial policies: The BoE's Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), the policy making body, meets monthly with minutes of meetings being published within two weeks. These minutes and the BoE's Inflation Report provide effective vehicles for communication. The draft Bill requires the FSA to consult on (and publish cost/benefit analyses of) all new rules and for these to be published. The FSA may also be required to essay essay publish policies in for me uk other areas such as enforcement procedures and questions, penalties. 17. Public availability of information: The Bank produces regular press releases on statistics, MPC decisions and other Bank issues and its balance sheet is released as part of its Annual Report. U.K. official holdings of foreign currency and gold are published monthly in consultation with the Treasury.
The Bank and the FSA both have a public web site. The FSA is required to for me publish and consult on research paper its budget and fees proposals. 18. Accountability and assurance of integrity by the central bank and write for me, financial supervisory agency: The Chancellor of the essay essay, Exchequer, who is accountable to Parliament, has overall responsibility for the monetary policy framework and write uk, sets the inflation target. The Bank sets interest rates to achieve the target. The Governor of the Bank and other members of the research, MPC regularly appear before the House of Commons' Treasury Select Committee. The MPC is accountable for significant divergences of inflation from its target through an open letter system. 11 The draft Bill would require the FSA to report annually on performance against the statutory objectives. Other accountability provisions in the draft Bill include non-executive members of the FSA Board being required to report on the efficiency of its operations; the consultation arrangements required on new rules; the formation of consumer and practitioner panels; and scope for the Treasury to commission periodic value for money audits.
Senior members of the FSA will also be expected to appear before Parliamentary committees. B. IMF Staff Commentary on the Monetary Policy Framework. The new monetary policy framework is highly transparent with respect to all four principles underlying the draft Code. The frank style and my dissertation for me uk, the short time lag in the publication of the MPC minutes provides for an effective transmission of information on the MPC decision-making process. Reducing the essay essay, time lag on the publication of the Minutes is commendable and should be continued. The open letter system is a recent innovation and it will be important to see how it operates in practice. The remit of the MPC is clear - to set interest rates to ensure the Government's inflation target is met - and the MPC has operational freedom to go about this task. All this is consistent with the draft Code. Transparency could be further enhanced if the Inflation Report were to incorporate some of the qualitative flavor of the MPC minutes, for example, by indicating how the forecast had been developed, where there were major differences among the MPC members regarding economic assumptions, the prospects and the perceived risks. The legislative basis for my dissertation the FSA's role is under consideration at this time and the transparency of financial policies will need to be reviewed against the legislation enacted. It will be important in essay essay the forthcoming legislation, and the regulations that flow from it, to ensure that the regulatory and supervisory activities of the FSA are transparent and accountable.
The draft legislation provides an indication of the elements that may be included. While the capacity of Ministers to dismiss the my dissertation for me uk, FSA Board is part of the general political accountability framework, and these powers are constrained through administrative law and access to appeals mechanisms, transparency would be enhanced if the general grounds on which the Government may dismiss the Board were to argumentative be publicized more widely. (See also Section V. Banking Supervision.) 19. The Basle Committee on Banking Supervision (Basle Committee) prepared the Core Principles for Effective Banking Supervision (Core Principles) in order to strengthen national financial market supervision and stability. 12 Intended to serve as a basic reference and minimum standards for my dissertation supervisory and other public authorities in countries generally and internationally, the Core Principles address the dopamine research, major dimensions of banking sector supervision: preconditions for effective supervision; licensing process and approval for changes in structure; prudential regulations and requirements; methods of ongoing banking supervision; information requirements; formal powers of for me supervisors; and, cross-border banking. 20.
An assessment of U.K. Essay Questions? practices against the full set of 25 Basle Core Principles is outside the scope of this study. Instead, this section focuses on the transparency aspects of the Core Principles. The staff's commentary is based on consideration of a questionnaire completed by the authorities and discussion with the authorities at uk the time of the 1998 Article IV Consultation. 21. The Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA) has been established to essay essay bring together in one agency responsibility for my dissertation uk the authorization and supervision of all providers of financial services 14 It can autonomously issue prudential regulations under powers delegated to it by Parliament. The draft Financial Services and Markets Bill (to be introduced into Parliament later this year) will develop and further clarify these powers.
The income of the FSA comes from the institutions it supervises. 22. Legal framework: An effective legal basis for financial sector regulation and essay essay, super- vision already exists in write my dissertation the United Kingdom, relevant laws and regulations are effectively implemented, and the legal framework does not hinder the conclusion or enforcement of loan contracts. Questions On Oscar? The UK approach can be characterized as allowing a considerable degree of write my dissertation uk discretion to questions the supervisory authorities. The passage of the draft Bill will create a single regulatory authority with a consistent set of objectives, duties and powers.
By eliminating the scope for gaps and overlap, this Bill should further increase the effectiveness of existing arrangements. Under the present and proposed arrangements, should certain prudential standards be breached, the write my dissertation, FSA must by law consider what action to take to remedy or mitigate the situation but, in most cases, the essay questions on oscar wilde, law gives the FSA considerable freedom to ensure that the write for me, response fits the need. Essay? In order to ensure accountability for these powers, the new legislative framework will require widespread consultation on regulations and my dissertation uk, detailed guidelines. In addition, the laws and regulations provide to affected parties the right of referral against supervisory decisions to dopamine paper an independent tribunal. For now, the FSA is operating under the legislation of write for me uk its predecessor institutions. 23. Accounting and disclosure aspects: External audits of annual financial statements of all companies, including financial institutions, are required by the U.K. Companies Act; however, this requirement does not apply to banks incorporated outside the United Kingdom which are subject to the legal requirements ruling in the country where they are registered. The appointment of a bank's external auditor does not require supervisory approval, but the appointment of its reporting accountants (usually the same firm) does.
The external auditor is obliged to inform the a level essays, FSA of matters relevant to my dissertation uk effective supervision or the auditor's ability to of abbreviations latex issue a clean opinion. 24. Compliance with U.K. accounting standards is required. 15 Regular publication of balance sheets, profit and write for me, loss statement, notes to the account, and essay essay, auditor's statement is required by U.K. law. All public companies are required to issued consolidated annual financial statements. B. IMF Staff Commentary. While existing supervisory practices in the areas outlined above already appear consistent with the disclosure aspects of the Basle Core Principles, the my dissertation for me, picture can be expected to become somewhat sharper once the current period of regulatory transition is resolved, in particular with the passage of legislation underpinning the FSA.
Given the considerable discretion that the it assignment help sydney, law allows the for me, FSA, it will be important for the new arrangements to provide sufficient accountability to ensure that the on oscar, discretion is used appropriately. This includes arrangements for consultation with interested parties on policies and regulations, as well as opportunities for those affected by the FSA's decisions to have adequate redress to an independent tribunal and ultimately to the courts. 25. The Financial Services Act 1986 establishes the framework for regulation of investment business. While this Act vests in the Treasury overall responsibility for ensuring its implementation, it also provides for delegation of most operational responsibilities, and the majority of these now rest with the Financial Services Authority (FSA). 26.
The Financial Services and Markets Bill, issued in draft and to be introduced to Parliament later this year, proposes to consolidate the power and responsibilities of the FSA by amalgamating banking, insurance and investment business regulation under its authority as a single regulator. 27. The FSA is directly accountable to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, but the Chairman and other senior representatives will also appear, as required, before the Treasury Committee of the write my dissertation for me uk, House of Commons. Attitude to international standards and cooperation. 28. The FSA endorsed the dopamine paper, International Organization of Securities Commissions' (IOSCO) standards, Objectives and Principles of Securities Regulation and Cross-Border Offerings and Initial Listings by Foreign Issuers , in September 1998 17 . 29. Investment business regulation is already required to be carried out in the UK to the level of uk these standards. However, checking that this is the case, and essay essay, making necessary adjustments where appropriate, is one of the FSA's priority areas for 1999 (FSA is a member of IOSCO's implementation task force). The standard on Cross-Border Offerings will be implemented by amending the Listing Rules of the for me uk, London Stock Exchange as appropriate. Documents prepared to the IOSCO standard will still be pre-vetted by the London Stock Exchange in the normal manner.
30. The FSA has arrangements for regulatory cooperation both within the United Kingdom and with foreign regulatory authorities. It has endorsed the help sydney, principal international information-sharing agreements and resolutions, and signed Memoranda of Understanding (MOU) with many foreign counterparts. The U.K. authorities administer legal powers to obtain information on a compulsory basis for foreign regulators when there is no breach of rule or law in the United Kingdom. 31. The proposed Financial Services and Markets Bill will set up a single statutory regulator, the Financial Services Authority, which will be responsible for the regulation of my dissertation for me uk banking, insurance and a level exemplar, investment business. The FSA will replace the current self-regulatory organizations.
32. For Me? On the markets side, the new Bill will continue to provide for the recognition and exemption of essay essay clearing houses and investment exchanges (such as the London Stock Exchange) provided they meet a number of statutory requirements. 33. The Bill also introduces a new civil regime for dealing with unacceptable market conduct, such as price manipulation and the misuse of privileged information. This regime will complement, not replace, the existing criminal offences of write my dissertation uk insider dealing and market manipulation.
Its aim is to protect the efficiency and integrity of markets. The FSA will be given powers to investigate and impose administrative fines on those whose conduct has fallen short of the required standards. The draft Bill will contain broad provisions defining what constitutes unacceptable conduct and will be supplemented by a more detailed code of market conduct which the FSA will be required to produce. 34. The current framework for dopamine research paper regulation of insurance companies is established by the Insurance Companies Act 1982 . While this Act vests in the Treasury overall responsibility for write my dissertation supervision of argumentative essay insurance activities, most day-to-day operational responsibilities have been delegated to the Financial Supervisory Authority (FSA). 35. As noted above, the Financial Services and my dissertation, Markets Bill, to be introduced into Parliament later this year, would amalgamate authority for banking, insurance and investment regulation and supervision under the power and responsibilities of the FSA. 36.
The FSA is directly accountable to the Chancellor, but the Chairman and other senior representatives also appear, as required, before the Treasury Committee of the House of Commons. Observance of essay international principles and standards in insurance regulation. 37. During 1998, the my dissertation for me uk, United Kingdom conducted a self-assessment of its observance of the International Association of Insurance Supervisors' (IAIS) Insurance Supervisory Principles (September 1997). The U.K. authorities reported that its practices were in substantial compliance with all the relevant principles. 38. Essay Essay? The U.K. authorities also seek to comply with the provisions of the write for me, IAIS' Principles Applicable to the Supervision of International Insurers and Insurance groups and their Cross-Border Establishments (September 1997). Essays? 19 However, the authorities consider that it will be some time before insurance supervisors, with their current emphasis on solo supervision, exchange information internationally at the same level and on the same frequency as other financial regulators. 39. The United Kingdom endorses the principles outlined in the IAIS' Supervisory Standard on Licensing (October 1998), and considers that its application goes beyond the standard's requirement in a number of areas, for example, in relation to the assessment of the capital required for a license. These licensing requirements are also applied to pure re-insurers.
40. The United Kingdom takes a different approach to verifying data and information than set out in the IAIS' Supervisory Standard on On-Site Inspection (October 1998). Although the write my dissertation for me uk, U.K. supervisory authority has the power to require on-site inspections, such inspections are not a regular part of the day-to-day prudential supervision of insurance companies (although the monitoring of the market conduct of life insurers can involve on-site inspection). Insurance companies are required to provide an annual audited return to the supervisory authority, which is separate from the accounts to questions wilde shareholders but is similarly placed on public record. The return contains information on the business carried on, assets and liabilities, the reinsurance program and the profits and losses incurred. In addition, the for me, appointed actuary of a life insurance company is also required to aqa music essays produce a report. These documents are subject to close scrutiny by the supervisory authority, whose knowledge of regulated companies is supplemented by a regular visit program. 41. The United Kingdom considers that it fully complies with the my dissertation for me, IAIS' Supervisory Standard on Derivatives (October 1998), which sets out argumentative, risk management controls for insurers active in derivatives and a reporting framework that can be applied across a full range of potential derivative activities. The standard recognizes that supervisory approaches to derivatives are evolving in response to uk developments on the market and provides guidance to list supervisors in assessing how insurers control risks in derivatives. 42.
The IAIS has also issued Guidance on Insurance Regulation and write for me uk, Supervision for Emerging Market Economies (September 1997) and a model memorandum of understanding (MOU) designed to facilitate co-operation and the exchange of information between regulatory bodies. The guidance paper is not directly applicable in essay essay the case of the United Kingdom. With regard to the development of information exchange, the U.K. authorities are considering MOU with jurisdictions in which U.K. insurers are particularly active. Setting accounting standards in the United Kingdom. 43. Accounting standards are set by the Accounting Standards Board (ASB) , an independent body that became operational in write 1990; these standards are known as Financial Reporting Standards (FRSs).
21 The ASB is also developing a Statement of Principles for Financial Reporting to provide a framework in which standards can be established. 44. The accounting and disclosure requirements of accounting standards, together with those of the Companies Acts, the Stock Exchange Listing Rules (for listed companies), and other statements from the ASB and other professional bodies form the main components of what is known as U.K. Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (GAAP). The ASB's policy towards international accounting standard setting. 45. The ASB's accounting standards (FRSs) are the thesis list, United Kingdom's vehicle for implementing International Accounting Standards (IASs). 22 The ASB's policy is to depart from the international consensus only when particular legal and fiscal problems dictate such a course, or when it believes that an independent U.K. standard may point the way to an eventual improvement in international standard.
In practice, the ASB plays a role in the development of IASs. 23. 46. Uk? The ASB considers that in thesis list of abbreviations latex some respects its FRSs go beyond the requirements of the IAS, including in the following areas: dealing with off-balance sheet finance (FRS5 Reporting the write my dissertation uk, Substance of Transactions ); accounting for it assignment help sydney associates: the U.K. standard (but not IAS) requires disclosure of detailed information about significant associates; accounting for joint ventures: the U.K. standard does not permit proportional consolidation, whereas IAS does; acquisition accounting-goodwill: IAS allows certain provisions to be made, if part of the acquisition plan, the U.K. standard does not. Other differences arise on such issues as treatment of goodwill, pensions and deferred tax. 24. 47. The IAS also has one specific standard on revenue recognition for which there is no equivalent U.K. standard.
However, this difference is unlikely to be material as requirements for revenue recognition are contained in other U.K. standards. Promulgation and enforcement of standards. 48. Under the U.K. Companies Act, the accounting requirements of which are largely based on the EU Fourth and Seventh Company Law Directives, annual accounts are required to give a true and for me uk, fair view. In turn, compliance with ASB accounting standards is required as part of the achievement of such a view.
25 While not themselves law, accounting standards are underpinned by statute and have the effect of the force of law. 49. To assist its work in developing standards, the ASB has established an Urgent Issues Task Force (UITF).The main purpose of the UITF is to assist the ASB in areas where an accounting standard or Companies Act provision exists, but where unsatisfactory or conflicting interpretations have developed or seem likely to develop. 50. Enforcement of standards occurs through the U.K. Financial Reporting Review Panel, which is authorized by the Secretary of help State for Trade and Industry to examine material departures from the accounting requirements of the Companies Act, including departures from the requirements of accounting standards.
The Panel does not routinely review annual accounts for compliance, but rather relies on matters being brought to its attention. Setting auditing standards in the UK. 51. Auditing standards are established by the Auditing Practices Board (APB) . The APB was established in write my dissertation uk 1991, as a committee of the a level exemplar essays, Consultative Committee of Accountancy Bodies (CCAB), whose members are the main accountancy bodies in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Write Uk? 27 28. 52. The role of the APB is not explicitly recognized in legislation and its pronouncements do not have any statutory authority.
However, the Companies Act 1989 requires that the recognized supervisory bodies 29 must have rules and practices as to the technical standards to be applied in thesis company audit work and that these must be adhered to write for me uk by registered auditors. 53. The accountancy bodies, which are members of the essays, CCAB, have undertaken to adopt and promulgate all auditing standards and guidance issued by the APB as requirements for their members. Failure to follow a requirement established by the APB can result in disciplinary action by the professional body to which the auditor belongs. Non-compliance by a registered auditor with an APB requirement in the course of an audit may lead to regulatory action and, in extreme cases, withdrawal of registration to act as a company auditor. Responsibility for regulatory action, including withdrawal of eligibility to act as a company auditor, rests with the Recognized Supervisory Bodies. 54. Pronouncements of the for me uk, APB are of several types:
Statements of Auditing Standards (SASs) contain basic principles and essay, essential procedures with which auditors are required to comply in the conduct of any audit of financial statements. (SASs also include explanatory and other material designed to assist auditors in interpreting and applying the write my dissertation, standards.) Practice Notes are issued to assist in applying auditing standards of general nature to particular circumstances and industries, and Bulletins provide guidance on emerging issues. Both of these are persuasive rather than prescriptive in nature; they are intended to be indicative of good practice. Relationship between SASs and international standards. 55. The APB's terms of reference provide for it to dopamine paper maintain close links with the International Auditing Practices Committee (IAPC) 30 , the auditing profession in Europe and throughout the write uk, world. The APB represents the essay ornekleri, United Kingdom on the IAPC. 56. It is an objective of the APB that its SASs are consistent with the IAPC's International Standards on Auditing (ISAs); however, this is my dissertation uk not an absolute constraint and the APB assesses the exemplar, appropriateness of each ISA in the context of the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland.
Each SAS either states that compliance with it ensures compliance in all material respects with the relevant ISA or gives a short explanation of differences. 57. The APB has benchmarked its standards against ISAs. Of the 192 separate requirements of the ISAs, SASs were judged to be compliant with 155. In the APB's view, most of the 37 exceptions reflect points of emphasis rather than substance, and in some cases variations reflected a different approach it consciously adopted to achieve the same objective as the ISAs.
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Looking at Dorothea Lange’s Migrant Mother. Something appears to have been mixed up here, since the write for me, photograph above is not the well-known Migrant Mother photograph by Dorothea Lange. However, it is, unmistakably, the wilde, mother from that photograph. What I’m going to write for me uk do in the following is to try to research investigate how portraiture works (at least in part) by using a set of Lange’s photographs, namely the Migrant Mother ones that can be found in the Library of Congress. (For this article, I’m using the scans from the LOC scans, hence the frames and the writing around the image) There are all kinds of reasons for me to pick these images, the most important ones being that everybody knows the most well-known picture, while only few people have ever seen the other ones. In fact most people don’t even seem to be aware of them. Write. I’m going to ignore all background information about these photographs other than what is available in the LOC, since I want to discuss what can be seen in the photos. The photograph that everybody is so familiar with is this one: What do we actually see here? First of all, there obviously is a woman (in the center of the frame) whose gaze does not meet the camera’s lens (and thus the questions on oscar wilde, viewer’s eyes). Her face appears worried, there is my dissertation for me, a bit of a frown in her face, and with her right hand she is holding or possibly slightly pinching the side of her face.
Apart from the woman, there are three (yes, three) children visible. Two have their heads rest on the woman’s shoulders, their faces averted from the camera. The third child is a baby whose (sleeping) face is visible at the right edge of the frame, behind that wooden pillar. For those who like to obsess over Photoshop manipulation “scandals”: The woman is actually holding on to that pillar with her left hand, and the lower right corner of the frame one can faintly see the retouched thumb (to see more images, including a restored one, see this page). Ornekleri. For our discussion, this is an irrelevant detail, which I’ll simply ignore here. I’m also not going to touch upon the fact that the image is an iconic photograph. There are repercussions of that, but that’s for another day. Back to the photograph, while the mother’s pose seems fairly natural, the two larger children’s has always struck me as a bit artificial. Children not familiar with a stranger might show their shyness, but these poses seem maybe a little bit too posed.
And posed they are. Lange used a 4?5 view camera for for me these photographs, a camera that usually requires careful preparation of each photograph. Dopamine Paper. Given I’m using the uncropped scans this is obvious from the frames of each image. But even if one didn’t know that, subconsciously most people I have talked to about this photograph tend to pick up on the posing aspect. Since most portraits are posed there is very little one could infer from the device itself, so beyond noting that I’ve always found the my dissertation for me, children’s poses a tad contrived I’m not going to thesis add anything else here. But obviously given we are not dealing with a candid photograph, the subjects were fully aware of the presence of the photographer. In fact, the write, photographer made them pose – this claim might not convince some people, yet, but once we’ve seen all the other photographs it will be obvious. Given what we see in the photograph, it seems safe to assume that the children are in fact the woman’s, even though we can’t know for sure. Photographs often contain surprisingly little actual information, yet common sense allows us to essay questions wilde come to fairly simple and usually correct conclusions.
We know that this photograph is known as Migrant Mother , so assuming that these are in fact not the woman’s children would appear to be quite the stretch. Here is the full caption of the write uk, photograph: “Destitute pea pickers in California. Mother of seven children. Age thirty-two. Argumentative Essay. Nipomo, California” (note that the write for me, main page gives “Destitute peapickers in California; a 32 year old mother of seven children. Argumentative Ornekleri. February 1936.” ). Knowing the full caption adds a bit of information that is write my dissertation for me, not actually contained in the photograph. Aqa Music. Note that the caption does not give the woman’s name (Florence Owens Thompson). Write. For a start, she looks as if she were significantly older than thirty-two. Second, she has seven children, of which only three are part of this photograph.
Where are the other ones? We don’t know. But we might start coming up with theories or ideas. Essay Essay. It’s important to remember, though, that those theories are just that: Theories. When looking at photographs, all we have is what is contained inside their frames, plus, possibly, whatever additional information the captions might provide. If we think we know something about a photograph that is not visible in my dissertation for me uk, the frame and that is not mentioned in the caption, then it’s not unlikely we have come to a conclusion that is not supported by the photographic facts. When looking at aqa music exemplar essays, photographs the very first thing is to become aware of what we see – and write my dissertation for me what we think we see.
Just a brief aside: When I use the term “the photographic facts” I am talking about the information actually contained in a photograph. Back then to the picture from the very top: It’s the essay essay, same woman, plus two of write my dissertation, her children. Essay Questions On Oscar Wilde. One of them, the one on the left in the famous frame, is gone. The baby is still there, and my dissertation it is more clearly visible now. Essay Essay. The other child – we can identify the hair and the rather ragged, coarse clothing – now rests her head on her mother’s shoulder. As before, both mother and child look away from the camera (the baby is sleeping). This photograph is framed differently. It’s a horizontal framing, not nearly as close as the previous one. Comparing the way these two images were framed is instructive since it tells us something about both photographs. The original photograph is framed very tightly around the mother who provides a visual anchor (note I’m calling it “the original” since I used it to start this discussion; here and in the following I’ll refer to the images in order in my dissertation for me, which I discuss them in this article).
She supports her children, literally (we are led to believe) and pictorially (they rest their heads on her shoulders). In contrast, while she still is at the center of the second frame, everything seems looser. Two thirds of the frame are occupied by very little – on the left a lamp in the foreground plus a tarp in the background, and on latex the right a post that holds up the tarp plus an out-of-focus background. The original framing came at the price of the post being an unwanted part of the picture. This might be the write for me uk, reason why Lange retouched the sydney, image, to remove the thumb: The photograph was going to write uk be grounded on the mother, and the mother holding on to something would divert from that photographic device. In the wider, horizontal photograph, the environment plays a much larger role now: It is mostly barren, empty, impoverished (mind you, I’m only talking about the environment that is on oscar wilde, actually visible in write for me, the photograph).
Also note how the woman’s left hand is visible in essay questions on oscar, the second frame. She is wearing what might be a wedding band or engagement ring. This is the hand that is not visible in the famous frame. I have no way of knowing whether Lange intended to hint at this or not, but the ring adds a little piece of information about the woman, which, in turn, might trigger additional conclusions. If there is in write my dissertation uk, fact a man in her life – these children must have a father – where is he?
The famous frame, with the left hand invisible (remember, the thumb even got retouched out list, of the frame), omit this fact and makes the photograph center on motherhood alone: The mother as the anchor, providing the strength the children rely on (again literally and in terms of how they’re posed). The second frame, on my dissertation uk contrast, could be read as a wife who is supporting her children but who also is waiting for her husband or partner to come back, to bring back food or money or whatever else. As before, one needs to be careful about the photographic facts and whatever one might want to infer from dopamine paper that. For Me. The ring on the woman’s hand is a photographic fact. Everything else is an assumption. Here’s the caption of the latex, wider shot: “Migrant agricultural worker’s family. Seven hungry children.
Mother aged thirty-two. Father is for me, a native Californian. Thesis Of Abbreviations. Destitute in pea picker’s camp, Nipomo, California, because of the failure of the early pea crop. These people had just sold their tent in order to buy food. Of the twenty-five hundred people in this camp most of them were destitute”. That is a lot more information than before. As before, this information gets our minds going, yet we need to be very careful with what conclusions are going to write my dissertation for me uk be ours, and which ones are actually supported by the photograph. Let’s keep looking.
Here’s another frame: This third frame is on oscar wilde, close to the second one in terms of the my dissertation for me uk, poses. Very little has changed – the a level, older child is write for me, now holding on to the post, and paper the heads have moved a little, possibly to accommodate the different camera position. This frame was shot vertically, and write my dissertation it reduces the questions, little family to an even smaller part of the image, still in write my dissertation for me uk, the very center, though. There is what looks like a suitcase or trunk in the foreground, somewhat out of focus, upon which a plate rests. There is the help, lamp again, as are the tarp, the write, post, the dopamine paper, empty backgrounds.
Part of the ground is now contained in the frame, in the lower right corner it is in focus: It looks like sand, some sort of soil. The third frame differs quite a bit from the first, famous one. While I’m happy to argue that the write my dissertation, poses look much more natural, the intense focus on the mother is of abbreviations, almost completely gone. While she still occupies the center of the frame, the somewhat active pose of the older child has both of them battle for the viewer’s attention. And the group looks almost lost in write, these desperately poor circumstances – a tent of sorts held up by a post made from a young tree, a single plate, a suitcase (or trunk) as a table.
We might as well step back even further: Now this is a very different picture than the “original” Migrant Mother , isn’t it? For a start, the mother is not even in focus/the focal point of the exemplar, picture. Instead, it’s a child sitting in a rocking chair, in for me, front of a makeshift tent. Aqa Music Exemplar. Inside the write my dissertation uk, tent, we can see the aqa music, mother (holding the baby), plus two other children, both of them younger than the write my dissertation for me uk, one in the chair, both probably the children from the questions, other frames.
Interestingly, this is the only frame where the subjects are actually engaging with or at least looking at the camera. Most of the posing efforts seem to have been spent on the child in for me, the rocking chair, while the group in the background (in the tent) essentially just make sure they occupy the correct spot in paper, the frame. Note how this image is constructed photographically. The opening of the shelter provides a photographic frame. The subjects are all placed inside that frame, the group in the background very obviously so (they are in fact inside the my dissertation, shelter), whereas the rocking chair (plus an open suitcase) have been placed in front of the opening of the shelter. They might have been there when the photographer arrived, we can’t know for sure.
But visually, there are two worlds: The one of the family, in the center, photographed inside that frame, and the larger world outside, a fairly uninviting, empty place. Compare the famous Migrant Mother photograph with this fourth image: You essentially have the same people in essay on oscar wilde, the photographs (with the write uk, exception of the thesis list, child in the rocker), but they are very, very different. For Me. And all of that from working with the distance between the camera and the subjects (and some careful arranging of the frames at each distance). I have no way of knowing which frame actually came first; I want to latex assume Lange started further away and then moved in, but it could have been the other way around. From the photographs, it’s essentially impossible to tell (and it frankly doesn’t matter anyway). There is another photograph: Photographed at a distance roughly between the second and third frame, it shows the mother in the very center of the frame, breastfeeding her baby. Of all of these photographs, I’ve always felt this one to be the most stunning one. Photographically, it feels a bit posed (just like most of the other ones), but that particular moment is so strong and so touching. The mother’s expression, which looks like weary resignation, creates a strong contrast to what she is doing: Feeding her baby.
None of the other children are contained in the frame, this one is focused just on a mother nursing her baby. The photograph that became the iconic Migrant Mother is the one where the camera is closest to Florence Owens Thompson. Given how well-know it is, given how often we have seen it, this might be a tough question to ask, but we might as well do it anyway: Which one of these photographs is the write for me, strongest? Personal preference (plus agenda and biases) might have us pick one over a level exemplar the others, but is it going to be the famous one? Is it even going to be possible to write for me uk disentangle all we know and feel from these photographs? If we ignore the fact that one of these frames has become iconic, the essay essay, variety of the photographs – the way they are composed, their distance to the subjects, etc. – gives us an opportunity to see how portraiture operates, how adding or withholding information can contribute to the way a portrait is perceived, how adding or withholding information makes us see and write for me uk then feel different things. Of course, there is nothing fundamentally revealing about any of this – it’s photography, after all, and this is what photography does. But often enough, we forget this, or we pretend photography doesn’t really work that way. When talking about photographs, it’s essential to start out from the paper, facts, from what is contained in the frame, from how things are set up, and to then move to write my dissertation for me uk whatever one might infer from that. I often find that people approach photography the essay essay, other way around, by bringing their own conclusions to uk the images, to list of abbreviations then try to see how the my dissertation uk, photograph supports them. I don’t think that’s a good approach.
With so many photographs around us now, in all likelihood what is going to happen is essay, that instead of us navigating photographs, we are instead being led. Instead of for me, being active, we end up being passive. That can’t be good. How can one make choices if one doesn’t have the thesis list of abbreviations, tools at one’s disposal that are needed to make these choices? Portraiture makes the viewer’s task particularly tricky, because it often seduces us to see things that aren’t actually there. A photograph of another person never is that other person. It always “only” is a photograph, made with specific devices and (usually) intent. Write. To understand how portraiture works, one needs to look at the use of the devices, to possibly infer a little about the aqa music a level essays, intent, and to learn a lot about write for me uk what we bring to the table when looking at argumentative essay, a photograph of another person. Update (22 May 2013): A reader emailed me to say the write, photographs were taken with a press camera, not a view camera. What is more, the reader disagreed with my assessment that the images were posed.
While part of that discussion comes down to it assignment semantics, the main idea of this article is not based on whether or not these images were posed. I’m concerned with what we can infer from the pictures, to be precise from trying to rely only on the photographic facts. Obviously, my assumptions and conclusions might differ from yours. This article is the first in a series, engaging with portraits to write for me uk see how they work and what they say. All photographs by argumentative, Dorothea Lange.
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